B. NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS
The Contributor (Salt Lake City), 1893.
Harper's Weekly (New York), 1859.
Juvenile Instructor (Salt Lake City), 1904.
The Improvement Era (Salt Lake City), 1908, 1914, 1915.
Valley Tan (Camp Floyd, Utah), 1858.
C. SECONDARY SOURCES
Brown, James S. Giant of the Lord. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1960.
Hanks, Harriet Decker Little. Descendants of Ephraim K. Hanks. Provo, Utah: Copy Cat Printers, 1959.
Hanks, N. C. Men of the Rockies. New York: N. C. Hanks, 1944.
Hanks, Sidney Alvarus, and Hanks, Ephraim K. Scouting for the Mormons on the Great Frontier. Salt Lake City: Deseret Press, 1948.
Hitchcock, Caroline Hanks. Nancy Hanks. New York: Doubleday and McClure Company, 1889.
Jensen, Andrew. "Church Emigration; Ephraim K. Hanks' Narrative," The Contributor, XIV (1893), 202-203.
Kimball, Solomon F. "King of the Western Scouts," The Improvement Era, XVIII (1914-1915), 103-111, 209-217, 316-325.
_________. "Our Pioneer Boys," The Improvement Era, XI (1908), 839.
Lazenby, Moroni. Personal interview. April 2, 1933.
Little, James H. Biographical Sketch of Feramorz Little. Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor, 1898.
Roberts, B. H. A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints. Vol. III, IV. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1930.
Tullidge, Edward W. The History of Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City: Edward Tullidge, 1886.
________. Tullidge's Histories. Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor, 1889.
EPH HANKS, PIONEER SCOUT
Richard K. Hanks
Department of Church History and Doctrine
M. A. Degree, April 1973
Ephraim K. Hanks was a rugged frontiersman dedicated to Brigham Young and the Mormon church who underscored his commitment in building the kingdom through courageous feats and daring ingenuity. He was a scout and a frontier mailman, completing fifty round trips between Salt Lake City and the Missouri River. Few men knew that stretch of wilderness better than he. Among non-Mormons he thought to be one of Brigham Young's "Destroying Angels," a "vile villain," and a "Mormon Desperado."
During the first five decades of the Mormon Church in the Mountain West, he contributed generously to its growth in the fields of Indian affairs, communication, military campaigns, peace keeping, mining and homesteading. He is probably best known for his rescue of the snowbound handcart companies on the Sweetwater in 1856. His major contribution to history lay in his ability to take the dreams of his leaders and spark them into reality. He was singularly suited for this role in a frontier setting. His life experiences are a study of Mormon history highlights during these years.
COMMITTEE APPROVAL: Milton V. Backman, Jr., Committee Chairman
Russell R. Rich, Committee Member
LaMar C. Berrett, Department Chairman
The writer gratefully acknowledges the willing assistance rendered him by Dr. Milton V. Backman, Jr., and Dr. Russell R. Rich in the preparation of this thesis. Without their patience and long-suffering this work might not have fruition.
Also the service rendered by the Church Historian's Office in Salt Lake City for over a decade while researching this project has been invaluable.
To the scores of relatives and friends who have been plagued with letters and interviews the writer owes a debt of gratitude.
A special acknowledgment is due the writer's father, E. Kay Hanks, who along with Sidney Alvarus Hanks, initiated this investigation long before the writer's interest in it, and who unselfishly opened their files to him.
Appreciation is expressed to Carolyn Kirkham for her excellent work in typing the final manuscript.
And, but for the patience and understanding of his wife, Suzan, during long hours of solitary confinement; the project might yet be in the planning stage.