Enlightenment Notes



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Enlightenment Notes


  • Enlightenment- 18th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the scientific revolution.


Philosophes (philosopher) intellectuals of the enlightenment


  • Isaac Newton- Natural laws that governed the physical world

  • Thomas Hobbes- humans were guided by a ruthless struggle for self preservation

    • Government was made so people did not destroy one another

      • Led by an absolute ruler with absolute power to preserve order

  • John Locke- people were molded by their experiences around the world. If environments changed then people could change

  • Montesquieu- Studied different governments and found three basic types of governments

  • Voltaire- “all men are brothers under God”

  • Diderot- Created the Encyclopedia

  • Adam Smith- believed that people should pursue their own economic self-interest and that society would ultimately benefit from this.

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau- wrote The Social Contract people agree to be governed by general will

  • Mary Wollstonecraft- believed that women deserved the same rights as men


Spread of Enlightenment ideas


  • Print- many ideas were put in print through books, magazines and newspapers

  • Salons- elegant rooms of the wealthy upper class.

    • Guest had to be invited and took part in conversations about enlightenment ideas

Enlightenment Notes


  • Enlightenment- 18th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the scientific revolution.


Philosophes (philosopher) ________________________________


  • Isaac Newton- ______________ that governed the physical world

  • ______________________- humans were guided by a ruthless struggle for self preservation

    • Government was made __________________________

_________________________________

      • Led by an absolute ruler with absolute power to preserve order

  • __________________- people were molded by their experiences around the world. If environments changed then people could change

    • People had natural rights- ______________________

    • Born with natural rights

    • Government was ______________________________

  • Montesquieu- Studied different governments and found three basic types of governments

    • ___________________- good for small states

    • ___________________- appropriate for larger states

    • ___________________- used in moderate-sized states

      • Functioned through ________________________

      • ________________________________________

  • Voltaire- “all men are brothers under God”

  • Diderot- Created the Encyclopedia

    • Meant to change the way people thought

  • ___________________- believed that people should pursue their own economic self-interest and that society would ultimately benefit from this.

    • ______________________- government should not interfere with economics

    • Government should only have three basic roles

      • _____________- to protect from invasion

      • Police- __________________________________

      • Public works- roads, canals etc

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau- wrote The Social Contract, people agree to be governed by general will

  • Mary Wollstonecraft- believed that women deserved the same rights as men


Spread of Enlightenment ideas


  • Print- many ideas were put in print through ______________

__________________________________

  • Salons- elegant rooms of the wealthy upper class.

    • Guest had to be invited and took part in conversations about enlightenment ideas

Name_____________________________
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. Immanuel Kant was a German thinker of the Enlightenment.
Have courage to use your own intelligence! That is the motto of the Enlightenment….

All that it required for this enlightenment is freedom; and particularly the least harmful of all that may be called freedom, namely the freedom fro man to make public use of his reason in all matters. But I hear people clamor on all sides: “Don’t argue!” The officer says: “Don’t argue, drill!” The tax collector; “Don’t argue, pay!” The pastor: “Don’t argue, believe!”….Here we have restrictions on freedom everywhere. Which restriction is hampering Enlightenment, and which does not or even promotes it? I answer; the public use of a man’s reason must be free at all times, and this alone can bring Enlightenment among men.


Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” 1784


  1. What does Kant believe is necessary in order to spread the ideas of the Enlightenment?




  1. Why does Kant mention the officer, the tax collector, and the pastor?




  1. Why does Kant believe that the public use of reason is “the least harmful of all that may be called freedom”?




  1. Why do you think Kant tells people to have the courage to use their own intelligence?




  1. Describe how Kant’s words embody the spirit of the Enlightenment?


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