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ERSONAL BACKGROUND

AMENHOTEP III



-ruled Egypt for almost 40 years (c.1417-1379BC)

-had inherited empirewealthy & particularly secure

was son of Thutmose IV (great military pharaoh, showed some personal devotion to the Aten) & minor wife Mutemwia

-had many brothers & sisters but from early age was identified as the next pharaoh

in his early years as pharaoh he was advised by his mother & group of administrators bcoz his father died when he was around 12yrs

in about 13th yr. of reign he promoted his daughter Sitamun to same status as her mother, Great Royal Wife


AKHENATEN



-ruled for approx. 17yrs

-inherited empire which was wealthy & politically secure

-was son of Amenhotep III & wife Tiye

-was not intended to rulehad elder brother who died earlier of unknown cause

-Queen Tiye supported him as king

-possible co-regency btw father & son


SMENKHARE



-no clear indications of origins

-appeared in depictions when Nefertiti disappeared

-intimate scenes of Smenkhare & Akhenatensubject of debate-homosexual relations or Nefertiti

-possessed same name as Nefertiti



TUTANKHAMUN

-reigned from c.1361-1352BC

-origins not that clear

-perhaps son of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)

-married Ankhesenamun(one of Akhenaten’s eldest daughters)

-died around 19yrs of agerecent 2005 study shows it was of natural causes although prior to study it was thought it was murder or accident


AYE

-reigned from c.1352-1348BC

-desired to marry Ankhesenamunshe sent letter to Hittites for a prince to be sent

-possible familybrother Queen Tiye, uncle of Akhenaten, father of Nefertiti

-after premature death of Tut., ageing Aye became king at age of 60




HOREMHEB

-reigned from c.1348-1320BC

-was an experienced army commander, hence sound choice of Aye as he left no offspring

-played major role during both reign of Tut & Aye


RAMESSES I

-reigned from c.1320-1318BC

-considerable experienceformer vizier, foreign envoy, deputy ruler of Upper & Lower Egypt, army commander, mayor

-sometime during reign he est. a co-regency with his son Seti I


SETI I

-ruled from c.1318-1304BC

-father was Ramesses I

-married to Tuyaproduced 3 children

-without link to a long line of kings he had to strengthen & legitimise his reign



RAMESSES II

-ruled from c.1304-1236BC

-appears to have held co-regency with father Seti I,gained military experience when young

-chief wife, Nerfertariappears with the king on his monuments from 1st yr. of reign

-he fathered >150 children

-in total celebrated 11 heb-sed festivals

RELIGIOUS POLICY


AMENHOTEP III

-Amun(main god)-wars were fought in his manes, spoils dedicated to his temples

-Temple of Amun at Luxor-Amenhotep III stress’ his relationship with him

-Also honoured other gods e.g. Ptah, Sekhmet

-Erected temples for other gods e.g. Re-Harakte (Heliopolis) ; Thoth (Hermopolis) ; Hathor (Elkab)

-Promoted Aten cult that was mentioned first by Thutmose IV. New palace was built to honour the ‘dazzling sun disc’

-Last decade of lifedepicted as a god. In many relief’s he and wife Tiye shown interacting with gods

-Heb-Sed festivalscelebrated on a grand scale and extensive preparations. After first Heb-Sed festival was shown as a god

-Issued various events in ruling

-Made a point by reminding people that it was pharaoh who was the only priest of the gods

-emphasised his role as god in temples, reliefs & inscriptions = challenged & upset the priests



AKHENATEN

-his policy was reaction to the increasing power of Amun priest

-intellectual conclusion that there was only one godthe Aten, the sun-disk (monotheism)

-re-establish the individual relationship between god & king

-re-asserted the pharaohs authority over the priests & officials powers

-he was sole priest & Egyptians worshipped pharaoh (cult of the pharaoh)

-Akhenaten regarded as god & worship made through himpriesthoods role nearly dimished

-maat (truth) no longer depicted as woman

-Aten representedas a disc with human type hands descending from it, offering the symbol of eternal life-the ankh-to Akhenaten & Nefertiti

-Akhenaten depicted as the physical son of the Aten

-the Aten lived in maatfocus of Akhenaten’s life & religion

-the Aten-source & preserver of life

-his religious policy challenged the secrecy & mystery of the old gods in favour of openness & maat of the Aten

-did hold belief in afterlife-tomb contained objcts for afterlife-but it is clear that a number of traditional Osirian beliefs & practices were abandoned; prayers for survival in the afterlife now directed at Akhenaten (no other gods mentioned)

-worshipped as god on earth-appeared in nobles tombs in place of funerary gods

-trinity (the god-Aten, his consort-Nefertiti & his son-Akhenaten)

-other pharaohs seen as ‘sons of the God’ whereas Akhenaten was the son & imgae of god

-built a new capitalAkhetaten


SMENKHARE

-in the intimate scene between Akhenaten & Smenkhare the Aten is present of over them

TUTANKHAMUN

-in first 4 yrsAmarna traditions continued with minimal changethe golden throne found in his tomb has the Aten over the king and queen, Tut.’s name on some objects appears in his original form Tutankhaten

-transition periodboth religious worked side by sidetemples of Aten left open (no immediate backlash)

-Tut. did desire to return to traditional polytheistic beliefs

-return to funerary Osirian beliefsdepiction of afterlife in his tombs contained funerary gods such as Anubis & Osiris

-Aten no longer the dole god

-he incorporated the Amun cult & other sun-gods cults (return to polytheism)

-Restoration Stelaset up in temple of Amun at Karnak & decorated with king presenting flowers to Amun-Re

-claims he restored temples &cult images of all gods, increased temple revenue & chose new members of the priesthood from north citizens

-Stela suggest that ignoring the gods during Amarna period led to social chaos, lack of military victories & turned the gods away from Egypt

-claims Tut. restored temples cult images of all gods, increased temple revenue & chose new members of the priesthood from worth citizens



AYE

-Like Tut. he continued the transition period

-wished to support the traditional gods of Egypt

-carried on Tut.’s restoration until Horemheb hence only some references of restoration to Aye


HOREMHEB

-strictly Orthodox

-worked to re-establish the importance of Amun & the traditional godsbacklash period

-showed himself as crowned by Amun & attributed military success to Amun

-emphasised that he restored temples, priesthood’s & overall wealth of the temples in generalCoronation Stela (emphasised that he restored temples throughout Egypt)

-finally closed the Aten temples & destroyed Akhetaten

-crowned at Thebesas unrelated member of royal family, he thought its important to gain the support of priesthoodinstated as chief deity

-period of reformation & conservatism

-removed Akhenaten from ‘kings list’



RAMESSES I

-begun a religious policy which was followed by his son Seti I & grandson Ramesses II

-continued destruction of Atenism

-introduction of foreign godsrespect for foreign lands

-elevation of 4 gods as chief deitiesPtah, Amun, Horakhte & pharaoh hence no god received absolute powerlearnt lesson from Amarna period

-no complete return to tradition with Amun as supreme god

-re-established the name & images of Amun

-pharaoh often placed on same level as the godspharaohs cult

-return to prominence in afterlife tomb paintings

-Ramesses I was honoured as god after his deathSeti I promoted it to legitimise his throne


SETI I

-date of his accession to throne (rule began with new yr. coinciding with the rising of the star Sirius, a religious omen that only occurred once in 1460yrs)

-he claimed it symbolised a blessing from the gods for a new beginning

-continued the religious policy of Ramesses I

-emphasised his father Ramesses I as a god & elevated himself to same level as the gods in his Abydos templeto justify his family’s est. of a new dynasty unrelated to former kings

-provided new tradition for the pharaoh to be regarded as equals of the gods

-reliefs at Karnak templeSeti emphasises his lose link to Amun & he presented Amun with booty & POWs on his return

-refers to Amun-Re as his father in temple inscriptions

-honours other est. gods of Egypt & Amun not elevated to supreme position

-within his tombSeti depicted the usual mortuary gods

-religious policy can be clearly seen at Abydosone of holiest sites

-site of burial of Osiris’ head

-honoured Osiris with beautiful sanctuaryceremonial rituals, connected with the dead & revival of the god

-front of templecolumn hall served as façade to 7 individual chapels-Osiris, Isis, Re-Horakhte, Horus, Amun, worship of Seti himselfeach chapel equal in size & deco showing Seti himself paying homage equally to each of the gods

-dedicated his success to Amun



RAMESSES II

-followed similar religious policy of Ramesses I & Seti I

-polytheistic

-huge statues of himself often dominated those of godsAbu Simbel-Amun smaller to Ramesses II

-back to Amenhotep III depictions & influence from Thutmose III

-Nerfertari shown bigger than Hathor (goddess) in a temple

-usurped temples

-moved temples outside of boarders of Egypt = expanded Egyptian god influence

-worshipped foreign gods




BUILDING PROGRAMS



AMENHOTEP III



-Wanted monument to last for eternity

-Built large scale

-Palace at Thebes, mortuary temple and colossal statues were all bigger than --anything built before

-Overseer of All of the Kings works, Amenhotep, son of Hapu, regarded as the guiding spirit behind Amenhotep III building projects



-Many buildings erected to

-honour gods

-Show his relationship with them

-Propaganda-show power, wealth and domination

-Dedication + worship gods

-Provide workforce for architects, scribes, craftsman, sculptors

-Immortality / glorify himself

-Strengthen relationship with gods



-Temple at Luxor

-Amenhotep III did much of the work; Akhenaten + Ramesses II continued and Horemheb finished it off ; all in the process tried to claimed all acknowledgments

-Tip of Obelisk made of gold (sun = radiant colours)

-Made for Amuninner sanctuary had statues of Amun

-Sun rises and sun sets in different ways

-Front of temple are line of Sphinxes’follow straight leads to entrance of Karnak

-Hypostele hall sacred place for Amun

-On east bank of Nile

-Luxor is Ancient City of Thebes

-Theban triad (Amun-re, wife Mut, son Khonsu)

-reliefsdivine birth of Amenhotep III

-Temple at Karnak

-Built a new pylon facing riverpylon lengthy inscription praising Amun & himself

-For Amun

-Demolished some previous structures, including his fathers to make way for his own

-Added relief scenes of his divine and coronation

-had colossal statues of himself there

-Mortuary Temple

-inscription from the building Steladescription of its splendor & wealthimpressive temple

-about 1kn north of the Palace complex, Amenhotep built his mortuary temple which appears to be largest of its kind ever constructed

-Although the temple was built to house the funeral service of the pharaoh’s spirit. It was dedicated tot he Aten

-in front of the temple he constructed 2 huge statues of himself >16m tall, known as Colossos of Memnon

-Colossos of Memnon

-Remains statue of Amenhotep III

-18m high ; 1300 tonnes weight (large scale)

-carved out of a single block-lots of detail (inscriptions, hieroglyphics)

-Fine sandstone, silver and gold, height reaches to heaven, plants and animals, slaves, storerooms with countless goods

-Mortuary temple at Western Thebes, Luxor temple, 3rd pylon at Karnak, his temple at Soleb and Sedinga at Nubiadedicated major works to Amun-Re

-Temples for Ptah, Re-Horakhty, Thoth and himself in Nubia, palace for himself at Malkata in Western Thebesall show of Egypt’s power, dedicated to himself, curb power of Amun priesthood, recognise range of gods for polytheistic purposes


AKHENATEN

-stopped revenue payments to temple of Amun-Re = they had to close down/desert them

-name of Amun-Re was taken off inscriptionswanted to eliminate the old religion

-moved capital from Thebes (capital of Amun-Re) to Amarna (capital of Aten)

-temples

-large open courts

-no statues present

-no dark secluded shrine to house the statue of the god

-all courts & chapels open to the sky

-offering tables

-sunken relieffaster method



-Akhetaten

-dedicated to the Aten ‘rising of the sun’

-stela’s were erected to mark the final boundaries of the deity & to declare the site the property of od

-by yr 9capital was fully functional with king & queen & their court residence

-city well structed as a garden city & attracted nobles & officials

-size & quality of homes varied according to status

-all house made of sun dried bricks-talatat-easier to carry & quick assemblege

-houses consisted of main central room with smaller rooms leading off

-nothing known of it structurally

-today can only see foundations

-at its height about 20 000 residents

-the House of the Aten

-most imp building & centre for worship of the Aten

-the great temple located in centre of city & surrounded by a huge wall enclosure

-deffered markedly to traditional designs

-temple begun with a columned wall, which gave access to a series of open courts with stone offering tables, a high altar, a sanctuary & surroundung chapels all open to the sky



SMENKHARE

-made additions to the Great Palace at Akhetatento mark his coronation

-A possible tomb for immortality-tomb 55?



TUTANKHAMUN

-contributed to Temple at Luxor

-begun a tomb for himself but at death used Aye tombfor immortality, resting place

-rebuilt temples, including Temple of Amun at Karnak

-restoration Stelashows the neglecting of the temples & how Tut. restored, renovated and decorated the temples with flowers

-relief works on hallsrelief on Opet festival-on wall of a colonnaded hall in Temple of Amun at Luxor


AYE

-in his short reign of 4yrs as king, added to temple complexes at Karnak & Luxor & built a rock-cut chapel at Akhmin

-at both Karnak & Luxor he added his name to many of Tut.’s monumentsglorify himself & claim achievements

-mortuary temple at Medinet Habuimmortality

-motives in completing Tut.’s building at Karnakshow he attempted to follow the e.g. set by his predecessors & to show that he was a pharaoh that took into consideration that of the traditional methodslegitimise his throne



HOREMHEB

-Usurped many buildings from the time of Tut. & Aye & continued the demolition of major monuments of Akhenaten

-Usurped Tut.’s hall at Luxor, several of his statues & also his Restoration Stela that recorded the failure of Akhenaten’s religious policy in relation to temples & Tut. restoring them

-he removed Aye’s cartouches, usurped his monuments at Luxor & mortuary temples & was probably responsible for defacing Aye’s tomb

-claimed monuments of his predecessors as his own

the coronation Stela emphasised that he restores temples throughout Egypt, adding to their wealth & restored royal tombs that had been robbed

-one of major aspects was the restoration of many traditional temples

-began the construction on the Great Hypostele Hall of the Temple of Amun-Re

-built tombs at Thebes & Memphisimmortality

-talatat from Akhenaten’s East Karnak temples used in 2nd & 9th & 10th pylons at Karnakdismantle & ensured preserved of many details of early yrs of hated predecessors reign

-destruction of Atenism

-Destroyed everything associated with the Aten cult. Blamed predecessors for bad condition

-attributed recent buildings to himself

-dismantled Amarna buildings & tombs

-dismantling Aten temples

-attacked Aye’s tomb & tombs of official

RAMESSES I



-had little time for major building programs/to complete them

-dedicated temple to Min-Amun at Buhentemple with goods of food, priests & saves stela in Sinaidedicated to Mut at Wadi Halfa

stela at Buhen in NubiaPtah & Re mentioned = mentioning several gods (reaction to prominence of Aten & Amun cult)

-began work on Hypostyle Hall at Karnak


SETI I


-active building programs during his reign

-the ‘list of kings’ at Abydoslinked him to the previous pharaohs

-Temple of Amun at Karnak

-added his war reliefs on the outer northern & part of the eastern walls

-main decorative focus of his Amun complex-emphasise his close link to the Amun who was responsible for his military victories & who benefited from the booty

-mortuary temple at Qurna, Thebes

-set up an area in the temple for his fathers (Amun’s) rites

-dedicated the temple 6 times to himself alone & to Amun

-not completed at time of death, completed by son Ramesses II

-Temple at Abydos

-holy associated with Osiris, L shaped rather than rectangular, made of white limestone, 7 chapels behind columned hall, reliefs of Seti offering to the gods & reliefs of legends of Osiris

-Seti’s own mortuary temple to himself, sacred to all gods of Egypt, linkage himself with the earlier dynasties of Egypt

-died before completion, completed by Ramesses II

-tomb of Seti I

-largest of royal tombs

-magnificent in sheer size & in the quality of tomb paintings

-tomb shows Seti progressing through underworld, guarded by Isis

-hence Seti is protected by gods as he safely passes through danger of underworld to join gods

-restore names, title & figures of gods that had been hacked out by Akhenaten e.g. reliefs restored by Seti show underlying traces of the earlier figures hacked out by Akhenaten

-Appears Seti took personal interest in conditions of his workersquarry inscription records how Seti increased rations of quarrymen to allow the work to e easier. He also ordered a new well, as they worked in hot conditions


RAMESSES II



-built cartouches of himself on every monumentadded to glorify and claim achievements

-claimed others worksglorify, suggested he built it all, show his own achievements

-added courtyard, pylon & obelisks to front of Luxor temple

-Seti’’s Abydos templeblocked up the 7 entrance ways & covered them with text of him

-Abu Simbel

-dedicated to Amun-Re, Horakyte, Ptah

-had 4 colossal statues of king

-whole temple 31m high

-on entrance outsidereliefs of Ramesses dragging punishing enemies

-propaganda

-no lighting

-Ramesses, Re & Amun light up, Ptah not lighted bcoz god of darknessgreat mathematical & scientific abilities

-the Ramesseum

-his huge mortuary temple cut out of mountainside

-located on the western bank at Thebes

-main shrine dedicated to the Amun

-battle of Kadesh inscribed on 2nd pylon

-Several courts, pillars, columned terraces & statues of the king as Osiris. The area was surrounded by a low wall

-4 colossal seated statues of Ramesses, each 20 metres high, form the façade of the main temple

-on the northern interior wall is the most complete pictorial of Kadesh

-the smaller temple dedicated to Nerfertari

-Per-Ramesses

-he referred to it as ‘House of Ramesses Great Victories’; now referred to as Per-Ramesses

-commercial port & military Centre

-new capital in the northern Delta region

-foreign gods also worshipped there as well as Egyptian onesrespect for foreigners religions & growing trust

-ideally suited for forming closer links with the Syria-Palestine region + signs of foreign gods being worshipped in Egypt evident

-city comprised of military barracks, temples to gods, jubilees hall for Ramesses 14 sed festivals & administrative buildings

-cosmopolitan age

-polytheism

-most of the work & inscriptions full of self praise & glorification




FOREIGN POLICY & MILITARY CAMPAIGNS



AMENHOTEP III


FOREIGN


-politicallyEgyptian influence extended from the Euphrates river in the north to the 4th cataract in the south

-economicallyEgypt exploited vast resources of gold & precious stones

-Maintained army, forts and garrisons throughout Empire

-Native rulers who can under Egypt remained loyal

-Imperial administration- all officials were Egyptians

-Maintained good system of communication 

-Reports from civil and military official kept the pharaoh informed

-Diplomatic correspondence

-Wrote letters to greater and lesser kings and many wrote directly back to Amenhotep III

-Favoured diplomacy in dealing with superpowers of his day + wrote to kings of Babylon and Arzawa and he received letters from them and king of Mitannireferred to each other as ‘brothers’

-Letter writing replaced war as means of peace for Egypt

-Trusted messengers to go between for the various leaders

-Tributes continued to flow into Egypt

-Strengthened relationshipsmarried off sisters and daughters of kings from different regions and countries. Amenhotep III seemed to be the initiator/negotiator but the foreign kings set the bride pricetrade as well as marriages between regions e.g. Babylon, Mitanni, Syria & Arzawa

-Did not send Egyptian women to marry king of Babylon/foreign kings

-Amarna lettersshow Egyptian gold was exchanged for horses, copper and lapiz lazuli from Asia

-foreign policy brought more foreigners & trade to Egypt = learned skills of foreign artisans, craft influence from east

MILITARY


-International diplomacy based in a system in which the statue of rulers was clearly designated and relations between them were conducted according to accepted conventions

-Great kings (independent rulers) referred themselves as brothers

-Lesser kings (a vassal) regarded themselves as sons of the Great kings and since they were conquered they said ‘my lord, my god, my sun’

-These treaties / relationships provided protection for each country if a third party was to invade/attack

-International situation of Egypt did not require any military campaigns for most of Amenhotep III reign

-A documented military campaign launched against rebellious tribe in Kush

-First couple of years of reign, available evidence says Amenhotep III only involved in one military campaign in Nubiaunlikely to have led to new territory for Egyptian empire

-a stela cut into the rock near the first cataract records that there had been a revolt in Nubia during 5th year of his reign & that he had invaded the country to crush the rebels

-Amarna letters

-Relations btw Amenhotep III & northern rulers was amicable (friendly). The only trouble spot was in Northern Syria, where Egypt had never est. a firm control

-letters from Babylonshow increasing disturbances in Syria & a reluctance on the part of Egypt to become involved in disputes in this area, especially against the Hittites

-Reign of relative peace, maintaining and controlling empire and no evidence of expansion during reign is shown


AKHENATEN



FOREIGN

-diplomatic marriages continued just as in Amenhotep III reign

-Amarna letterscorrespondence with vassal princes & conducted a campaign in Nubia & used Nubian troops in the east & show how Akhenaten rarely replied to appeals for assistance from vassal princes, governors & officials

-Akhenaten’s actions led to Egypt’s relationship with Mitanni to laps by not sending gifts, ignoring correspondence & failing to provide assistance during 2 revolutions

-by year 15Mitanni & most of northern Syria had been conquered by the Hittites with no military support provided by Akhenaten to his allies

-By end of Akhenaten’s reign. Most Egyptian garrisons in Western Asia had been withdrawn

-Egyptian control in western Asia weakened considerably during Akhenaten’s reign

-rebellions in the area were more common


MILITARY


-absence of depictions of Akhenaten in the traditional warrior form but recent evidence suggests that his reign focused on foreign policy but he chose not to depict this aspect in temple reliefs

-there are some scenes showing his army was not idle & strong emphasis on war & military involvement with presence at Akhetaten



SMENKHARE

-no evidence provided

TUTANKHAMUN

-foreign policy saw the strengthening of Egypt’s hold over Palestinian vassals under Horemheb’s general ships

-growing power Hittites threatening Egyptian vassals

-Horemheb in charge of the armystrengthened Egypt’s control in Palestine & they collected taxes

MILITARY


-in Tut.’s reignHoremheb an army commander led to the counter-revolution against Amarna & restored Egyptian power with military victories against the Hittites

-Horemheb’s tomb revealed evidence of several campaigns during Tut.’s reign, realistic reliefs & texts show delegations of Asiatic princes asking for aid against their enemies


AYE


FOREIGN & MILITARY

-little evidence


HOREMHEB


FOREIGN

-possible treaties with Hittites

-foreign policy came 2nd to domestic policy edict of reform

MILITARY


-depicted the pharaoh as almighty god who was omnipotentall knowing & most important

-two campaigns punt & NubiaHittites growing

-campaign in Nubia was recorded in a rock cut temple at Silsileh where he was said to have triumphed over the princes of every country

-no record of Horemheb attempting to regain lost territory

-He secured a treaty with the Hittites. This, the Hittites were eager to have so as to pursue expansion northwards

-on wall of Karnak, expedition to Punt, King of Punt exclaimed “Hail to you king of Egypt”

-at Karnakscenes depict 11 defeated lands listed & 3 lines of captive Asiatic’s presented to Amun, Mut & Khonsu

-propaganda


RAMESSES I



FOREIGN

-short reign

-very old

MILITARY


-continued traditional role of defended of Egypt, sending Seti I (his son) north on campaignaimed to promote Egyptian powers, est. boarders & begin expansion of empire-was successfulpropaganda involved in depictions

-used traditional warlike language to proclaim dominance & victory over Egypt’s traditional enemies

-appeared to have pursued the military policies of the earlier 18th dynasty pharaohs in ‘extending the boundaries of Egypt’

SETI I


FOREIGN

-made treaties like Amenhotep III to maintain good relations

-rebellions were crushed & incursions repelled

-boarders of Egypt & its empire were redefined & secured

-garrisons were fortified & old allegiances re-establish

-inspected mines in many of Egypt’s regions & maintained communication in the foreign lands


MILITARY


-pursued an active military program, following similar strategies to Thutmose III

-the major source we have fore his campaignsseries of reliefs on the entire northern & partial eastern side of the outer wall of the Hypostyle hall in the Karnak temple

-his objective was to conquer Kadesh & Amurru by:

-gaining firm hold of Palestine

-gaining control of the seaports on the Phoenician coast

-attacking central & northern Syria from the coast

-he sent many campaigns to cease/slow down the expansion of the Hittite influence in the region

-1st campaignled army into Palestine & Canaan (area bordering Palestine). He secured the coastlines along modern day Lebanon & Jordan. Rebels against Egypt were capturedaccounts on walls of Hypostyle Hall

-2nd campaignattack Libyans in west

-3rd campaignattack on the northern Asiatic town of Kadeshno certain of success bcoz no chronological account provided

-4th campaignwaged against the Hittites in North Kadeshdoes no account of a war but both accounts (Hittite & Egyptian) agree that he won back Syria’s allegiance

-5th campaignpossible campaign against Nubia

-by end of his reign he had est. an Egyptian presence in Palestine, along the Lebanese’s coast & probably into Syria

-Nubia also under Egyptian control & was exploited for mining trade

-overall the results of Seti’s military action:

-revived the warrior pharaoh image

-showed his military ability

-secured Egypt’s boarders & regained much lost territory

-made Egypt a powerful country once more

RAMESSES II



FOREIGN

-dominated by confrontation with Hittites, finally resulting in mutually agreed peace & diplomatic marriage

-diplomatic marriage34th year married a Hittite princess, Mutnefrure which cemented the alliance

-Nerfertari wrote diplomatic letters

-the Hittite peace treatythe first fully documented treaty

MILITARY


-first 1o yrsaggressive military campaigns

-10yrs after aggressive military campaignspassive focus like Amenhotep III

-4th yr.took part in his first Syrian campaign

-5th yr.most important campaign against near eastern powerthe Hittites (battle of Kadesh)

-during next 5yrs Ramesses put down 3 revolts in areas previously controlled by Egypt & other campaigns were waged in Syria

-there was a threat from Libyans in the west, who were probably trying to settle in the rich Delta region

-The Battle of Kadesh

-yr 5ramesses II launched a campaign against Hittites in this region

-in invading the territory of Kadesh, Ramesses breaking a treaty signed by his father Seti I & the previous Hittite king

-Kadesh: a city-state allied to the Hittite, located on Northern Syrian

-Hittite king-Mutawallish

-Egyptians were led by Ramesses II himself

-army showed lack of discipline & courage when attacked by the enemy & Ramesses had fallen into an ambush set up by the Hittite king

-massive advertising campaignmagnify a military set back into stunning personal victory, the fiction details repeated many times on Egyptian & Nubian walls. It was unthinkable for a pharaoh to be defeated & official records focus on the kings superhuman personal bravery, enemy depicted as cowardly scared of Pharaohself glorification

-in the battle he claims he fought all by himself, all alone in his chariot

-inscribed on the 1st pylon at Luxor & the 2nd pylon of the Ramesseum (his mortuary temple)

-“I am all alone and none other is with me”

-“one knew not where to tread bcoz of their numbers”fought many himself

-“They unable to shoot...have not the heart to take their lances”enemy afraid at his might



ADMINISTRATION




AMENHOTEP III

-capital at Memphisan important Centre for certain religious rituals, especially the celebration of the kings jubilees

-Well governed

-Appointed key official

-In past the officials inherited their positions but Amenhotep appointed those worthy of the position. Military men were appointed, as it was because of them that Egypt had such superpower. He also wanted to curb the increasing power of Theban officials, as a number of his officials came from Memphis.

-Polytheism: Amun and other gods were honoured + temples erected

-Harvest collected + taxes recorded

-Manufacturing + arts flourished

-Massive building programs undertaken

-Public works maintained

-Bureaucracy was supervised by viziers

-Administrative districts increased from 42 to 55 and all nomarchs were now assisted by 2 mayors

-Viziers and high priest of Amun

-Chancellors worked closely with the viziers

-Oversees of treasurykept account of taxes, tributes and supervised mining, quarrying expeditions

-Overseer of 2 granaries

-Viceroy of NubiaMerymose

-Overseer of northern granaries


AKHENATEN

-CapitalAmarna-Akhetaten-rising of the sunhalfway btw Memphis & Thebes. The city was dedicated to the solar god Aten, together with temples, palaces & tombs. Virgin soil = fresh start

-Donald Redford called Akhenaten’s officials ‘new men’ possibly bcoz they had been acting totally opposite to traditional methods of worship & living. These ‘new men’ also went to the extent of moving the capital away from Thebes

-Viceroy of NubiaThutmose

SMENKHARE



-minimal evidence

TUTANKHAMUN

-political capital returns to Memphis: Thebes re-established as Centre of the state cult of Amunneeded to restore, reopen all deserted temples

- Viceroy of NubiaHuy


AYE


-minimal evidence


HOREMHEB


-when came to throne his chief aims seem to have been:

-restore law & order

-eradicate bureaucratic corruption

-improve the lot of the lower classes

-disassociate himself from the Atenist heresy

-promote the view that he was the legitimate successor of Amenhotep III

-the Edict

-most imp edict concerning laws of administration within Egypt

-originally inscribed on a huge stela at Karnak

-consisted of laws directed at officials, soldiers, tax collectors presenting corruption such as robbing the poor, stealing vegetables, tax collectors using other ppls slaves for 6-7 days at a time & stealing cattle

-punishments also included carrying from 100 lashes to having their noses cut off

-victims were mainly the poor people



RAMESSES I

-Centre of government returned to Memphisbetter suited for regaining the empire that Thebes, although Thebes remained a religious capital

-had a short reign

-Historians believes that his reign lasted only 2yrs. Some time during this period he est. a co-regency with his son Seti I. Both pharaohs continued Horemheb’s work of restoring Egypt to its former form of glory


SETI I

-Memphis continued as the administrative capital

-Thebes also continued to be important as a religious & administrative Centre

-Egypt was prosperous

-well administered

-had re-established its empire-building programs, religious policy that differed from traditional

-the new dynasty had therefore started positively & pharaoh had re-established his superhuman image

-Seti’s reignhighly successful & through vast building program he secured his legitimacy & that of a dynasty, Ramesses II was the beneficiary of his father’s legacy

-Issued an edict indication official corruption. Seti’s edict brought the new temple at Abydos under govt. protection

-rebellions were crushed & incursions repelled

-boarders of Egypt & its empire were redefined & secured

-garrisons were fortified & old allegiances re-establish

-inspected mines in many of Egypt’s regions & maintained communication in the foreign lands



RAMESSES II

-administrative capital at Pi-Ramesses/Per-Ramesses

-Was renowned for its beauty, as a commercial port & military Centre.

-communication btw Egypt & ‘Asiatic’s’

-many Egyptologist call him “the great” bcoz: (but really is “the great”

-cartouches everywhere

-size & number of his buildings

-number of offspring

-account of Kadesh, number of recordings

-length of reign

-Wilson states “blatant advertising was used to cover up the failure to attain past glories”

-carried policies of past pharaohs

-e.g. treaty & diplomatic marriage

-after Hittite peace treaty, Ramesses could no longer capture Kadesh, increasing his warrior pharaoh image, hence he focused the 2nd half of his reign on diplomatic relations, building programs & honouring the gods

-marriage inscription on temple at Karnakmarriage to Hittite king daughter to Ramesses, accompanied by “splendid gifts”princess became kings wife and the reason for trade and tributes

-videolegends of history, Ramesses the great

-set himself superhuman goals

-propaganda but truth was quite different to reality

-at accession-eradicate any symbols of his predecessors from templespropaganda

-only one thing mattered to him that his name came immortal

-Egyptian pharaoh suppose to be

-intermediary btw gods & the ppl

-defender & protector of his ppl

-source & prosperity & upholder of order & justice

Ramesses sought to carry out these pharaohnic ideals



ART

AMENHOTEP III

-New styles of paintings, relief’s, sculptors and architecture emerged

-Known for its elegant beauty, high quality of materials & workmanship

-New artistic style that emerged during Amenhotep III rule influenced greatly by the art of his predecessors

-Depicted as they were in realitybut not as exaggerated as in Amarna period during the reign of Akhenaten

-Wife Tiye shown sitting/standing beside her husband as the same size

-Emphasised his role as god in temples, relief’s and inscriptions

-Queen Tiy also represented as goddess in nearby temple in Sedeinga

-Began the move towards developing a cult to the pharaohs. He erected temple of Soleb in Nubia to both Amun and himself

-like traditions he presented himself as a warrior & hunter although he didn’t really actively lead a war

-Was an accomplished hunter and showed this through giant scarabs placed in Amun’s temples: Bull Hunt scarab (captured 96 wild bulls on one expedition) and Lion Hunt scarab (kings total of lion hunts



AKHENATEN

-evidence suggests he had no main military campaign but royal iconography still required the king to continue to be portrayed as a potent warrior pharaohscenes depicting a strong military presence of Akhenaten, indicating the army was not idle

-shown in reality

-different form of art

-pharaoh no longer the perfect man in the formal pose in non-domestic scenes

-his art had flaws and were of domestic scenes too

-figures had both male and female characteristics (his belief that the Aten was both male and female hence he called it ‘the Aten’)

-exaggerated


SMENKHARE

-in the relief of him and Akhenaten in an intimate pose he is depicted in the same manner as Akhenaten

-figure had both male and female characteristics

-exaggerated


TUTANKHAMUN

-showed himself as a virile hunter, warrior pharaoh

-went back to traditional pharaoh depictions

-portrayed himself as a traditional king with all the accompanying symbols of kingshipwore false beard ureaus, royal collar, crook & flailreturn the traditional depiction of the pharaoh in the perfect form

-as warriorin tomb depicted his enemies in battle from chariot & trampling the traditional enemies of Egypt

-had domestic scene of him & his wife in intimate poses like Akhenaten

AYE




HOREMHEB




RAMESSES I





SETI I




RAMESSES II



Attempted to impress by overpowering size without concern for artistic quality

-used sunken relief instead of raised reliefs

-many of his templestraditional in layout but introduced some changes




QUEENS


-The queens had prominent active role unseen before in the 18th dynasty

-3types of regalia worn by the NK queens

-Vulture headdress originally worn by the vulture goddess Nekhbet

-Uraeus/cobra associated with the cobra goddess Wadjet

-Double/shuty feathers/ later combined with cow horns & sun disk associated with goddess Hathor

-Diff roles of queen include

-Performing rites alongside the pharaoh & making offerings to gods & shaking sistrum

-Mother of pharaoh e.g. Tuya, mother of Ramesses IIgreat prominence, given sometime title of ‘Great King’s Wife’ in son’s reign, diplomatic role

-‘Great royal wife’diplomatic role

-No queen’s consort of Ramesside period appears to have achieved the political status of Nefertiti, 18th dynasty queen except wife of Seti II




Type of Queen

Description & role

Queen regent

-ruled as king in her own right

-one queen in Ramesside period assumed kingly titles & ruled as pharaoh



Great Royal Wife

-the chief consort of the king

-often depicted on the monuments next to king



King’s Mother

-position of importance in royal household

-often depicted on monuments in reliefs alongside the king

-traditionally acted as regent for a king who was too young to rule in his own right

-became the most important woman in the hierarchy after her son became king



King’s wives

-other women who were married to the king

-some enjoyed particular favour with the king

-some were foreign women married to king for diplomatic reasons



Tiye


-married to Amenhotep III

-held status of “great royal wife”, “mistress of upper & lower Egypt”, “lady of the two lands”

-scarabs commemorating their marriageTiye’s non-royal background shown & proclaimed the parents of hers as Yuya & Thuyaassumed prominence from the several marriage scarabs

-name appears in a cartouches & in reliefs & sanctuaryshown beside Amenhotep III as same sizequeen given respect & increase influence, power

-had a artificial lake built for hershows Amenhotep III pride in her

-had a temple built for her at Sedeinga in Nubiadepicted as a goddessher religious significance

-she is shown with a kings attributes in the tomb of her steward Kheruefshows her equal to the pharaoh

-she is shown as a sphinx trampling enemiesin the traditional pharaoh posepower and influence

-Amarna letters show her political influence

-she played an active role in foreign affairs

-foreign rulers wrote directly to her

-Even at death of Amenhotep III, Mitanni king wrote to her to maintain good relations. Early in Akhenaten’s reign, Akhenaten’s consult was his mother Tiye regarding matters relating to the MitanniMitanni wrote to her to influence Akhenaten & she replied with encouraging words


Nefertiti


-married to Akhenaten before arrival to throne

-appears in intimate family scenes more so often than any other queen

-she was part of the trinity (the Aten, his consort-Nefertiti, his son-Akhenaten)this gave her immediate religious significance

-changed name to Neferuatenworship of Atenher religious influence

-the Aten always gives both Akhenaten & Nefertiti the ankh

-major religious rolereligious ceremonies to the Aten

e.g. Hewet-benben at Karnaktemple devoted entirely to her worship of the Aten; she & eldest daughter Meritaten make offerings to the gods, Akhenaten not present--

-wears distinctive crown sometimes the crown of typical pharaoh

-depicted in the traditional Pharaohnic pose of ‘smiting the enemy’ & trampling the enemy as a sphinxher political influence, in pharaoh role assumes great pharaoh

-she enjoyed a prominence granted to no other queen beforescenes from public & private buildings as well as tomb painting depict her driving her own chariot in state processions, accompanying her husband in worshipping the Aten, distributing honour & receiving foreign envoys

-being in pharaoh pose gives her power & abundance of depiction have led some scholars to believe she was a queens regent as well as great royal wife


Meritaten

-Akhenaten’ daughter

-possibly married to Smenkhare



Ankhesenamun

-during Akhenaten’s life (her father)role of a child in domestic scenes

-during Tutankhamun’s reign role of a royal wife

-in Tut.’s tomb the golden throne and other such objects show her in intimate scenes with the pharaoh e.g. watching as he hunts/ putting perfume on the pharaoh

-‘small golden shrine’depicts her in a variety of poses that reveal her religious role in rebirth of her husband & her association with Hathorgiving her religious significance and bringing her to the level of the goddess’

-At the death of Tut. she assumed a political role which could have been the result to the culmination of the growing political influence of 18th dynasty queensshe wrote to the Hittites for a prince to be sent so she could wed him & rule Egypt, but the result was his death & it is possible she married Aye/disappeared


Muthojmet

-possibly daughter of Aye & sister of Nefertiti

-Horemheb’s queen

-sole remaining female member of the ruling family probably legitimised Horemheb’s claim to the throne

Tuya


-wife of Seti Inot prominent during the reign of her husband

-much more prominent role when her son Ramesses II ruled

-Ramesses II

-he erected statues of her throughout Egypt & constructed a temple to her honourgiving her religious significance

-she is featured with him in front of his massive Abu Simbelalthough at a smaller scalesome religious significance

-like Queen Tiye she played a diplomatic role, writing personally to the Hittite king on the occasion of the peace treaty with Egyptpolitically involved

-appears to have had a ‘sacred wedding’ with Amun decorated at a temple dedicated to her & he daughter-in-law Nerfertari in Western Thebesgiving her divine prominence, characteristic & connections

Nerfertari


-wife of Ramesses II “great royal wife”

-may have been from Theban noble family

-referred to as “beloved of Mut”strengthen the connection to Thebes

-marriage may have been political

-name is reminiscent of Ahmose Nerfertari, founding family of 18th dynasty

-shown appealing to gods (usually done by kings)depicting her importance

-appears beside her husband on state & religious occasion

e.g. yr. 1accompanied Ramesses to Abydos, Seti I’s burial

yr. 3shown on a monumental scale

-important religious role

-depicted officiating jointly with Ramesses II in religious ceremonies on the walls of a shrine at Gebel el Sisila

-accompanied her husband on royal procession up the Nile, presiding with him at religious festivals

-Ramesses II dedicated an entire temple to her & the goddess Hathor next to his temple at Abu Simbelbrought her up to the level of the goddess’

-shared a small temple with Tuya (Ramesses II mum) in Valley of Queensher status as queen more legitimised & valuable

-important political/diplomatic role

-like Tiye, Akhesenamun she wrote letter

-exchanged greetings, sent official letters & gifts with Hittite queen Pudukhepa on the occasion of the Hittite peace treaty in yr. 21

-positive tone

-“may the sun god of Egypt & the storm god of Hatti bring your joy…”placing both gods together to give blessing = respect & in conjunction with the religious policy of Ramesses II

-“I am in friendship & sisterly relations with my sister the Great Queen of Hatti, no & forever”assurances, Nerfertari writing on a significant political occasion = she was involved in political occasions & she supported her husbands actions



I did not compile these notes but found them so I don’t take responsibility for the contents and the spelling! I thought they may be of use for you in compiling your summaries. You can add any of your own extra notes to these.


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