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Starobin, Robert. "Disciplining Industrial Slaves in the Old South." Journal of Negro History 53 (Apr. 1968):111-28.
Sterne, Richard S., and Rothseiden, Jean Loftin. "Master-Slave Clashes as Forerunners of Patterns in Modern American Urban Eruptions." Phylon 30 (fall 1969):251-60.
Stuckey, Sterling. "Through the Prism of Folklore: The Black Ethos in Slavery." Massachusetts Review 9 (summer 1968):417-437+
Suttles, William C., Jr. "African Religious Survivals as Factors in American Slave Revolts." Journal of Negro History 56 (Apr. 1971):97-104.
Thompson, E.P. "The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century." Past and Present, no. 50 (Feb. 1971), pp. 76-136.
________. "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism." Past and Present, no. 38 (Dec. 1967), pp. 56-97.
Tulloch, Hugh. "But the Cat Himself Knows: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South--A Historiographical Survey." History Today 30 (May 1980):57-60.
Van Deburg, William L. "Slave Drivers and Slave Narratives: A New Look at the 'Dehumanized Elite.'" Historian 39 (Aug. 1977):717-32.
Wade, Richard C. "The Vesey Plot: A Reconsideration." Journal of Southern History 30 (May 1964):143-61.
Watson, Alan D. "Impulse Toward Independence: Resistance and Rebellion Among North Carolina Slaves, 1750-1775." Journal of Negro History 63 (fall 1978):317-28.
Wax, Darold D. "Preferences for Slaves in Colonial America." Journal of Negro History 58 (Oct. 1973):371-401.
White, Deborah G. "Female Slaves: Sex Roles and Status in the Antebellum Plantation South." Journal of Family History 8 (fall 1983):248-61.
White, J.P. "Christmas at the Plantation." North American Review 278 (Nov./Dec. 1993):4-9.
Willis, William S. "Divide and Rule: Red, White, and Black in the Southeast." Journal of Negro History 48 (July 1963):157-76.
Winkler, Allan M. "Ulrich Bonnell Phillips: A Reappraisal." South Atlantic Quarterly 71 (spring 1972):234-45.
Woodman, Harold D. "The Profitability of Slavery: A Historical Perennial." Journal of Southern History 29 (Aug. 1963):303-25.
Woolfolk, George R. "Planter Capitalism and Slavery: The Labor Thesis." Journal of Negro History 41 (Apr. 1956):103-16.
Yellin, Jean Fagan. "Written by Herself: Harriet Jacobs' Slave Narrative." American Literature 53 (Nov. 1981):479-86.
Yetman, Norman R. "The Background of the Slave Narrative Collection." American Quarterly 19 (fall 1967):534-53.
Young, Jeffrey R. "Ideology and Death on a Savannah River Rice Plantation, 1833-1867: Paternalism amidst 'a Good Supply of Disease and Pain.'" Journal of Southern History 59 (Nov. 1993):673-706.
Younger, Richard D. "Southern Grand Juries and Slavery." Journal of Negro History 40 (Apr. 1955):166-78.

4. English Farmworkers--Primary Works

Agar, Nigel E. The Bedfordshire Farm Worker in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 60 (n.p.: Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, 1981).


Arch, Joseph. Joseph Arch: The Story of His Life. Ed., Countess of Warwick. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1898.

Burnett, John, ed. Useful Toil: Autobiographies of Working People from the 1820s to the 1920s. London: Allen Lane/Penguin Books; reprint ed., London: Routledge, 1994.


Caird, James. English Agriculture in 1850-51. 2d ed. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, 1852.
Carpenter, Kenneth E., ed. The Rising of the Agricultural Labourers: Nine Pamphlets and Six Broadsides 1830-1831. British Labour Struggles: Contemporary Pamphlets 1727-1850. New York: Arno Press, New York Times Co., 1972.
Clark, J.C.D. English Society 1688-1832: Ideology, Social Structure and Political Practice during the Ancien Regime. Cambridge Studies in the History and Theory of Politics. Eds. Maurice Cowling, G.R. Elton, and J.R. Pole. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Cobbett, William. Rural Rides in the Counties of Surrey, Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Somersetshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Hertfordshire. Ed., E.W. Martin. 1830; reprint ed., London: MacDonald & Co., 1958.
Great Britain. Parliament. Parliamentary Papers (Commons). 1837, vol. XVII, Reports from the Select Committee to Inquire into the Administration of the Relief of the Poor Under the Provisions of the Poor Law Amendment Act with Minutes of Evidence and Appendices, part 1. Reprint ed., Shannon, Ireland: Irish University Press, 1968.
Great Britain. Parliament. Parliamentary Papers (Commons). 1843, vol. VII, Report from Select Committee on Labouring Poor (Allotments of Land.
Great Britain. Parliament. Parliamentary Papers (Commons). 1867-68, vol. XVII, Commission on the Employment of Children, Young Persons and Women in Agriculture, first report.
Harrison, Mark. Crowds and History: Mass Phenomena in English Towns, 1790- 1835. Past and Present Publications. Gen. ed., Paul Slack. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Hudson, W.H. A Shepherd's Life: Impressions of the South Wiltshire Downs. New Am. Ed. New York: E.P. Dutton Co., 1921.
Jeffries, Richard. Hodge and His Masters. 2 vols. 1880; reprint ed., London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1966.
Morris, M.C.F. The British Workman: Past and Present. (London: Oxford University, 1928.

Olmsted, Frederick Law. The Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England. 1859; reprint ed., Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1967.


Somerville, Alexander. The Whistler at the Plough. Ed., K.D.M. Snell. Manchester, England: J. Ainsworth, 1852; reprint ed., London, Merlin Press, 1989; Fairfield, NJ: Augustus Kelley, 1989.
Young, Arthur. General Report on Enclosures Drawn up by Order of the Board of Agriculture. London: B. Mcmillan, 1808; reprint ed., New York: Augustus M. Kelly, Publishers, 1971.
________. A Six Months Tour Through the North of England. 2d ed. 4 vols. London: W. Trahan, W. Nicol, 1771.

5. English Farmworkers--Secondary Works--Books

Deane, Phyllis. The First Industrial Revolution. 2d ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.


Engels, Friedrich. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Eds. and Trans. W.O. Henderson and W.H. Chaloner. New York: Macmillan Co., 1958.
Gillis, John R. The Development of European Society, 1770-1870. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983.
Hammond, J.L. and Hammond, Barbara. The Town Labourer 1760-1832: The New Civilisation. 2d. ed. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1928.
________. The Village Labourer. 1911; reprint ed., London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1966.
Hartwell, R.M.; Mingay, G.E.; Boyson, Rhodes; McCord, Norman; Hanson, C.G.; Coats, A.W.; Chaloner, W.H.; Henderson, W.O.; and Jefferson, J.M. The Long Debate on Poverty: Eight Essays on Industrialisation and 'the Condition of England.' N.p.: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 1972.
Hobsbawm, Eric J. and Rude, George. Captain Swing. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1969.
Huggett, Frank E. A Day in the Life of a Victorian Farm Worker. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1972.
Kerr, Barbara. Bound to the Soil: A Social History of Dorset 1750-1918.

(London: John Baker Publishers, 1968).

Marwick, Arthur. The Deluge: British Society and the First World War. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1965; reprint ed., New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1970.
Morgan, David Hoseason. Harvesters and Harvesting 1840-1900: A Study of the Rural Proletariat. London: Croom Helm, 1982.
Rule, John L. The Labouring Classes in Early Industrial England, 1750-1850. New York: Longman Group, 1986.
________. The Vital Century: England's Developing Economy, 1714-1815. New York: Longman, 1992.
Snell, K.D.M. Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England, 1660-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Thompson, E.P. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1966.

6. English Farmworkers--Secondary Works--Articles

Anscombe, J.W. "Parliamentary Enclosure in Northamptonshire: Processes and Procedures." Northamptonshire Past and Present 7 (1988-89):409-23.


Baker, Mark. "Aspects of the Life of the Wiltshire Agricultural Labourer, c. 1850." Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 74/75 (1981):61-69.
Beckett, J.V. "The Debate over Farm Sizes in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century England." Agricultural History 57 (July 1983):308-25.
Brundage, Anthony; Eastwood, David; and Mandler, Peter. "Debate The Making of the New Poor Law Redivivus." Past and Present, no. 127 (May 1990), pp. 183-201.
Brundage, Anthony. "The English Poor Law of 1834 and the Cohesion of Agricultural Society." Agricultural History 48 (July 1974):405-17.
Bushaway, R.W. "'Grovely, Grovely, Grovely and All Grovely': Custom, Crime and Conflict in the English Woodland." History Today 31 (May 1981):37- 43.
Bythell, Duncan. "Cottage Industry and the Factory System." History Today 33 (Apr. 1983):17-23.
Cirket, A.F. "The 1830 Riots in Bedfordshire--Background and Events." Bedfordshire Historical Record Society 57 (1978):75-112.
Claeys, Gregory. "The Triumph of Class-Conscious Reformism in British Radicalism, 1790-1860." Historical Journal 26 (Dec. 1993):969-85.
Clark, J.C.D. "Eighteenth-Century Social History." Historical Journal 27 (Sept. 1984):773-88.
Cunningham, Hugh. "The Employment and Unemployment of Children in England c. 1680-1851." Past and Present, no. 126 (Feb. 1990), pp. 115-50.
Dunkley, Peter. "The 'Hungry Forties' and the New Poor Law: A Case Study." Historical Journal 17 (June 1974):329-46.
Dyck, Ian. "William Cobbett and the Rural Radical Platform." Social History 18 (May 1993):185-204.
Eccles, Audrey. "Vagrancy in Later Eighteen-Century Westmorland: A Social Profile." Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquitarian and Archaeological Society 89 (1989):249-62.
Ellis, J.R. "Parliamentary Enclosure in Wiltshire by Public General Acts." Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 72/73 (1980):155-165.
Emsley, Clive. "Crime in 19th-Century Britain." History Today 38 (Apr. 1988):40-46.
Gagnier, Regenia. "Social Atoms: Working-Class Autobiography, Subjectivity, and Gender." Victorian Studies 30 (spring 1987):335-65.
Hargreaves, J.A. "Methodism and Luddism in Yorkshire, 1812-1813." Northern History 26 (1990):160-185.
Hoppit, Julian. "Income, Welfare and the Industrial Revolution in Britain." Historical Journal 31 (Sept. 1988):721-31.
Horn, Pamela. "Childworkers in the Victorian Countryside: The Case of Northamptonshire." Northamptonshire Past and Present 7 (1985-86):173- 185.
Houston, Rab, and Snell, K.D.M. "Proto-Industrialization?: Cottage Industry, Social Change, and Industrial Revolution." Historical Journal 27 (June 1984):473-92.
Howkins, Alun. "Deserters from the Plough." History Today 43 (Feb. 1993):32- 38.

Innes, Joanna and Styles, John. "The Crime Wave: Recent Writing on Crime and Criminal Justice in Eighteenth-Century England." Journal of British



Studies 25 (Oct. 1986):380-435.
Landau, Norma. "The Regulation of Immigration, Economic Structures and Definitions of the Poor in Eighteenth-Century England." Historical Journal 33 (Sept. 1990):541-72.
Newby, Howard. "The Deferential Dialectic." Comparative Studies in Society and History 17 (April 1975):139-64.
Outhwaite, R.B. "English Agricultural Efficiency from the Mid-Seventeenth Century: Causes and Costs." Historical Journal 30 (Mar. 1987):201-9.
Parton, Ann. "Poor-law Settlement Certificates and Migration to and from Birmingham 1726-57." Local Population Studies (spring 1987):23-29.
Patrick, John. "Agricultural Gangs." History Today 36 (Mar. 1986):21-26.
Peek, Rosemary. "Farm Labour in Mid-Nineteenth Century Warwickshire." Local Population Studies, no. 31 (Autumn 1983), pp. 42-51.
Perry, P.J. "High Farming in Victorian Britain: The Financial Foundations." Agricultural History 52 (July 1978):364-79.
Perry, P.J. "High Farming in Victorian Britain: Prospect and Retrospect." Agricultural History 55 (April 1981):156-66.
Razi, Zvi. "The Toronto School's Reconstruction of Medieval Peasant Society: A Critical View." Past and Present, no. 85 (Nov. 1979), pp. 141-57.
Rose, Mary B. "Social Policy and Business; Parish Apprenticeship and the Early Factory System 1750-1834." Business History 31 (Oct. 1989):5-32.
Rose, Sonya O. "Proto-Industry, Women's Work and the Household Economy in the Transition to Industrial Capitalism." Journal of Family History 13 (1988):181-193.
Rushton, P. "The Poor Law, the Parish and the Community in North-East England, 1600-1800." Northern History 25 (1989):135-52.
Schmitt, Gunther. "Agriculture in Nineteenth Century France and Britain: Another Explanation of International and Intersectoral Productivity Differences." Journal of European Economic History 19 (spring 1990):91- 115.
Searle, C.E. "Custom, Class Conflict and Agrarian Capitalism: The Cumbrian Customary Economy in the Eighteenth Century." Past and Present, no. 110 (Feb. 1986), pp. 106-33.
Searle, C.E. "Customary Tenants and the Enclosure of the Cumbrian Commons." Northern History 29 (1993):126-53.
Sexauer, Benjamin. "English and French Agriculture in the Late Eighteenth Century." Agricultural History 50 (July 1976):491-505.
Smith, Steven R. "Age in Old England." History Today 29 (Mar. 1979):172-78.
Styles, John. "Crime in 18th-Century England." History Today 38 (Mar. 1988):36-42.
Thirsk, Joan. "The Horticultural Revolution: A Cautionary Note on Prices." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14 (autumn 1983):299-302.
Thomas, Brinley. "Escaping from Constraints: The Industrial Revolution in a Malthusian Context." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 15 (Spring 1985):729-53.
________. "Feeding England during the Industrial Revolution: A View from the Celtic Fringe." Agricultural History 56 (Jan. 1982):328-42.
Thompson, E.P. "The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century." Past and Present, no. 50 (Feb. 1971), pp. 76-136.
________. "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism." Past and Present, no. 38 (Dec. 1967), pp. 56-97.
Thompson, F.M.L. "Social Control in Victorian Britain." Economic History Review (second series) 34 (May 1981):189-208.
Tranter, Neil. "The Agricultural Sector in the Age of Industrialization." Historical Journal 33 (Mar. 1990):189-94.
Valenze, Deborah. "The Art of Women and the Business of Men: Women's Work and the Dairy Industry c. 1740-1840." Past and Present, no. 130 (Feb. 1991), pp. 142-69.
Woodward, Donald. "Wage Rates and Living Standards in Pre-Industrial England." Past and Present, no. 91 (May 1981):28-45.

Wojciechowska, B. "Brenchley: A Study of Migratory Movements in a Mid- Nineteenth Century Rural Parish." Local Population Studies, no. 41 (Autumn 1988), pp. 28-40.



7. Miscellaneous

Basic Works of Aristotle. Ed., Richard McKeon. New York: Random House, 1941.
Gilder, George. Men and Marriage.
Gilder, George. Wealth and Poverty. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1981.
Huppert, George. After the Black Death: A Social History of Modern Europe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986.
Novick, Peter. That Noble Dream: The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
The Collected Dialogues of Plato Including the Letters. Eds., Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Trans. of Republic, Paul Shorey. Bollingen Series LXXI. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, University Press, 1961.
Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Scott, Joan Wallach. Gender and the Politics of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. 1856; New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1955.
Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976.
Wells, Herbert George. The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Mankind. Ed., Raymond Postgate. 2 vols. Garden City, NY: Garden City Books, 1956.
SCAN AND PUT IN ESSAY DEALING WITH THE FALL AND RISE IN THE BRITISH STANDARD OF LIVING DURING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, PUT IN MITCHELL’S STATISTICS FROM “EUROPEAN HISTORICAL STATISTICS” (OR WHATEVER THE TITLE IS). MAKE INTO AN APPENDIX.


1 Robert E. May, "John A. Quitman and His Slaves: Reconciling Slave Resistance with the Proslavery Defense," Journal of Southern History 46 (Nov. 1980):554; Jurgen Kuczynski, The Rise of the Working Class (New York, 1967), p. 181, quoted in Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1976), p. 59; Edward P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1966), p. 231.

2 Peter Kolchin, Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1987), p. ix.

3 Being a historian of both American labor history and of African-American slavery, Herbert Gutman is a clear exception. As explained below, Genovese in Roll, Jordan, Roll does use the insights of E.P. Thompson on work discipline when analyzing the work ethic of the slaves, but this should not be seen as typical.

4 Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956), p. 31.

5 Joseph Arch, Joseph Arch The Story of His Life, ed. Countess of Warwick (London: Hutchinson & Co., 1898), pp. 376-377, 389.

6 R.M. Hartwell, et al, Eight Essays on Industrialization and 'the Condition of England' (n.p.: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1972).

7 Phyllis Deane, The First Industrial Revolution, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 2d ed., pp. 13, 22. Of course, E.A. Wrigley and R.S. Schofield's The Population History of England 1541-1871 (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1981) has revolutionized the subject of the growth of the English population during the eighteenth century by ingeniously projecting backwards from the 1871 census.

8 Planter Bennet Barrow noted the taking of the "Cencus" in his Diary on May 31, 1840: "Taking the Cencus of the United States--the products, cotten corn horses mules cattle Hogs sheep Potatoes Poultry, quantity cloth made, Fodder hay." Edwin Adams Davis, Plantation Life in the Florida Parishes of Louisiana, 1836-1846 as Reflected in the Diary of Bennet H. Barrow, Columbia University Studies in the History of American Agriculture, no. 9 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1943), p. 197. All sources quoted in this work have the literal language retained, regardless of what grammatical or spelling offenses they commit, with their original emphasis kept, unless otherwise noted.

9 For conditions in Northumberland, see Great Britain, Parliament, Parliamentary Papers (Commons), 1867-68, vol. xvii, Commission on the Employment of Children, Young Persons and Women in Agriculture, first report, p. xiv. The British Parliamentary Sessional Papers are hereafter referred to as BPP. This report itself below may be called simply "Commission on Employment in Agriculture."

10 This emphasis is disputable, especially when adopting Snell's approach of examining what the poor themselves considered important. Simply put, although food is a major part of the material standard of living, it is not so important to the overall quality of life, excluding true famine conditions. The distinction between the quality of life and the standard of living is developed below. See K.D.M. Snell, Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England, 1660-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 9-14.

11 Olmsted commented, during his travels in eastern Texas before the Civil War: "The meals are absolutely invariable . . . The bread is made of corn-meal, stirred with water and salt, and baked in a kettle covered with coals. The corn for breakfast is frequently unhusked at sunrise. . . . Wheat bread, if I am not mistaken, we met with but twice, out of Austin, in our whole journey across the State." Frederick Law Olmsted, The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller's Observations on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slave States, 2 vols. (New York: Mason Brothers, 1861), 1:368-69. While visiting Neu-Braunfels, Texas, he found no wheat in the market. Frederick Law Olmsted, The Slave States, ed. Harvey Wish (New York: Capricorn Books, 1959), p. 158.

12 Benjamin Drew, A North-side View of Slavery The Refugee: or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada (Boston: John P. Jewett and Co., 1856; reprint ed., New York: Johnson Reprint, 1968), pp. 71, 381. Olmsted, The Cotton Kingdom, 2:109. See also 1:102 and 2:172, 241. Testifying to the nearly universal racism of whites, North or South, racial slurs are quoted when found in the sources. B.A. Botkin, ed., Lay My Burden Down: A Folk History of Slavery (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945), p. 172; Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave Written by Himself (1845; reprint ed., New York: New American Library/Penguin, 1968), p. 28; Slavery in the United States: A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, a Black Man (New York: John S. Taylor, 1837; reprint ed., New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969), pp. 42-43.
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