cahier de doleances
Olympe de Gouges
Jacobin and Girondin
Edmund Burke (1729-97)
Committee of Public Safety
Dec. of Rights of Man (1789)
Festival of Supreme Being
levee en masse
Louis XVI (1754-93)
Marie Antoinette (1755-93)
Comte de Mirabeau (1749-91)
Jacques Necker (1732-1804)
Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
Maximilien Robespierre (1758-94)
What is Third Estate?
Abbe Sieyes (1748-1836)
Society of Republican Women
Republic of Virtue
Tennis Court Oath
Reign of Terror
Battle of Valmy
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-97)
Louis XV (1715-74)
Jacques Turgot (1727-81)
Charles Calonne (1734-1802)
doubling/voting by head or order
Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834)
abolition of feudalism
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
Battle of Waterloo
"careers open to talent"
Concordat with Vatican
Pennisular War (1808-14)
Treaty of Amiens (1802)
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834)
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Constitution of 1791
Constitution of 1793
French Revolution and Napoleon
importance: ushered in modern mass politics, framed issues for next 200 years of govt. role in econ., ideal of equality, and nationalism
rigid class system
failure of absolute monarchy under Louis XV, XVI
revival of aristocracy
limited econ. opportunity
social--resentment of middle/lower class at privileges
political--battle between king and arist. for power
parlements and taxation
reform ministers--Turgot, Necker, Calonne, Brienne
intellectual--philosophes, ideals of Enlightenment
economic--financial crisis and crop failures of 1787-88
Liberal Revolution, June 1789-August 1792 (lib. nobles/upper bourg.)
Estates-General and cahiers
voting by order or head
National Assembly and Tennis Court Oath (Sieyes/Mirabeau)
Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen (8/89)
popular political partic.
Bastille and National Guard (Lafayette)
Great Fear and destruction of feudalism (Aug. 1789)
October Days (role of women)
Civil Constit. of Clergy (1790)
Constitution of 1791
econ. problems--inflation, deficits (laissez-faire)
king tries to escape
war--Declaration of Pillnetz (4/92)
Radicals, Aug. 1792-July 1794 (lower bourg., lower classes)
Girondins and Jacobins--Robespierre
Tuileries--king executed, republic proclaimed
Reign of Terror--Vendee, war (levee en masse), econ. crisis
composition of those executed
Republic of Virtue--women's role, de-Christianization, calendar
Directory/Thermidor, 1794-99 (upper bourg. back in control)
dependent on military victories (rise of Napoleon)
limited suffrage, luxurious style back
Consulate, 1799-1804 (Nap. engineers coup)
Napoleon's personality/appraisal--enl. despot, modern dictator, rev. hero
victories--various treaties, type of warfare
Continental System (1806)
invasion of Spain (1808)
invasion of Russia (1812)
pros: Code Napoleon, spread ideals, end feudalism
cons: plunder, national revolts, women, methods, secret police
Possible Multiple-Choice Questions
1. A major revolutionary idea spread throughout Europe by the French armies during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic period was that:
a. careers should be open to talented individuals from all classes
b. workers have the right to form labor unions and bargain collectively
c. every individual is entitled to a free, public education
d. private property should be abolished
e. the aged and infirm should have the right to public support
2. During 1793-94, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety owed much of their influence to the support of:
a. Catholics angered by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
b. liberal nobles eager to promote economic progress
c. a group of small property owners & wage laborers in Paris concerned about high food prices
d. industrial workers in Paris and Lyons angry about conditions in the newly opened cotton mills
e. provincial middle-class businessmen concerned about excessive centralization of government
3. How did the American Revolution affect the French Revolution?
a. it proved the weakness of England and inspired the French to war against their hated enemy
b. it actually had little effect on European attitudes
c. Americans became convinced to expand their ideals abroad and fight for French liberty
d. it led to new innovations in warfare widely used during the subsequent conflicts
e. it further bankrupted the French treasury and deepened the financial crisis
"The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;
"Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature."
4. This agreement is commonly known as:
a. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
b. Oath of Supremacy
c. Bill of Rights
d. Tennis Court Oath
e. Petition of Right
5. Under the Napoleonic system, peasants in territories conquered by French armies were generally given
a. the right to vote for representatives to serve in newly created parliaments
b. control over the appointment of village priests
c. freedom from manorial obligations
d. free lessons in the French language
e. sets of laws designed specifically to fit local conditions
6. Which of the following caused the deepest and most persistent internal opposition to the French Revolution?
a. The Great Fear
b. The storming of the Bastille
c. The publication of Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France
d. The advent of the Thermidorean reaction
e. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
7. Architecture produced during the Napoleonic Empire was influenced most by
a. ancient Egyptian pyramids
b. classical models
c. Romanesque churches
d. Islamic structures
e. Gothic churches
8. The first political use of the terms "right" and "left" was to describe the:
a. division of France into predominantly Protestant and predominantly Roman Catholic areas
b. seating arrangements in the French National Assembly chamber during the French Revolution
c. party alliances in the English House of Commons prior to the American Revolution
d. two wings of the Versailles palace that housed the Roman Catholic and Huguenot nobility
e. factions in the English Parliament that supported James II or William of Orange
9. The greatest number of victims under “The Terror” (1793-94) were from which social group?
10. The sequence of events that led to the French Revolution of 1789 is best summarized by which of the following?
a. Lafayette's call for democracy, royal suppression of National Assembly, urban revolt
b. Peasant uprisings, royal abdication, election of National Assembly
c. Franco-Austrian war, urban riots, convening of Assembly of Notables
d. Widespread famine, repression of riots, guerilla war
e. Royal financial crisis, convening of Estates-General, storming of Bastille
11. Which group "started" the French Revolution?
a. bourgeoisie upset over aristocratic privileges
b. peasants in the countryside tired of feudalism
c. lower middle-class artisans of Paris angered by high bread prices
d. nobles who refused king's efforts at taxation
e. clergy threatened by Louis XVI's church reforms
12. Which of the following is NOT a reason the French Revolution became more radical after 1792?
a. the threat of invasion from outside powers
b. the vicious attacks against the king by army officers led by Napoleon
c. a spiraling inflation that harmed workers in Paris and other cities
d. counterrevolutionary efforts by emigres, refractory priests, and the provinces
e. fear that the king sought to undermine the revolution
13. How did the radical Jacobins react to women's revolutionary efforts?
a. they embraced them as heroines and commemorated the October Days
b. they executed up to 25% of the wives of their political rivals
c. they passed the levee-en-masse to preoccupy them with wartime activities
d. they banned women's revolutionary clubs and preached women's domestic role
e. they simply ignored them
14. Which of the following is generally NOT considered to have led to Napoleon's downfall?
a. invasion of Russia
b. Peninsular War in Spain
c. Continental System
d. Concordat with the Catholic Church
e. spreading of nationalism to conquered states
15. Which of the following best demonstrates the new importance of nationalism in revolutionary France?
b. Cult of the Supreme Being
c. abolishing of slavery
d. revolutionary calendar
e. execution of the king
16. The most common cause of urban riots in the eighteenth century was:
a. bread shortages
b. foreign policy issues
c. partisan politics
d. class warfare
e. guild rivalries
17. All of the following were common characteristics of the ancien regime in eighteenth-century Europe EXCEPT:
a. aristocratic elites
b. state religions
d. feudal dues
e. large factories
18. The levee en masse ordered by the Committee of Public Safety in August 1793 was unprecedented because it:
a. was based on the pattern used for recruiting in the British army
b. was the first time the revolutionaries had copied previous royal practice
c. conscripted all healthy males available for military service
d. aimed at forcing the aristocracy to serve the revolution
e. enticed the emigres back from exile
19. The most serious blunder made by the National Assembly during the early stages of the French Revolution was:
a. enactment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
b. failure to prevent Louis XVI’s escape to Austria
c. cancellation of the assignats
d. allowing the Bastille to fall
e. the Constitution of 1791
20. Which of the following best describes the character of Louis XVI of France?
a. indecisive but well-meaning
b. stubborn and aggressive
c. brilliant and deceitful
d. radical and passionate
e. stupid and cruel
21. The first stage of the French Revolution was precipitated by a conflict between the:
a. bourgeoisie and the military
b. peasants and the nobles
c. sans culottes and bourgeoisie
d. philosophes and monarchy
e. nobles and the government
22. What best describes the role of the sans culottes during the French Revolution?
a. they desired peace with other European countries
b. they exercised sustained control over the direction of the revolution
c. they hoped to restore the monarchy
d. they intervened intermittently at moments of crisis
e. they shared the feelings of the bourgeoisie
23. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen guaranteed:
a. universal male suffrage
b. no new taxes
c. abolition of the monarchy
d. security of property
e. free education
24. Which of the following was a persistent cause of agitation and protests by the Parisian lower classes in the eighteenth century?
a. Efforts to reimpose the guild system
b. Bourgeois demands for a greater voice in government
c. Lavish displays of wealth by the clergy
d. Frustration of artisans’ attempts to organize into unions
e. Substantial increases in the cost of bread
25. Madame de Pompadour, mistress of Louis XV, became the center of public attention because of her:
a. extensive charity work among the Parisian poor
b. participation in politics and use of the monarchy for personal gain
c. proposal for reforming the economic structure of the monarchy
d. role in the rebuilding of the center of Paris
e. writings for the Encyclopedia and other Enlightenment publications
26. The list of grievances, or cahier de doleances, brought by the members of the Estates-General to Versailles in 1789 called for:
a. the immediate overthrow of Louis XVI
b. universal adult suffrage
c. tax equity
d. the separation of church and state
e. renewal of provincial and city charters
27. Which of the following statement accurately describes the Napoleonic Code?
a. It was Europe’s first written law code.
b. It prepared the way for the Bourbon Restoration.
c. It institutionalized the corvee.
d. It protected private property and the authority of husbands within the family.
e. It determined the shape of European governments until the First World War.
28. The painting of Napoleon shown above portrays him as which of the following?
a. A chivalrous hero
b. A compassionate humanist
c. A competent bureaucrat
d. An imperial ruler
e. A ruthless military conqueror
29. The policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France’s borders was most closely associated with:
a. Estates General
d. Girondin party
30. Which of the following best characterizes eighteenth-century France just prior to the Revolution of 1789?
a. The economic status of the peasantry was improving dramatically.
b. The aristocracy’s power had eroded completely.
c. The privileges of the clergy were declining.
d. The French monarchy was experiencing a deepening financial crisis.
e. The participation of the bourgeoisie in legislative affairs was increasing dramatically.
31. The print above, commemorating the women’s march on Versailles in October 1789, shows that:
a. lower-class women opposed the convening
b. lower-class women were defenders of the aristocracy
c. women helped the progress of the Revolution
d. women wanted to leave their homes to join the work force
e. women supported pacifism and the status quo
32. The main purpose of the women’s march on Versailles in October 1789 was to:
a. provide the National Assembly and the king with a declaration of support
b. protest the seizure of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette by the National Guard
c. present the women’s concerns to Marie-Antoinette
d. ensure the king’s support for the Declaration of Rights and cheap bread for Paris
e. protest the lack of representation for women in the National Assembly
33. Napoleon’s primary aim in establishing the Continental System was to:
a. unite the German states
b. end the military threat from Russia
c. provide new governments in French-occupied territories
d. destroy Great Britain’s economy
e. create a tariff-free zone throughout Europe
34. The armies of revolutionary France enjoyed which of the following advantages over the armies of the major European monarchs?
a. A better supply system
b. Superior training and more practice in drills
c. Technologically advanced weaponry
d. Older and more experienced soldiers
e. Greater patriotism and morale
35. Absolute monarchy declined in pre-1789 France primarily because of:
a. growth of judicial and aristocratic opposition
b. strength of peasant uprisings
c. increased power of the Estates-General
d. king’s refusal to involve France in foreign wars
e. decline in the French population
36. Which of the following would support the notion that women gained little from the French Revolution?
a. the October Days
b. storming of the Bastille
c. Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
d. Society for Revolutionary Republican Women
e. the Code Napoleon
37. Which of the following factors led most immediately to the convening of the French Estates-General in May 1789?
a. the conflict between the bourgeoisie and peasantry
b. the Roman Catholic Church's support of discontented factions in French society
c. the agitation of the peasantry over high bread prices
d. the perilous state of French finances
e. competition among elitist groups for royal approval
38. In the French Revolution, Thermidor refers to:
a. the revolutionary anthem sung by French soldiers
b. the revolutionary month in which Robespierre was deposed
c. the general upheaval leading up to the September Massacres
d. the consolidation of peasant power following the Great Fear
e. the currency issued following the nationalization of church lands
"The role of the nobility had...declined; and the clergy...found its authority growing weaker. These groups preserved the highest rank in the legal structure of the country, but in reality economic power, personal abilities, and confidence in the future had passed largely to the bourgeoisie. Such a discrepancy never lasts forever. The Revolution of 1789 restored the harmony between fact and law."
39. This influential interpretation by Georges Lefebvre is considered flawed today because:
a. the division between nobility and bourgeoisie is not as clear as once believed
b. the clergy actually maintained much of their power during the Revolution
c. the revolution was essentially a political struggle between the king and the nobility
d. the bourgeoisie actually held most of the power in society before 1789
e. such Marxist interpretations have been discredited since the fall of communism
40. Recent historical evidence regarding the takeover of the Bastille during the French Revolution has demonstrated that:
a. the attack was well-planned and led by members of the middle classes
b. the uprising was a spontaneous outburst against absolutism
c. the aristocracy manipulated the crowd for its own purposes
d. the crowd was comprised mostly of starving peasants in search of food
e. the event was considered of little significance at the time
41. Which of the following policies of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror (1793-94) caused the greatest amount of internal opposition?
a the universal mobilization of the nation for total war
b. laws that regulated the prices of grain
c. the abolition of slavery in French colonies
d. a campaign of de-Christianization
e. restricting the involvement of women in politics
42. Which of the following best summarizes the impact of the French Revolution outside France?
a. the widespread adoption of constitutions and guarantees of rights in continental nations
b. creation of a feminist movement that was successful in gaining women property rights
c. an extended period of free trade and peaceful coexistence among the great powers
d. increased demands for rights from and the abolition of slavery in French colonies
e. a movement for independence from Great Britain by its North American colonies
43. Which of the following best describes the French Third Estate?
a. The palace of the Tuileries, which was the chief royal residence after Versailles and the Louvre.
b. The nobility of the robe, who acquired noble rank by purchase.
c. The non-noble, nonclerical section of the Estates-General.
d. The revolutionary faction that launched the Reign of Terror.
e. Counterrevolutionary provinces that resisted the National Assembly.
44. Which of the following actions by Napoleon I aided the cause of German unification?
a. The elimination of many small states and the political reorganization of territory
b. The incorporation of Schleswig-Holstein into Prussia
c. The expulsion of the Turks occupying the European territory where German was spoken
d. The reversal of the long-standing policy of French support for the Holy Roman Empire
e. The requirement that all people in conquered lands speak a common language, French
45. The calling of the Estates-General in France by King Louis XVI in 1789 was the direct result of:
a. an uprising of sans-culottes in Paris
b. France’s defeats in the Seven Years’ War by Great Britain
c. the impact of the ideology advocated in the American Revolution
d. the failure of the Assembly of Notables to endorse the monarch’s program of tax reform
e. the recommendation by the French Director General of Finance, Jacques Necker
46. The French Reign of Terror is most closely associated with the:
a. women’s march to Versailles
b. establishment of the Committee of Public Safety
c. issuance of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
d. drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
e. reform of civil and criminal law
47. The dark areas in the map above represent the:
a. division of Europe into Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, and Muslim areas
b. division of Europe after the Thirty Years’ War
c. rule of the Habsburgs in the sixteenth century
d. farthest extent of lands ruled directly by Napoleonic France
e. regions that experienced the slowest demographic changes in the eighteenth century
48. The cartoon above illustrates which of the following?
a. Renaissance rejection of medieval Christianity
b. Late-eighteenth-century calls for the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade
c. Social inequalities under the Old Regime in France
d. Aristocratic hostility to Peter the Great’s efforts to westernize Russia
e. Napoleon’s suppression of the Spanish nationalist movement
49. The contemporary drawing able of the storming of the Bastille was intended to portray
a. aristocratic support for the old regime
b. popular participation in the revolutionary process
c. the determination of the military to resist change at any cost
d. peasants protesting high rents for land
e. the imprisonment of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette after the September Massacres
50. Napoleon Bonaparte’s repressive occupation sparked a violent popular revolt in
e. Great Britain
51. The basic goal of Napoleon’s Continental System was to
a. isolate Russia diplomatically
b. weaken England economically
c. unite France and Spain
d. unify Germany
e. conquer Italy
52. The meeting of the Estates-General in 1789 marked a significant step toward revolution in France because it
a. exposed the plans of Louis XVI to abdicate in favor of his son
b. provided a legitimate forum for critics of the Old Regime
c. included a proposal to confiscate noble estates to raise government revenue
d. revealed the extent of papal influence on the French royal family
e. gave the clergy and the nobility an opportunity to overthrow the monarchy
53. The cahiers (notebooks) written on the eve of the French Revolution served which of the following purposes?
a. To present grievances and proposals for reform
b. To form the basis of a new constitution and code of laws
c. To represent the guilds’ interests to the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie
d. To restore the aristocracy to a full partnership with the monarchy
e. To make the clergy responsible to the national bureaucracy
54. The American Revolution played a major role in European history because it
a. inspired the United Irish Rebellion
b. led Spain to repudiate its alliances with France and Great Britain
c. created a new balance of power in favor of Great Britain
d. precipitated the French fiscal crisis that led to the calling of the Estates-General
e. inspired England’s Glorious Revolution
Possible Essay Questions
’81: Napoleon I is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot. Evaluate this assessment in terms of Napoleon I’s policies and accomplishments. Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism in your answer.
’84: “The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.” Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1789.
’86: To what extent and in what ways was the French Revolution during the period 1789 through the Reign of Terror (1794) an attempt to create a government based on Enlightenment ideals?
’89: “Political leaders committed to radical or extremist goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher values.” Support or refute this statement with reference to the political and cultural policies of Robespierre during the French Revolution.
’92: “Napoleon was a child of the Enlightenment.” Assess the validity of this statement. Use examples from both the Enlightenment and Napoleon’s attitudes and policies.
’96: Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 Revolution. Assess the extent to which their aspirations were achieved in the period from the meeting of the Estates-General (May 1789) to the declaration of the republic (September 1792).
’03: How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789 to 1799?
’07: Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the Third Estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution, and analyze the extent to which ONE of these groups was able to address its grievances in the period 1789 to 1799.
’08: Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period (1789–1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics, and human nature.
‘10B: Assess the ways in which women participated in and influenced TWO of the following: The Renaissance, The Reformation, The French Revolution.
’11: Analyze how the political and economic problems of the English and French monarchies led to the English Civil War and the French Revolution.
‘11B: Describe and analyze the impact of the rise of Russia on international relations in Europe in the period from 1685 to 1815.
’12: Analyze various ways in which government policies during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic era contributed to a greater sense of French national identity in the period 1789 to 1815.