Era 1 Exploration and Colonization (1492-1763) These objectives correlate to chapters 1, 2, and 3 in the American Vision, Vo



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Era 1 - Exploration and Colonization (1492-1763)
These objectives correlate to chapters 1, 2, and 3 in the American Vision, Vol. 1 textbook.
COS 10:1 - Contrast effects of economic, geographic, social, and political conditions before and after European explorations of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries on Europeans, American colonists, and indigenous Americans. (pp. 12-25, 30-44, 50-81, 86-90, 98-99)


COS 10:1

Europeans

American Colonists

Indigenous Americans

Economic Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Economic Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Geographic Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Geographic Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Social Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Social Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Political Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations











Political Conditions and Their Effects Before European Explorations












COS 10:2 - Compare various early English settlements and colonies on the basis of economics, geography, culture, government, and Native American relations. (pp. 58-77, 84-109)


10:2

DATES OF ESTABLLISHMENT

Economy

Geography

Culture

Government

Native American Relations

New England Colonies:




New Hampshire




















Massachusetts




















Rhode Island




















Connecticut









































Middle Colonies:




New York




















New Jersey




















Pennsylvania




















Delaware









































Southern Colonies:




Maryland




















Virginia




















North Carolina




















South Carolina




















Georgia





















ERA 1 - YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
A. Contrast European motives for establishing colonies. (pp. 34-35, 46-47, 50-57, 58-64, 66-67, 73, 75-77)

B. Trace the course of the Columbian Exchange. (pp. 42-44)

C. Explain how the institution of slavery developed in the colonies. (pp. 30-31, 41-44, 74-75, 86-87, 89-90)

D. Describe conflicts among Europeans that occurred over the colonies. (pp. 41-42, 57)

E. Explain how mercantilism was a motive for exploration. (pp. 98-99)

F. Identify tensions that developed between colonies and their local governments and between the colonists and Great Britain. (pp. 68-71, 87-89, 99-101, 118-123)

G. Describe the influence of the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment on the colonies. (pp. 101-102, 108-109)

H. Explain how the role of the House of Burgesses and New England town meetings on colonial society. (pp. 58, 63, 73, 87-88, 94-95)

I. Describe the impact of the Great Awakening on colonial society. (pp. 108-109)

J. Analyze the impact of the Renaissance on European exploration. (pp. 36-37)

K. Describe Viking and Spanish exploration of North America. (pp. 38-43)

L. Summarize Columbus's journeys and their impact on North Americans and Europeans. (pp. 39-44)

M. Explain the early Spanish settlement of North America. (pp. 54-55)

N. Describe the colonial society in New France. (p. 56)

O. Explain the religious and economic reasons why England became interested in America. (pp. 58-62)

P. Describing the founding of Jamestown and explain why it succeeded. (pp. 62-64)

Q. Discuss why John Winthrop founded Massachusetts and describe the kind of society the Puritans built there. (pp. 67-69)

R. Describe why Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson left the Massachusetts colony. (pp. 69-70)

S. Discuss the ideas of William Penn and the Quakers, and describe the founding of Pennsylvania and Delaware. (pp. 74-76)

T. Summarize why English colonies succeeded. (pp. 76-77)

U. Describe the Southern economy and the plantation system. (pp. 84-86)

V. Outline the development of slavery in the South. (pp. 89-90)

W. List the geographical conditions that determined the economy of the New England colonies. (pp. 91-93)

X. Summarize how life in the Middle Colonies differed from life in the New England colonies. (pp. 93-97)

Y. Explain how the Glorious Revolution in England affected colonists. (pp. 100-102)

Z. Explain how the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening affected the colonies. (pp. 108-109)
ERA 1 - Essential Questions

1. What "discoveries" were made in America before 1600? Which of these led to colonization and which did not? What contributed to the success of these colonization efforts?

2. What did the Indian cultures contribute to the Europeans, and why, despite these contributions, did the invaders still think of the Native Americans as savages?



3. In what ways were the Spanish and English motives for colonization different? similar? How were these motives reflected in the organization of the colonies they established?

4. European colonization has often been said to have been motivated by "gold, God, and glory." Assess this interpretation of the motives behind the European colonization of America.



5. The arrival of Europeans in America resulted in a complex interaction of cultures. Explain how this interaction was harmful and/or beneficial to both Europeans and Native Americans.

6. How did the changes of the Virginia colony between 1607 and 1625 reveal the impact of New World conditions on English aims and expectations? How did the Virginia colonists adjust to American circumstances, and what sort of society developed as a result?

7. What do the causes of Bacon’s Rebellion suggest about the sociopolitical system of Virginia in the 1670s? Why was Bacon considered a hero by some and a traitor by others? What impact did the outcome of the “rebellion” have on Virginia politics?

8. How did the goals of the colonists settling in Massachusetts Bay differ from those of the Virginia colonists? How and why did these goals change in the first fifty years of the colony? How did opponents of these changes respond?



9. How did England apply the principles of mercantilism to its North American colonies, and how did the various colonial interests respond? What part did Spain’s American colonies play in English efforts?

10. Between 1660 and 1700, the American colonies were shaken by a series of “revolts,” of which Bacon’s Rebellion was only one. Compare and contrast the protests that took place in Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia, paying special attention to the internal divisions that helped spark the outbursts. What evidence do you find to suggest that what occurred was the result of tensions in colonial society?



11. How and why did the institution of slavery begin and develop in colonial America?

12. Compare and contrast the economy of the Northern colonies with that of the Southern colonies. What made the two regions develop as they did? How did these economic systems reflect social systems emerging at the same time?

13. How did the New England witchcraft episode reflect tensions in Puritan society? What were local officials trying to accomplish in bringing "witches" to trial?

14. What were the reasons for the revival movement known as the Great Awakening? What doctrines were preached by the ministers involved? How did colonists respond? What was the revival's impact on colonial life?


Chapter 1: Converging Cultures (pp. 10-47)

I. The Migration to America (pp. 12-17)

A. The Asian Migration to America (pp. 12-13)

1.


2.

3.

4.



5.

6.


7.

*How do scientists determine the origins of ancient people?

B. Early Civilizations of Mesoamerica (pp. 13-15)

1.

2.



3.

4.

5. The Olmec and the Maya



a.

b.


c.

d.


6. The Toltec and the Aztec

a.

b.



c.

d.

* How did the shift to agriculture allow early peoples to advance beyond mere survival?



C. North American Cultures (pp. 15-17)

1.

2. The Hohokam



a.

b.


3. The Anasazi

a.


b.

c.


d.

4. The Adena and Hopwell Cultures

a.

b.


c.

5. The Mississippian Culture

a.

b.


c.

d.


* By what route did agricultural technology spread from Mesoamerica into North America?

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Important Terms to Know:
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II. Native American Cultures (pp. 20-24)

A. The West (pp. 20-22)

1.

2. The Southwest



a.

b.


c.

d.


3. The Pacific Coast

a.


b.

c.
4. The Great Plains

a.

b.


c.

d.


B. The Far North (p. 22)

1.


2.

* What technologies did the Native Americans of the Far North develop?

C. The Eastern Woodlands (pp. 23-24)

1.
2. The Peoples of the Northeast

a.

b.


c.

d.


e.

f.


3. The Iroquois League

a.


b.

c.


d.

4. The Peoples of the Southeast

a.

b.


c.

* How did some Woodlands Native Americans increase their crop yield?

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Important Terms to Know:


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III. African Cultures (pp. 26-31)

A. West Africa (pp. 26-27)

1.


2. The Lay of the Land

a.


b.

c.


d.

e.


3. Islam and West African Civilizations

a.


b.

c.


4. The Lure of Gold

a.


b.

* Why were camels better than horses or oxen for traveling in the desert?

B. The Empires of West Africa (pp. 27-29)

1.


2. Ghana

a.


b.

c.


d.

3. Mali


a.

b.


c.

d.
4. Songhai

a.

b.


c.

d.


* Why did the empire of Ghana begin to decline?

C. The Forest Kingdom of Guinea (pp. 29-30)

1.

2.


3.

4.


D. Central and South Africa (p. 30)

1.


2.

3.


4.

* Why were the peoples of the Kongo able to produce food surpluses?

E. Slavery (pp. 30-31)

1.


2.

3. The Gold Trade

a.

b.


4. Sugar and Slavery

a.


b.

c.


d.

e.

* Why did the Europeans want slaves?



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Important Terms to Know:


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IV. European Cultures (pp. 32-37)

A. European Society (pp. 32-34)

1.


2.

3. Feudalism

a.

b.


4. The Manorial System

a.


b.

c.


d.

5. An Improving Economy

a.

b.


6. The Church

a.


b.

* What was the social order in Europe during the Middle Ages?

B. Expanding Horizons (pp. 34-35)

1.

2.



3.

4.


5.

6.


* Describe the effects of the Crusades in Europe.
C. New States, New Technology (pp. 35-37)

1.


2.

3. Strong States Emerge

a.

b.


4. The Renaissance Spurs Discoveries

a.

b.



5. New Technology

a.


b.

c.

d.



* What political and technological developments made it possible for Europeans to begin exploring the world?

D. Portuguese Exploration (p. 37)

1.

2.


* How did Henry the Navigator help encourage exploration?

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Important Terms to Know:
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V. Europe Encounters America (pp. 38-44)

A. The Vikings Arrive in America (pp. 38-39)

1.


2.

3.


* How do we know that Columbus was not the first European in the Americas?

B. Spain Sends Columbus West (pp. 39-41)

1.

2. A New Geography



a.

b.


c.

3. Columbus's Plan

a.

b.


c.
4. The First Voyage

a.


b.

c.

d.



e.

f.

5. Columbus's Later Voyage



` a.

b.

c.



d.

e.

C. Spain Claims America (pp. 41-43)



1.

2. The Treaty of Tordesillas

a.

b.

c.



d.
3. Naming America
a.

b.


4. Continuing Spanish Expeditions

a.


b.

c.

* Why was the Treaty of Tordesillas important?



D. The Columbian Exchange (pp. 43-44)

1.

2. From America to Europe



a.

b.


c.

d.

* Why did millions of Native Americans die as a result of contact with Europeans?



___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Important Terms to Know:


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 2 - Colonizing America (pp. 48-81)

I. The Spanish and French Build Empires (pp. 50-57)

A. The Conquest of Mexico (pp. 50-52)

1.

2. The Spanish Encounter the Aztec



a.

b.

3. The Invasion Begins



a.

b.

c.



d.

e.

f.



g.

4. Cortes Defeats the Aztec

a.

b.

c.



d.

e.

* What was the purpose of Hernan Cortés's expedition to Mexico?


B. New Spain Expands (pp. 52-54)

1.


2. Pizarro Conquers the Inca

a.


b.

c.


3. Searching for Cities of Gold

a.


b.

c.
4. The Spanish Settle the West

a.

b.


c.

d.


e.

* Where did most people who colonized the southwest part of North America come from?

C. Spanish American Society (pp. 54-55)

1.


2. The Encomienda System

a.


b.

3. A Society Based on Class

a.

b.


c.

4. Mining and Ranching

a.

b.

* Why did the Spaniards set up mines and cattle ranches in northern Mexico?



D. The French Empire in America (pp. 55-56)

1.


2. France Explores America

a.


b.

3. New France is Founded

a.

b.

4. Life in New France



a.

b.

* Why did King Francis I of France send Verrazano and Cartier to America?



E. New France Expands (pp. 56-57)

1.


2.

3. Exploring the Mississippi

a.

b.

4. Settling Louisiana



a.

b.

c.



5. Rivalry with Spain

a.

b.



* Why did the French establish forts and settlements along the Mississippi River?
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Important Terms to Know:


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

II. English Colonies in America (pp. 58-64)

A. England Takes Interest in America (pp. 58-61)

1.


2.

3.


4. The Reformation Divided Europe

a.

b.



5. The Reformation Changes England

a.

b.



c.

d.

e.



6. Economic Changes in England

a.

b.



c.

d.

* Why did many Puritans become willing to leave England?



B. England Returns to America (pp. 61-62)

1.

2.



3.

4. Gilbert and Raleigh

a.

b.

c.



5. The Lost Colony of Roanoke

a.

b.



* Why did England want to establish outposts in England?

C. Jamestown is Founded (pp. 62-64)

1.

2.

3. Early Troubles



a.

b.

c.



d.

e.

f.



g.

h.

4. Tobacco Saves the Colony



a.

b.

5. The First Assembly



a.

b.

6. Headrights Lure Settlers



a.

b.

7. Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony



a.

b.

* How did Captain John Smith and the Powhatan Confederacy save Jamestown?



D. Maryland is Founded (p. 64)

1.


2.

3.

4.



5.

* Why did Lord Baltimore found Maryland?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Important Terms to Know:


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

III. New England (pp. 66-71)

A. The Pilgrims Land at Plymouth (pp. 66-67)

1.

2. The Mayflower Arrives in America



a.

b.

3. Plymouth Colony



a.

b.

* How did Squanto help the Pilgrims



B. The Puritans Found Massachusetts (pp. 67-69)

1.

2. A City on a Hill



a.

b.

c.



3. Church and State

a.

b.



c.

d.

e.



* How did John Winthrop's religious beliefs affect the way Massachusetts Bay Colony was governed?

C. Rhode Island and Religious Dissent (pp. 69-70)

1.

2. Roger Williams Founds Providence



a.

b.

c.



d.

3. Anne Hutchinson is Banished

a.

b.

c.



4. The Colony of Rhode Island

a.

b.



* Why were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts?

D. The River Towns of Connecticut (pp. 70-71)

1.

2.

3.



4.

5.

* How did the Connecticut and Massachusetts constitutions differ?



E. New Hampshire and Maine (p. 71)

1.

2.



* What two colonies were established north of Massachusetts?

F. King Philip's War (p. 71)

1.

2.

* In what way was King Philip's Was a turning point for Native Americans and settlers in New England?



___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Important Terms to Know:


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

IV. The Middle and Southern Colonies (pp. 72-77)

A. The English Civil War and the Colonies (pp. 72-73)

1.

2.



3. The Colonies Choose Sides

a.

b.



c.

4. Colonization Resumes

a.

b.

* What started the English Civil War?



B. New Netherland Becomes New York (pp. 73-74)

1.

2. The History of New Netherland



a.

b.

c.



d.

3. New York and New Jersey

a.

b.

* Why did King Charles II want to seize New Netherland from the Dutch?



C. Pennsylvania and Delaware (pp. 74-76)

1.

2.



3. The Quakers

a.

b.



4. The "Holy Experiment"

a.

b.



c.

d.

e.



* Why did William Penn regard Pennsylvania as a "holy experiment"?

D. New Southern Colonies (pp. 76-77)

1.

2. North Carolina



a.

b.

3. South Carolina



a.

b.

4. The Georgia Experiment



a.

b.

c.



d.

5. England's American Colonies

a.

b.

* Why were South Carolina and Georgia settled?



___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Important Terms to Know:


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