Environmental resource conservation (erc) erc 103: applied mathematics for natural resources management



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ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION (ERC)
ERC 103: APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Fundamental techniques/basic sets of algebra; equations and inequalities and their applications in natural resource management; functions, matrices, systems of equations, linear programming, and differential and integral calculus, and their applications in the natural resource management.

ERC 104: ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

Biogeochemical cycles; Biotic and abiotic Components of the Ecosystem, Energy Flow in Ecosystems; Ecological Niche ;Ecological Succession; Population and Community Evolution. Aquatic Ecosystems: Ecological Tools and Techniques


ERC 105: INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL RESOURCES

Introduction to natural resources: types of natural resources, renewable and non-renewable;

Roles and significant of natural resources; environmental, economic social and cultural; Natural resource management and conservation: Historical and current issues facing management; integrated natural resource management; goals and principles. Opportunities and challenges.
ERC 106: PHYSICAL SCIENCES FOR NATURAL RESOURCES

Basic concepts and general overview in physics in - interrelatedness and interdependence within natural resources; matter; force and motion, laws of thermodynamics; waves and their properties; gas laws; radiation and radioactivity, determination of half-life and radioactive decay; concepts on energy and renewable energy. Practical/lab/field trip



ERC 107: INTRODUCTION TO AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Description of various agro-ecosystems; Relationship between agro-ecosystems and natural resources; Soil (inherent soil constraints, status and change in soil quality, soil organic matter, soil nutrient balance); Water (supply for rainfed agriculture, irrigation use, potential water quality effects, effect of agriculture on water supply); Biodiversity (natural habitat conservation, pressure on protected lands, habitat quality in agricultural areas, agro-biodiversity); Carbon services (vegetation, soil, C based greenhouse gas emission from agriculture).



ERC 108: NATURAL RESOURCE UTILISATION AND MANAGEMENT

Understanding law as a concept; Formulation and implementation of natural resource laws; Dynamics of selected natural resource law; land ,water and sanitation, forests and wildlife; challenges and opportunities in implementation of various natural resource laws in Kenya, case studies.



LEVEL 200

ERC 203: CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION

Culture and environment; cultural attributes; culture and ethnicity in Kenya; cultural diversity and traditional uses of natural resources in Kenya; social structures and social control; relationships between art, language, religion and natural resources; indigenous knowledge systems; traditional resource management systems; land tenure systems; use, management and problems of communal resources; cultural change; poverty and resource use; sustainable use concept; culture and development; culture and conservation; case studies of various peoples in Kenya.



ERC 207: ENERGY RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION

Overview on energy supply and consumption, globally and locally; energy sources and sustainability, criteria for sustainable energy; the geologic limits of fossil fuels, the peak-oil debate, the validity and implications of the Hubbert’s theory on oil production; the environmental limits of fossil fuels, energy and global climate change, biomass energy and natural resource degradation; opportunities and limits for non-fossil energy, Kenya as a potential oil producing country- prospects and challenges for resource conservation; policy fundamentals to enable transition to non-fossil energy globally and locally; case studies.



ENS 241: BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

Conception of biodiversity; categorization of biodiversity: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity; inventorying and measuring biodiversity; threatened plant and animal species; uses of biodiversity; biodiversity and natural resource conservation; indigenous knowledge of biodiversity; climate change and biodiversity; biotechnology and biodiversity; biodiversity prospecting; Convention of Biological Diversity CBD) and related international treaties.



ENS 242: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Causes of climate change and global warming; detection of climate change and global warming; climate change models and scenarios; impact of climate change on the environment; responses to climate change at local, national, regional and international levels; mechanisms for resolving climate change related issues; climate change policies and interventions; carbon trading; climate and development.



ERC 211: INTRODUCTION TO FORESTRY RESOURCES

Extent and distribution of forests:, Natural forests and woodlands, Forest plantations, Forest products, tangible and intangible; wood and wood products, wood based industries; Non-wood forest products, subsistence use, commercial use, import and export trade of forest products, environmental services; policy and institutional issues.



ERC 212: INTRODUCTION TO WATER AND MARINE RESOURCES

Water characteristics: chemistry, physical properties and distribution; origin of seas; sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics; marine geology and morphology; ocean processes: tides, waves, oceanic circulation and currents; the ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms: rocky, sandy, muddy shores; marine ecosystems: mangroves, grass beds, coral reefs and kelp forests; benthic and pelagic organisms: phytoplankton, zooplankton and nekton; marine invertebrates, fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals; marine productivity and fisheries; marine resources: types and distribution, inventory; marine resources and management; national policy and legislation on marine resources;



ERC 213: INTRODUCTION TO WILDLIFE RESOURCES

Wild plants and animals; as a natural resource; Habitats of those resources in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological, cultural and social Economic values wildlife resources. Cause of degradation of resources. Methods of restoration. Government policies and law on wildlife resources. One week field course to study wildlife resources.



ERC 214: INTRODUCTION TO MINERAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION

Importance of Mineral Resources Development; Types of minerals and their uses; Distribution and Depletion of minerals; Mining and Sustainable Development; Guidelines for rational use and conservation of raw minerals; Importance of conservation; Environmental Protection and Management of Mineral Resources;



ERC 215: NATURAL RESOURCE MAPPING AND CARTOGRAPHY

Introduction to basic concepts and applications of geographic information systems. Spatial analysis systems; applications of G.I.S. technology to natural resource systems; spatial analysis systems; applications of GIS on natural resource systems; spatial data entry; data compilation; and map output; basic concepts on cartography



LEVEL 300

ESU 301: ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND LAW
Understanding policy and law as concepts; Ethics in environmental policy and management; Principles of environmental policy and law; International Environmental Convention, Protocols and Treaties; Environmental Management and Coordination Act: Challenges and opportunities in environmental policy and law enforcement (EMCA 1999); Case studies.
ESU 302: STATISTICS

Importance of statistics; scales of measurements; statistical concepts; sampling procedures and organization of data; measures of central tendency and dispersion and relative position, formal distribution and measure of relationships; measure of significance of differences between two means in a research study (t-test); measurement of standard error incurred during a research study.



ESU 304: RESEARCH METHODS

Environmental research problem; research design and study scope; the research process: definition of the problem, formulation of objectives and hypotheses, literature review, methodology, sampling procedures and instruments, data collection and analysis, results presentation and interpretation, conclusions and recommendation; report and abstract writing; publication preparation; role of modelling in research; seminar preparation and presentation techniques.



ESU 305: ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS

Theory of environmental economics: resource use and allocation, opportunities and constraints in economic development; environment as a public good; externalities; efficiency versus social consideration; political economy of resource use and environmental management; public and private conflicts in resource use; economic and cost-benefit analysis of utilization of environmental resources; valuation techniques for market and non-market environmental goods and services; integration of environment in economic management and development.



ERC 302: SOIL MANAGEMENT

Nature and properties of tropical soils and their relationships to plant growth; nutrient cycling; soil organic matter and its role in plant nutrition; acid and salt affected soils; macro- and micro-nutrients; mineral fertilisers and agrochemicals and their impact on environment; manures and general aspects of fertility management.



ERC 304: AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES

Definition and historical development of agroforestry; systems description: machinery, functions and interactions: farm, social and community forestry; spatial and temporal arrangements; benefits of agroforestry: environmental conservation, shelter provision, food security, livestock management and energy enhancement; agroforestry technologies: development, transfer and use; sustainability of agroforestry systems; multipurpose trees and shrubs; agroforests



ERC 306: ATTACHMENT/ PRACTICUM

The aim of the field practicum is to enhance awareness of physical and human environment. The field practicum will enable students to be attached to institutions as part of the workforce. Students will learn to utilize skills and techniques necessary to understand and solve environmental problems. The practicum will normally last for duration of three months and be supervised THREE times. The practicum will be graded according to the University Regulations.



ERC 316: MULTIPLE USE FOREST MANAGEMENT

Multi-use forest management; multiple values of forests: biodiversity conservation, water production, carbon sequestration, timber production and non-wood forest products; Forest fire management including fires risks, fire ecology.



ERC 321 WATER AND MINERAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Aquatic systems; physical alterations; mechanisms of interaction; land use and planning concepts; biological resources of lakes, rivers, estuaries, and the sea; human impact on aquatic environments; nutrients and cultural eutrophication; pesticides; heavy metals; petrochemicals; industrial wastes; laboratory and field study and analysis of natural resources.



ENS 331: REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Concepts and foundations; energy interaction in the atmosphere and with earth features; data acquisition; photographic and electronic data types; platforms and sensors; data processing; film spectral sensitivity and processing - black and white colour films; colour concepts; fundamentals of aerial photography, imagery interpretations and mapping; earth resource satellite and sensors (Landsat, SPOT, NOAA,Radarsat, and others); applications in environmental monitoring and management.



ELECTIVES

ESU 303: PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

ERC 307: NATURAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Concepts; types: droughts, floods, strong winds, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes, lightening, epidemics, warfare, refugees and accidents; origin and causes: climatic, geological, biological; influence of human activities; impacts of disasters; disaster monitoring and response; coping with disasters; post-disaster mitigation; training for emergency operations; local, regional and international institutions.


ERC 309: URBAN FORESTRY

Propagation techniques of ornamental perennial plants; silviculture of urban forest; roles of forest in urban areas: control of air pollution; aesthetic value, control of flooding, firewood and biodiversity conservation; open spaces; threats to urban forestry. Propagation, inventory and management; threats to urban forestry, urban tree regulations and ordinances.


ERC 312: ENVIRONMENTAL AESTHETICS

Basic concepts of aesthetics; beauty; form; harmony; environmental perception; value formation; aesthetic awareness; aesthetic response to quality of environment; degradation and conservation of aesthetic quality; landscaping; landfills.



LEVEL400

ESU 400: ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT AND PEACE BUILDING

Causes, dynamics, and consequences of natural resource and environmental conflicts; procedural interventions to manage conflicts; practical application of dispute resolution theories; case studies for public lands management; air and water pollution regulation; solid and hazardous wastes; wildlife and human conflicts; endangered species management, and community planning.


ERC 413: ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE

Characteristics of different agricultural systems; traditional modern, nomads, ranching, intercropping, agroforestry, shifting cultivation, and improved fallows; impact of different agricultural systems on the environment; current trends in farming systems in Kenya; food security, pre- and post-harvest losses; food storage and processing techniques.


ERC 402: ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMMES DEVELOPMENT

Concept; rationale; nature and scope; development strategies, processes and approaches; situational analysis; problem identification; formulating programme; classification and criteria for defining objectives; preparing work plan; implementation, monitoring and evaluation; types, instruments, organisation, and management issues in evaluation; re-examining the Situation.


ERC 403: LAND MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION

Land as a resource; management and planning of land; land use policies and tenure systems; legislation and resource assessment; conservation of land, landscape, natural vegetation and soils; degradation of the resources; degraded lands; rural and forest lands; practical indices for monitoring and evaluating land degradation in Kenyan habitats; the economic of rehabilitation; rural resource management; conservation farming, farm planning and multiple use of land.



ERC 404: COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Concepts and techniques in community participation; participatory rural appraisal, problem identification; community resource management and conflict resolutions; collaborative resource management; the role of different stakeholder in management of resources.enabling environment for collaborative management; constraints and pitfalls; gender issues.



ERC 405: ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE ACCOUNTING

Introduction to systems of integrated environmental and economic accounts (SEEA); the accounting structure of the SEEA; physical flow accounts; hybrid flow accounts; accounting for economic activities and products related to the environment; accounting for environmentally related transactions, making environmental adjustments to the flow accounts; applications and policy use of the SEEA.



ERC 406: RESEARCH PROJECT (2 UNITS)

ERC408: The project involves research on a topic selected by the student in consultation with the departmental supervisor. Research may include field, laboratory, and studio or library component and is carried out under the supervisor’s guidance. The student is required to collect data, interpret it and write up a report that will be examined.



ERC 407: HUMAN SETTLEMENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Principles of ekistics; rural and urban settlements; settlement schemes; urbanisation process: past, present and future; human settlement problems and policies and programs created to tackle them; settlements and provision of infrastructure and basic services; urban sprawl and mushrooming of urban slums and squatter/informal settlements; challenges of housing the urban poor; environmental guidelines for urban development.


ERC 408: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION


Concept of biotechnology; general objectives and application in agriculture and forestry; cultural tools and techniques; rapid clonal propagation; scope and application of in vitro technologies in breeding; genetic engineering; economic and legal aspects; tissue culture; cloning; application of molecular biology techniques in the food industry; application of recombinant DNA techniques in environmental protection; ethical considerations in regard of DNA manipulations.

ELECTIVES
ERC 409: NON- FORMAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Concepts of non-formal education; channel for non-formal education; extension service; non-government organisations; mass and electronic media; social groups; role of informed citizen and pressure groups in environmental awareness and conservation; institutions.



ERC 410: ADVOCACY AND NETWORKING IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION (NEW)

Principles and concepts of environmental advocacy and networking; social fragmentation and exclusion; community environmental rights; environment and common property rights; barriers to access; rules, regulations and information; powerlessness and poverty; social fragmentation; community networking; community negotiation skills; civil society institutions; non-governmental organisations; community based organisations; neighbourhood and kinship networks.



ERC 411: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENT

Concept and mechanisms of biological control; applications of biological control in biodiversity resources and disease vectors; use and abuse of micro and macro-organisms against pests; genetic engineering in biological control; environmental effects of biological control; environmental management and pest control.



ERC 414: AGROMETEOROLOGY

Effects of weather on agriculture: hailstones, frost, flooding, drought: crop water requirement; evapotranspiration: water balance of crops; drought coping strategies; aridity and semi-aridity, analysis of meteorological data in relation to agricultural applications; monitoring and early warning systems for adverse climatic conditions


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