Ethnocentrism



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MODERN MIDDLE EAST

Regents Question (2000 – 2013)


THE MIDDLE EAST

Base your answer on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.



Which term is most closely associated with the main idea of this passage?



  1. Interdependence

  2. Pacifism

  3. Containment

  4. ETHNOCENTRISM


Which generalization can best be supported by the information on this 2003 map?



  1. Theocratic governments dominated the Middle East

  2. The governments of Southwest Asia were in transition

  3. MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF GOVERNMENT EXISTED IN THE MIDDLE EAST

  4. Military dictatorships were replaced by republics in northern Africa.


The political changes between the 1920s and the 1980s were most directly the result of the



  1. increase in oil production to meet increased world demand

  2. increased role of the Palestine Liberation Organization in the region

  3. pressure applied by Zionists for the recognition of Israel as an Independent nation

  4. EFFECT OF NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS AFTER WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II

Which pair of leaders are associated with the region shown in dark gray on this map?



  1. Zheng He and Deng Xiaoping

  2. Miguel Hidalgo and Augusto Pinochet

  3. HAMMURABI AND SADDAM HUSSEIN

  4. Catherine the Great and Vladimir Putin

ATATURK
Which reform is most closely associated with Turkish leader Kemal Ataturk?



  1. Implementation of Sharia law

  2. Introduction of Arabic script

  3. Establishment of a communist government

  4. ADOPTION OF WESTERN CULTURE

Between 1923 and 1938, which leader instituted a modernization program in Turkey?



  1. Shah Reza Pahlavi

  2. Jawaharlal Nehru

  3. KEMAL ATATURK

  4. Ho Chi Minh

One way in which Kemal Ataturk of Turkey and Shah Reza Pahlavi of Iran are similar is that both leaders



  1. IMPLEMENTED PROGRAMS TO MODERNIZE THEIR NATIONS

  2. Supported increased rights for ethnic minorities

  3. Adopted policies of nonalignment

  4. Established theocracies based on Islam

Which statement about Turkish leader Ataturk is an opinion rather than a fact?



  1. He promoted modernization

  2. His efforts led to the development of industries

  3. He encouraged people to wear western-style clothing

  4. HIS MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENT WAS THE SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

One way in which Emperor Meiji and Ataturk are similar is that they both promoted



  1. Isolation and nationalism

  2. Capitalism and democracy

  3. Revolution and absolutism

  4. REFORM AND MODERNIZATION

Which reform was included in Ataturk’s efforts to modernize Turkey?



  1. Reintroducing strict Islamic law

  2. GRANTING WOMEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE

  3. Adopting Arabic script

  4. Requiring men to wear a fez

OIL & OPEC


The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is best known for its efforts to

  1. Develop workable alternatives to fossil fuels

  2. Bring Western oil technology to the Middle East

  3. Stop the export of oil to non-Arab nations

  4. ESTABLISHED PRODUCTION QUOTAS TO CONTROL THE PRICE OF OIL

Which conclusion is best supported by the information provided on this graph?



  1. The United States has adequate petroleum reserves to meet future needs

  2. Nations lacking major petroleum reserves cannot industrialize

  3. Overproduction of petroleum products has caused inflation in the Middle East

  4. MOST OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST PETROLEUM RESERVES ARE LOCATED IN THE MIDDLE EAST

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed with the intent of



  1. Stabilizing the supply of oil to Japan

  2. Cutting off the supply of oil to the United States and its allies

  3. Increasing the supply of oil available for use within Middle Eastern countries

  4. CONTROLLING THE SUPPLY OF OIL TO RAISE PRICES

Which group of countries earns much of their revenue from the sale of oil?



  1. China, Korea, Japan

  2. Turkey, Brazil, Lebanon

  3. Argentina, Malaysia, Chile

  4. SAUDI ARABIA, NIGERIA, VENEZUELA

Which geographic region has the greatest number of members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)?



  1. South America

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa

  3. Southeast Asia

  4. MIDDLE EAST

The reason that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) greatly influences the world today is that it



  1. Commands the loyalty of the worldwide Islamic community

  2. Develops and exports important technology

  3. Controls access to trade routes between the East and West

  4. MANAGE THE OIL SUPPLY THAT AFFECTS THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

The main reason that oil-producing states formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was to



  1. Allow foreign ownership in oil fields

  2. Influence the price of oil and set production levels

  3. Improve diplomatic relations with the West

  4. Lift economic sanctions and established free trade

Most of the world’s known oil reserves are located near which geographic area?



  1. PERSIAN GULF

  2. North Sea

  3. Ural Mountains

  4. Gulf of Mexico

Which factor is most responsible for the international importance of the Middle East?



  1. Innovative political and social reforms

  2. Superior weapons technology

  3. VITAL NATURAL RESOURCES IN A STRATEGIC LOCATION

  4. Advanced scientific and industrial development

A major goal of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in world affairs is to



  1. Encourage the development of alternative energy sources

  2. Promote international free trade

  3. Provide funds for the World Bank

  4. REGULATE OIL PRICES

Since the 1970s, the wealth of many Middle Eastern nations was increased by the

  1. Formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

  2. Expansion of Islamic fundamentalism

  3. CREATION OF THE ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC)

  4. Development of communes in Israel

Since the creation of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), member nations have joined together to



  1. DETERMINE THE SUPPLY OF OIL ON THE WORLD MARKET

  2. Establish a policy of independence in trade

  3. Maintain a low price of oil per barrel

  4. Isolate themselves from the rest of the world

According to the map, which region of the world has the greatest number of nations belonging to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)?



  1. THE MIDDLE EAST

  2. Southern Africa

  3. North America

  4. Southeast Asia

The potential power of the member nations in OPEC lies in their



  1. Political influence in tropical regions

  2. Control of access to important religious sites

  3. Military control over strategic waterways

  4. ECONOMIC INFLUENCE OVER INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS

Which conclusion is supported by the information provided on the map?



  1. Russia is very dependent on imported oil

  2. THE UNITED STATES EXPORTS LITTLE OR NO OIL (BAD QUESTION, NOT A NET EXPORTER; NO LONGER TRUE)

  3. South America exports more oil than Africa does

  4. Most of the oil from the Middle East goes to Japan

This map best illustrates the concept of



  1. Assimilation

  2. Protectionism

  3. INTERDEPENDENCE

  4. Imperialism

What is the main idea of this cartoon?



  1. Petroleum is being overproduced

  2. THE DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM EXCEEDS PRODUCTION

  3. Fossil fuels are unevenly distributed

  4. The demands of global environmental groups have increased

The continued importance of the Middle East to the global economy is based on its



  1. Research facilities

  2. Exports of manufactured goods

  3. Semiarid climate

  4. QUANTITY OF OIL RESERVES

The main reason oil-producing states formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was to



  1. Promote foreign ownership of oil fields

  2. Lift economic sanctions and establish free trade

  3. Improve trade relations with the West

  4. INFLUENCE THE PRICE OF OIL AND SET PRODUCTION LEVELS

IRANIAN REVOLUTION


Which statement about Shah Reza Pahlavi and the Iranian Revolution is an opinion rather than a fact?

  1. Shah Reza Pahlavi was supported by major Western Powers

  2. Members of the Islamic clergy opposed Shah Reza Pahlavi

  3. THE PRIMARY CAUSE FOR THE REVOLUTION WAS THE EXILE OF SHAH REZA PAHLAVI’S CRITICS

  4. Supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini overthrew Shah Reza Pahlavi

One way in which Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini and Afghanistan’s Taliban were similar is that they each



  1. ESTABLISHED AN ISLAMIC STATE

  2. Sponsored a United Nations Conference on Women’s Rights

  3. Joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

  4. Incorporated communist doctrine into their government

The Iranian Revolution of 1979 resulted in the establishment of



  1. A secular Western-style democracy

  2. A constitutional monarchy

  3. A military dictatorship

  4. AN ISLAMIC STATE

Which event can be considered a conflict brought about in part by a religious reform movement?



  1. World War I

  2. Cuban Revolution

  3. World War II

  4. IRANIAN REVOLUTION

In Iran, both the Revolution of 1979 and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism have caused



  1. an increase in women’s rights

  2. TENSION BETWEEN TRADITIONALISM AND MODERNIZATION TO CONTINUE

  3. foreign control of natural resources to expand

  4. the introduction of a communist form of government

ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT




  • Pamphlet on the philosophy of Zionism

  • Balfour Declaration

  • Oslo Accords

These documents are most closely associated with the controversy over



  1. Efforts by the United Nations to restrict child slavery and indentured servitude

  2. Production of oil by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

  3. Trade agreements established by the World Trade Organization (WTO)

  4. CONTROL OF LAND IN THE MIDDLE EAST BY PALESTINIANS AND JEWS

Which region is most closely associated with conflict in the West Bank, Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula?



  1. East Africa

  2. MIDDLE EAST

  3. Western Europe

  4. Central Asia

What does this 2005 cartoon imply?



  1. THE INSTABILITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST HAS BEEN ONGOING

  2. The peace process in the Middle East is gaining ground

  3. The Middle East has greatly changed over thirty years

  4. The media shapes society’s perception of the Middle East

Since 1948, a major reason for the conflict between Arabs and Israelis is that each side



  1. wants the huge oil reserves that lie under the disputed land

  2. believes the United States favors the other side of the conflict

  3. CLAIMS SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE SAME LAND

  4. seeks to control trade on the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea


Which conclusion can be drawn from this time line?



  1. Israel withdrew from the Camp David Accords

  2. The Palestinian army is superior to the Israeli army.

  3. LONG-LASTING PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST HAS BEEN DIFFICULT TO ACHIEVE

  4. Neighboring countries have not been involved in the Arab-Israeli Conflict

The desire of the Kurds and of the Palestinians for independent states is based on the principle of



  1. Free trade

  2. NATIONALISM

  3. Collective security

  4. Modernization

A Jewish State is Created”

Six-Day War Results in Major Arab Losses”

Withdrawal Begins from West Bank
Which situation is referred to in these headlines?


  1. Persian Gulf War

  2. Scramble for Africa

  3. CONFLICT BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS

  4. Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

Which document is most closely associated with the Arab-Israeli conflict?



  1. BALFOUR DECLARATION

  2. Kyoto Protocol

  3. Communist Manifesto

  4. Treaty of Nanjing

The early 20th century Zionist movement calling for the establishment of a Jewish homeland was an example of



  1. imperialism

  2. NATIONALISM

  3. capitalism

  4. isolationism

The movement started by journalist Theodor Herzl to promote an independent Jewish state in Palestine is referred to as



  1. the Reconquista

  2. the Diaspora

  3. Utopianism

  4. ZIONISM

A long-term effect of the Balfour Declaration on the Middle East was the



  1. oppression of the Kurds by the government of Iraq

  2. CONFLICT BETWEEN THE PALESTINIANS AND THE ISRAELIS

  3. strengthening of parliamentary rule in Turkey

  4. establishment of a two-party system in Lebanon



This statement is referring to the establishment of which nation?



  1. Jordan

  2. Poland

  3. ISRAEL

  4. Ethiopia


Which region is directly associated with the events shown on this time line?



  1. Latin America

  2. MIDDLE EAST

  3. Central Africa

  4. Southeast Asia

Which historical movement is most directly related to Lord Balfour's statement?



  1. Pan Slavism

  2. Organization for African Unity

  3. Pan Africanism

  4. INTERNATIONAL ZIONISM

Which letter represents the location of a country created in part as a result of the Zionist movement?



  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

Which conclusion is best supported by this passage?



  1. The British made no promise to either Arabs or the Jews

  2. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT CAN BE TRACED IN PART TO BRITISH PROMISES

  3. The United Nations did not try to prevent conflict in the Middle East

  4. Only the Jews were promised an independent state in Palestine

What is the main idea of this 2003 cartoon?



  1. THERE ARE PROBLEMS TO RESOLVE ON THE ROAD TO PEACE

  2. Colin Powell has removed the stumbling blocks to peace

  3. Both groups have reached agreement on the road map for peace

  4. The road to peace has been carefully mapped

This 2003 cartoon illustrates the struggle between Palestinians and



  1. Iraqis

  2. Hamas

  3. Egyptians

  4. ISRAELIS

IRAQ, AFGHANISTAN & TERRORISM

In 2003, the United States and Great Britain invaded Iraq. At the time, which two reasons did these allies give for this invasions?


  1. Iraq was threatening war with Saudi Arabia / Iraq had not had free elections for a number of years.

  2. Iraq had oil needed by the United States and Great Britain / Iraq was threatening to cut off oil supplies to both countries

  3. IRAQ HAD WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION THAT THREATENED NATIONS AROUND THE WORLD / IRAQ SPONSORED WORLD TERRORISM

  4. Iraq’s leader was responsible for the deaths of thousands of Americans / Iraq’s army held Americans hostage for almost a year.

One reason the Persian Gulf War (1990 – 1991) was fought was to protect



  1. Agricultural interests of Southwest Asia

  2. DEPOSITS OF MUCH OF THE WORLD’S OIL SUPPLY

  3. Direct access to the Mediterranean Sea

  4. British control of Saudi Arabia

In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. The United Nations response led to the Persian Gulf War of 1991. This response is an example of



  1. Détente

  2. Empire building

  3. Totalitarianism

  4. COLLECTIVE SECURITY

The statements below refer to changes in Afghanistan in the 1990s.



  • The Taliban controls the government

  • Women must clothe themselves from head to toe

  • Men are required to grow beards

  • Girls are not allowed to attend school

These changes in Afghanistan have resulted from a movement toward

  1. Marist Ideology

  2. Liberation theology

  3. Constitutional reforms

  4. ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM


Which country best completes this graphic organizer?



  1. Egypt

  2. IRAQ

  3. Sudan

  4. Bangladesh



What was a direct cause of the event illustrated in this photograph?

  1. THE DEFEAT OF THE TALIBAN-CONTROLLED GOVERNMENT

  2. Rise of the Ayatollah Khomeini

  3. Signing of the Camp David Accords

  4. Withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan



What is the main idea of this 2001 cartoon?

  1. the main task in fighting terrorism is to eliminate nuclear weapons

  2. THE BATTLE AGAINST TERRORISM WILL BE LONG AND DIFFICULT

  3. new equipment is needed to eliminate terrorism

  4. the methods of dealing with global terrorism have created consensus

Which issue is the focus of this 2004 cartoon?



  1. Global warming

  2. Global migration

  3. Ethnic tensions

  4. NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION

The author of this 2006 passage concludes that terrorism



  1. Has failed to take root

  2. Requires a strong military response

  3. IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO DEFEAT

  4. Will be overcome through diplomacy


Iran and North Korea attracted worldwide attention in the early 21st century because they both have

  1. Experience widespread famine

  2. Discovered oil reserves

  3. Strengthened humanitarian practices

  4. DEVELOPED NUCLEAR CAPABILITIES

Which generalization can best be supported using the information in these graphs?



  1. Conflicts between religious groups in Afghanistan have divided the country

  2. Western countries have had a major influence on the cultural makeup of Afghanistan

  3. The primary languages in Afghanistan are Turkic

  4. DIVERSITY IS EVIDENT IN AFGHANISTAN


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