Era 1 Exploration and Colonization (1492-1763) These objectives correlate to chapters 1, 2, and 3 in the American Vision, Vo

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Important Supreme Court Cases and Other Judicial Items
1. Marbury vs. Madison (1803) Established judicial review. The Supreme Court has the power to declare that laws are unconstitutional.
2. McCullough vs. Maryland (1819) Court decided that it was constitutional for Congress to charter a national bank.
3. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) Court decided that Congress could regulate interstate commerce.
4. Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1857) Court decided that slaves were property and could not seek freedom through the courts.
5. Jim Crow Laws (1876-1975) Laws in the United States that mandated segregation.
6. Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896) Separate but equal facilities were constitutional.
7. Scopes Monkey Trial (1925) Teacher John T. Scopes tried and found guilty for teaching evolution in a Tennessee classroom.
8. Sacco and Vanzetti Case (1927) Two Italian immigrants accused and executed for murder based on the fact that they were immigrants. This wasn’t a fair trial.
9. Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) Segregation ruled illegal.

Wars Involving the United States

Name of War








Other Important


French and Indian or the Seven Years War


  • France vs. Great Britain and Indians

  • Dispute over land


Of 1763

  • Ft. Duquesne

  • Ft. Necessity

  • Major George Washington

  • British Sec. of State William Pitt

  • Iroquois Confederacy (Natives who sided with France)

American Revolution


  • Great Britain vs. colonists

  • Britain needed money to pay war debt from French and Indian War

  • Taxation

  • Colonists wanted self-gov’t (Thomas Paine’s Common Sense)

  • Boston Massacre

Treaty of Paris of 1783

  • Colonists won their independence from Great Britain

  • Gained land east of the MS. River and south of the Great Lakes except for Florida

  • Rest of Europe recognized the independence of the United States

  • Lexington and Concord where first shots were fired

  • Bunker Hill was first battle

  • Saratoga (turning pt. in the war b/c France joined sides with colonists)

  • Valley Forge where George Washington’s troops almost froze to death

  • Yorktown was the last battle where colonists won their independence

  • Patriots (minutemen and Whigs) vs. Loyalists (Redcoats)

  • Patrick Henry

  • Samuel Adams

  • Paul Revere

  • Olive Branch Petition

  • Declaration of Independence

  • First and Second Continental Congresses

  • Navigation Acts

  • Writs of Assistance

  • Stamp Act

  • Intolerable Acts

  • Sons of Liberty

War of 1812


  • United States vs. Great Britain

  • Britain wouldn’t get off land

  • Britain backed by Indians

  • Unfavorable trade agreements

  • Impressments

  • Embargo Act of 1807

  • War Hawks in Congress pushed for war

  • New England threatened to separate from U.S.

Treaty of Ghent

  • U.S. and Britain agreed to return land boundaries to pre-war

  • Other nations recognized the rights of the U.S.

  • Horseshoe Bend

  • Ft. McHenry where Francis Scott Key wrote “Star Spangled Banner”

  • New Orleans where Andrew Jackson with the help of the Cherokee Indians became a war hero

  • President Jefferson signed Embargo Act

  • President Madison declared war

  • John C. Calhoun

  • Henry Clay

  • Nationalism

  • Tecumseh

Mexican-American War


  • President Polk believed in Manifest Destiny

  • Mexico wouldn’t sell California or Texas

  • Texas War of Independence

  • TX won but Mexico refused to honor agreements

  • 1845 TX joined with U.S.

Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo

  • U.S. got California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

  • Zachary Taylor became war hero and later became president in 1848

President Polk, Zachary Taylor

Civil War


  • 11 Southern States (Confederacy) vs. 23 Union States and 5 border states

  • Missouri Compromise

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Fugitive Slave Law

  • Election of Abraham Lincoln

  • States’ rights

  • Slavery

  • Nullification Crisis

  • Kansas – Nebraska Act

  • Dred Scott vs. Sanford

  • Reconstruction (1865-1877)

  • South loss and the 13th through 15th Amendments were passed

  • 13th (1865) abolishing slavery

  • 14th (1868) guaranteeing civil rights for all citizens

  • 15th (1870) allowing African-Americans to vote

  • Black Codes

  • Jim Crow Laws

  • Ft. Sumter where first shots were fired

  • Battle of Ironclads

  • Bull Run

  • Antietam was bloodiest battle

  • Gettysburg lasted three days

  • Vicksburg

President Lincoln and President Grant, McClellan, Grant, Tecumseh Sherman, Lee, Stonewall Jackson

  • Emancipation Proclamation

  • John Brown’s Raid

  • Secession

  • Draft

  • Sherman’s March

  • Scalawags

  • Carpetbaggers

  • Compromise of 1877

  • Anaconda Plan was Union’s plan to blockade the South

Spanish American War

April 1898-Decemeber 1898

  • imperialism

  • Cuba fought for independence form 1868-1878

  • Philippines fought for independence 1882-1897

  • Puerto Rico fought for independence 1880-1890

  • U.S. bought land in Cuba for sugar plantations

  • USS Maine explosion

  • Yellow journalism

  • Teller Amendment to leave Cuba alone after war

  • Platt Amendment to intervene to protect independence of Cuba

Treaty of Paris

  • U.S. entered Pacific

  • Paid 20 million for Philippines

  • Gained Puerto Rico and Guam

  • Cuba was released from Spain

Platt Amendment forced Cuban independence – no debt or treaties with other nations

Teddy Roosevelt and Rough Riders, President McKinley, George Dewey, William Jennings Bryan



  • O.A.G. vs. G.R.U.F.

  • MAIN

  • Militarism, alliance, imperialism, nationalism

  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

  • Unification of Germany

  • French resentment of losing territory

  • Russian Revolution

  • Germany competed against Great Britain for best military

  • Triple Entente (France, Great Britain, and Russia with U.S. joining in 1917 vs. Triple Alliance (or Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Italy)

  • Lusitania blown up by German U-Boats

  • Zimmerman Note

Treaty of Versailles

  • Europe redrawn

  • New nations created

  • Germany repay war debt and grows angrier with U.S.

  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  • League of Nations was created to peacefully solve problems

  • President Wilson

  • War of attrition

  • Armistice

  • Isolationism

  • Pacifism



  • Allies (Britain, USSR, and US) vs. Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)

  • Dictatorships

  • China in Civil War – Japan was trying to dominate

  • France scare of Italy – gave it Ethiopia

  • Hitler became leader in 1933

  • Germany went against Versailles Treaty and built up military then invaded and took over Czech and Poland

  • U.S. tried to stay neutral but Cash and Carry Act 1939 – gave money to China

  • US embargoed Japan

  • Germany invaded Africa then USSR

  • 1941 Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

1951 Treaty of Peace with Japan

  • US and Russia became leading world powers

  • Great Britain – Churchill

  • Russia (Civil War led to USSR) – Stalin

  • Italy – Mussolini

  • Germany – Hitler

  • Battle of Midway – Japan’s defeat

  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki – atomic bombs

  • D-day – (Doom’s Day) – success at Normandy

  • V-E Day – Victory in Europe 1945

  • President Franklin Roosevelt

Holocaust, concentration camps, Japanese Internment, war bonds, rationing

100 point options:

- Scrapbook of someone who lived during the time period depicting important characteristics of the era through the eyes of the person.

- Song with vocabulary words.

- Chapter Work

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