English History Timeline



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43 AD
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410

-PREHISTORY-(JULIUS CAESAR) PROVINCE OF ‘BRITANNIA’ IS RULED BY A SERIES OF ROMAN GOVERNORS.

c250,000BC –c1,800BC- Old, Middle and New STONE AGES c1,8000BC-c600BC

BRONZE AGE c600BC-43AD- IRON AGE 55/54bBC- Julius Caesar makes raids on the island, but withdraws, “revealing rather than bequeathing, Britain to Rome” (Taticus)

43- Romans land and begin conquest of ‘Britannia’. Major citys to emerge include Londinium ( London), Eboracum (York), Camulodonum (Colchester), Aquae Sulis (Bath), Deva (Chester), Lindum (Lincoln), and Corinium Dobunnorum (Cirencester)

c60- British Queen Boudica revolts against romans 122-construction of HADRIAN’S WALL begins 143-Antonie Wall began

c208- Alban, earliest known British Christian martyr, 211-death of severus c313-Emperor Constantine recognises CHRISTIANITY

c300-340- the so-called ‘Golden Age’ of Roman Britain, the province being largely self-sufficient and economically prosperous

410-Emperor Honorius refuses to help Britain against the attacking Anglo-Saxons, and the Romans formally abandon the island

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c410-c650

DARK AGES’

c400’s-c600’s – Little solid recorded History, as Anglo-Saxons, from North Germany, continue to settle and form their kingdoms,

c-500-

(KING ARTHUR)

c500-c515 – Legendary ‘Heroic Age of Chivalry’ as Romano-British King Arthur successfully contests Anglo-Saxon expansion,

c650-c830

SEVEN KINGDOMS

c600’s – ‘The Saxon Heptarchy’ – Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Sussex, Essex, Kent and East Anglia, 787- Beginning of Viking raids ,

829-839

EGBERT

829- Egbert, Saxon King of Wessex, becomes ‘Overlord’ of all England, 853-Vikings occupy London, c866-Vikings capture York,

871-899

ALFRED

870’s-890’s-Famous King ALFRED THE GREAT subdues and Christianises the Vikings, dividing the country’s rule under ‘Danelaw’

924-940

ATHELSTAN

937-Athelstan defeats combined Vikings and Scots at BRUNANBURH, 930’S0 King raises age for execution of children from 12 to 15,

940-978

5 ‘BOY KINGS’

940-46 – Edmund The Elder, 946-55- Edred, 955-59 0 Edwy The Fair, 959-75 – Edgar The Peaceful, 975-78 – Edward The Martyr,

978-1013

ETHELRED

1013 - ETHELRED THE UNREADY(ie “ill advised”) flees, deposed by Sweyn Forkbeard The Dane, 1014 – Ethelred briefly restored,

1013-1014

FORKBEARD

1013- Forkbeard mounts a full scale invasion of England and gains recognition as its King, 1014- Death of Forkbeard

1016-1035

CANUTE

1016 – King Canute, son of Forkbeard The Dane, takes possession of the throne, and rules over England, Denmark and Norway,

1042-1066

EDWARD

1050’s Pious King Edward ‘The Confessor’ makes William of Normandy heir, c1050 – King establishes Palace and Abbey at Westminster,

1066

HAROLD

1066 – BATTLE OF HASTINGS, 1066 – Battles of Fulford and Stamford Bridge (nr. York) weaken Harold Godwinson’s army before Hastings

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1066-1087

WILLIAM I

c1086 –THE DOOMESDAY BOOK commissioned, 1069-70 – The ‘Devastation of The North’, 1078 – Building of White Tower of London begins,

1087-1100

WILLIAM II

1090’s – Son of ‘The Conqueror’ is an unpopular tyrant, 1100 – William II thought to be murdered while hunting in New Forest,

1100-1135

HENRY I

1120 – Henry I loses only son William in the WHITE SHIP TRAGEDY in English Channel, and nominates daughter Matilda as heir,

1135-1154

STEPHEN

1130’s-1150’s – Stephen, Henry I’s nephew, seizes throne, but after civil war accepts Matilda’s son, Henry PLANTAGENET as heir



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1154-1189

HENRY II

1170- Martyrdom of THOMAS A BECKETT at Canterbury, 1173 – King’s son, Henry ‘The Young King’, leads revolt against his father,

1189-1199

RICHARD I

1190’s – ‘The Lionheart’ absent for all but six months of reign fighting Crusades, 1189 – Jews banned from Coronation of King,

1199-1216

JOHN

1215 – THE MAGNA CARTER, 1204 – Loss of Normandy, 1209 – John ex- communicated, 1209 – Construction of fist stone London Bridge,

1216-1272

HENRY III

1220’s-1240’s – much of present Tower of London, inc. ‘Bloody Tower’, built, 1269 – Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey completed,

1272-1307

EDWARD I

1270’s-1330’s – Kings attempt conquest of Scotland and Wales, 1296 – ‘STONE OF SCONE’ brought to Westminster Abbey,

1307-1327

EDWARD II

1314 – Robert the Bruce defeats the English at BATTLE OF BANNOKBURN, 1327 – Edward II deposed after riots in City of London,

1327-1377

EDWARD III

1337 – Beginning of ‘HUNDERED YEARS WAR’ with the French, 1349 – The ‘BLACK DEATH’ kills approx. 35% of population,

1377-1399

RICHARD II

1381 – Wat Tyler and John Ball lead ‘PESANTS REVOLT’ against ‘poll taxes’, 1318-1400 – Chaucer writes ‘The Canterbury Tales’

1399-1413

HENRY IV

1399 – Henry ‘Bolingbroke’ of the house of Lancaster, deposes Richard II, 1400 – Richard II murdered (?) at Pontefract Castle,

1413-1422

HENRY V

1415 – BATTLE OF AGINCOURT, 1420 – Treaty of Troyes with French, 1421 – Henry V marries Queen Catherine of Valois,

1422-1461

HENRY VI

1455-87 – WARS OF THE ROSES, 1429 – Joan of Ark relieves Siege of Orleans, 1453 – Hundred years war with France effectively ends,

1461-1483

EDWARD IV

1461 – Edward IV becomes first King of the House of York, 1476 – WILLIAM CAXTON sets up a printing press at Westminster,

1483

EDWARD V

1483 – ‘PRINCES OF THE TOWER’, Edward V (aged 12) and his brother Richard ( aged 9), murdered on orders of their uncle, Richard III (?)

1483-1485

RICHARD III

1485 – Richard III is slain at the BATTLE OF BOSWORTH (Leicestershire), defeated by Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), Earl of Richmond


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1485-1509

HENRY VII

1490’s – King makes treaties with French and Scots, 1486 – King marries Elizabeth of York, 1492 – Columbus discovers New Word

1509-1547

HENRY VIII

1534-9 – THE REFORMATION, 1535 – execution of Sir Thomas More, 1536 – Robert Aske leads the PILGIMAGE OF GRACE

1547-1553

EDWARD VI

1549 – First Church of England Prayer Book authorised, 1553 – protestant LADY JANE GREY is Queen from 10-19 July (executed 1554)

1553-1558

MARY I

1550’s – ‘Bloody Mary’ attempts to restore Catholicism, 1554 – Queen marries King Philip of Spain, 1558 – loss of Calais to French

1558-1603

ELIZABETH I

1588 – DEFEAT OF SPANISH ARMADA, 1577-80 – Drake sails around the World, 1587 – execution of MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

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1603-1625

JAMES I

1605 – Gunpowder Plot, 1611 – Authorised version of The Bible, 1618 – Raleigh executed, 1620 – Pilgrim Fathers set sail in Mayflower

1625-1649

CHARLES I

1642-9 – ENGLISH CIVIL WAR, 1644 – siege of York, 1644 – Battle of Marston Moor, 1649 – Charles I executed at Whitehall

1649-1660

CROMWELL

1649 – The ‘Commonwealth’ established, 1653 – Cromwell made Lord Protector, 1658- Cromwell dies, succeeded by his son Richard

1660-1685

CHARLES II

1660 – Monarchy restored, 1661 - Crown Jewels made, 1665 – Plague of London, 1666 – Fire of London, 1675 – St. Paul’s Cathedral begun

1685-1688

JAMES II

1688 – The Catholic King is deposed, his cause is taken up by JACOBITES, 1687 - Isaac Newton publishes his ‘Principia Mathematica’

1688-1702

WILLIAM & MARY

1688-9 – the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION ensures Protestant succession, 1690 – Battle of the Boyne, 1694 – Bank of England established

1702-1714

ANNE

1707 – ‘Act of Union’, Scotland temporarily accepts Hanoverian (Georgian) succession, 1704 – Sir George Rooke captures Gibraltar

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1714-1727

GEORGE I

1720’s-1840’s INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, 1708/15/09 – The Old Pretender, son of James II, leads 3 unsuccessful Jacobite rebellions

1727-1760

GEORGE II

1745 – YOUNG PRETENDER Charles Edward Stuart, ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’ leads ‘45’ rebellion, defeated at CULLODEN (1746)

1760-1820

GEORGE III

1773 – Boston Tea Party, 1776 – AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, 1805 – Battle Of Trafalgar, 1815 – Battle Of Waterloo

1820-1830

GEORGE IV

1822 – acknowledged true successor to throne, George IV visits Scotland, 1829 – Roman Catholics given full Freedom of Worship

1830-1837

WILLIAM IV

1830’s – Abolition of Capital Punishment for theft, 1833 – Britain finally abolishes slavery across Empire, following 1807 slave trade act

1837-1901

VICTORIA

1840’s – Irish Potato Famine, 1868 – Abolition of public hanging, 1890’s Great Britain rules approx.. one quarter of the World

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1901-1910

EDWARD VII

1901 – King of House of SAXE-COBURG GOTHA, 1906 – Liberals win Election, 1908 – Old Age Pension, 1909 – Suffragettes’ Hunger Strike,

1910-1936

GEORGE V

1914-18 FIRST WORLD WAR, 1917 – King adopts ‘Windsor’ surname, 1917 – Russian Revolution, 1926 – GENERAL STRIKE

1936

EDWARD VIII

1936 – King abdicates to marry divorcee, 1930’s – unemployment in the UK reaches three million, 1936 – Jarrow Crusade

1936-1952

GEORGE VI

1039-45 – SECOND WORLD WAR, 1938 Neville Chamberlain promises ‘Peace in our time’, 1945 – Labout wins Election majority of 145

1952 -

ELIZABETH II

1965 – Hanging abolished, 1971 – Introduction of decimalisation, 1982 – Falklands War 1994 – IRA ceasefire





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