English 1 Segment One Exam Review



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English 1 Segment One Exam Review

General Information about the exam

Grammar

Paraphrase and Summary

Theme

Tone

Figures of Speech

Conflict

Context Clues and Synonyms

Module 2 Novel of your choice

Author’s Techniques to Enhance the Plot Structure

President Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech, 1961

Honors Exam



View the segment 1 exam review video here: https://youtu.be/BWWi8Sgb48g

*If you are an honors student, you will be responsible for the regular material in the course plus the honors material. Along with viewing the exam review video for the regular portion of the course, you can view a video review of the honors material here: https://youtu.be/C2Mn1mF1ujg

General Information about the exam


  • The exam will include 23 multiple choice questions and 2 short answer.

  • If you are an honors student, the exam will consist of material from the regular portion of the course along with material from the honors section. The exam will be approximately 29 questions long and consist of both multiple choice and short answer questions.

  • It is suggested that you have a dictionary and the exam review handout when taking the exam.

  • The test is not timed, but you must complete it all at once. You cannot exit and come back to the test.

  • You MUST earn at least a 60% average to pass the course.

  • You may view the 1st semester PRE-TEST (1.00B Pretest) for additional practice before taking the exam.

To begin your exam you must:

  • Complete all assignments in the semester including your collaboration assignment

  • Get the password for the exam from your Instructor

  • Have a Dictionary

  • Review this study guide along with any notes and assignments from the course

Grammar

Colon


Use a colon if you have a complete sentence that comes before your quotation.

    • Simon and Garfunkel’s use of a simile creates a dreary image: “But my words, like silent raindrops fell."

Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as namely, for example, or that is do not appear.

    • You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.

    • I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.


Semicolon


A semicolon is used to link 2 independent clauses into a single sentence.

Example: Grandma still rides her Harley motorcycle; her toy poodle balances in a basket between the handlebars.

Subordinate Conjunction


A subordinate conjunction is used after a comma to join 2 independent clauses. A subordinate conjunction is one word.

Examples of subordinate conjunctions: where, unless, until, even though, than, since, etc.

Example sentence: We looked on top of the refrigerator, where Jenny will often hide a bag of chocolate chip cookies.

Absolute Phrase


Descriptive phrases that modify an entire clause are called absolute phrases. They add details to the sentence. Absolute phrases follow this pattern:

Noun + Participle + Other modifiers



"The school bus drove over the hill." – This sentence is bland and doesn't tell you anything about the bus other than where it is going.

Using a descriptive, absolute phrase to add more detail builds a more interesting and informative sentence. – "The school bus drove over the hill, its lumbering yellow form full of raucous students." 



The absolute phrase can also be moved around in the sentence.

  • "It’s lumbering yellow form full of raucous students, the school bus drove over the hill."

  • "The school bus, its lumbering yellow form full of raucous students, drove over the hill."

Note, an absolute phrase is not a complete sentence — it cannot stand alone.

Paraphrase and Summary


  • A paraphrase is a rephrasing of the original text or idea using your own words.

  • A summary is an explanation of the main points or ideas written in your own words.

Theme


Theme is the message of a work, not the subject.

  • Theme is not one word such as friendship, peace, heartbreak, or disappointment.

  • Themes should be stated in complete sentences such as:

    • Friendship helps us through all stages of life.

    • Although conflicts surround us, peace is something that all humans desire.

    • Heartbreak, while difficult, can be an opportunity to grow emotionally.

    • Disappointment can cause us to become bitter and angry.

  • A text can have multiple themes.

Questions to ask yourself to determine the theme:

  1. What happens in the text?

  2. Why is this included in the story?

  3. What is the message?

Example: The theme of “Little Red Riding Hood” could be “never talk to strangers.”

Tone


Tone is the author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible examples of tone are: Anxious, Excited, Worried, Foolish, Smart, and Depressing. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.
Example: Read the following line excerpt to determine the tone:
And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don’t know why they died, they just died. 
The tone of this excerpt could be unhappy or depressing.
The tone can shift through an excerpt as the author’s perspective changes. For example, a novel can be both humorous and dark, or both sentimental and formal.

Figures of Speech (Figurative Language)


Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Figures of speech are any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject.


  • Hyperbole- Hyperbole is a figure of speech which is an exaggeration. Persons often use expressions such as "I nearly died laughing," "I was hopping mad," and "I tried a thousand times." Such statements are not literally true, but people make them to sound impressive or to emphasize something, such as a feeling, effort, or reaction.

  • Metaphor- A Metaphor is making a comparison without using like or as. For example, the man is a doormat - I'm saying that they man gets walked all over by comparing him to a doormat.

  • Simile- Simile is a comparison of 2 different things using "like" or "as". Example: "she was mad as a hornet"

  • Alliteration- An Alliteration is when two or more words in a poem begin with the same letter or sound. For Example, dressy dragons.

Conflict


As questioning moves you forward in your journey to identity, decision making pushes you in many different directions. You encounter conflict each time you have to make a decision. You face internal and external conflict and must make decisions about how to react.

Internal Conflict

  • Man vs. Self- Some characters lack the confidence they need. Fear might stop them from participating in certain activities. Love or anger might cause them to do things they wouldn't normally do. These kinds of problems are internal conflicts because they come from inside the character.

External Conflict

  • Man vs. Man- When someone yells at a character or serves as an obstacle, this is an external conflict because the problem comes from outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Man because it is an example of one person against another.

  • Man vs. Nature- When a character can't do something because of the weather or environment, this also an external conflict because the problem occurs outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Nature because it is an example of nature working against a person.

  • Man vs. Society- Sometimes characters feel out of place. Maybe they wear the wrong clothes to a party, or they don't fit in with a group of people. This is also an external conflict because the problem comes from outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Society because it is an example of society working against a person.

Plot Structures


Traditional Plot Structure – To examine the plot more closely, look for these key elements:

  • Exposition: This is where the background information is presented, main characters are introduced, and the conflict is established.

  • Rising Action: This involves conflicts and challenges that the characters encounter. How they respond keeps the story moving forward.

  • Climax: This is the turning point in the conflict. Tension builds until the main character must make a decision or take action that determines the direction of the story.

  • Falling Action: This includes all events that occur after the main character made the key decision in the story.

  • Resolution: This is where all the questions are answered and loose ends are tied, providing a clear ending.

Plot Techniques to Enhance the Plot Structure


An author uses several different techniques to make the plot of a story interesting.

In Medias Res- “In Medias Res” is a Latin term that means in the middle of things. Authors may choose to start a story right in the middle of the rising action or the conflict to build interest and capture the reader's attention. Readers are immediately immersed in the story and must keep reading to find out where the story begins, how it got to the current event, and what will happen next.

  • Example of In Medias Res from Cinderella- The clock struck midnight as Cinderella dashed though the palace gates. In the place of her beautiful gown, she wore her tattered servant's dress. She could not believe the wonderful night she had with the prince was actually real. Just that morning she had been...

Flashback- where the author breaks the current narrative to give important information that provides background and insight into the characters and events. Through the narrator’s memory, the reader gets a glimpse into his/her through processes and experiences

  • Example of Flashback- As Mrs. Ramirez watched her daughter walk through the school doors on the first day of ninth grade, she saw Vivian as little five-year old bouncing into school as a kindergartener nine short years ago. She carried a Dora the Explorer lunch box and wore a butterfly backpack that was two sizes too big. Mrs. Ramirez was so proud of Vivian, but felt sad that she was growing up so fast.

Flash Forward- where the author interrupts the regular flow of the story to provide a glimpse of something that will happen in the future. By using a flash-forward, the author piques the readers' interest by making them wonder, "How is that going to happen?" "Why does that happen?”

  • Example of Flash Forward- "Fix her up and she'll be better than that shiny new car you've been hoping for," Andre's dad said as he handed him the key to the beat up 1965 Ford Mustang that had been sitting in his grandfather's garage for the past 40 years. As the key touched his hand, Andre had a vision of black checkered flags, a big gold trophy, and cheering crowds. Maybe his dad was right.

Fast-pace: To create the sense that time is going quickly and to make hearts race, an author might use fast-paced writing.

To create a sense that time is going quickly and to make hearts race, an author might use:



  • Repetition of words

  • Short sentences

  • Short phrases separated by commas

Slow pace: To create the sense that time is going slowly and to build suspense, an author uses slow-paced writing.

To create a serious mood, an author may deliberately slow the pace by using:



  • Long sentences

  • Punctuation that makes the reader pause or stop

  • Repetition of sentence structure

  • Formal diction

Context Clues and Synonyms


  • Context clues are hints that an author gives to help define or figure out the unknown meaning of a word.

  • Synonyms are two different words or phrases that mean the same thing.

  • Remember- you can also use a dictionary to assist you with this on the exam

Example: Read the following passage.

The young woman pressed and prodded the wasted muscles, resting her body on her knees, her bowed head hidden as in a cloud by her black wealth of hair.

  1. What does the author mean by saying “wealth of hair”?

Example Answer: The author means that the lady he is describing has lots of hair.

  1. What words or phrases could you use to substitute for “wealth of hair” in this sentence to mean the same?

Example Answer: You could replace “wealth of hair” with abundance of hair.

Unit 2 Novel of Your Choice


Make sure you review your novel of choice from Unit 2. On your exam, you will be asked to provide examples from your novel to support your opinion. Here are some points for you to review:

  • Main characters

  • Protagonist

  • Antagonist

  • Plot details

Honors Exam

If you are an honors student, for your 1st semester exam, you will be completing the Segment One Honors exam.



Segment One Honors Exam will consist of material from the regular portion of the course along with material from the honors section. The exam will be approximately 29 questions long and consist of both multiple choice and short answer questions. The honors related short answers will cover concepts from your honors assignments, including:

  • “Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare (Honors Unit)

  • Time Period/Historical Context of Romeo and Juliet

  • Language used in a play and poem

  • Compare/contrast the structure of a play and poem

  • Theme

  • Different Types of Genres (drama, letter, novel, short story, etc.)

  • Figurative Language such as: metaphors, personification, similes, etc.

  • Difference of language used in genres


President Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech


Analyzing “Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech, 1961”

This text will be featured on the final exam

Watch Kennedy’s speech: http://safeshare.tv/w/ymvztwLOVC

What effect does Kennedy hope to have on his audience through his speech?




What is a possible theme from the speech?




What is Kennedy’s tone?




Read Kennedy’s speech and break down the paragraphs:

Example: …In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty.
The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.


Example:

Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:



  • It’s in the hands of the people of the United States to see if the US will be successful or not.

  • He is using a hyperbole to describe the number of Americans who have died defending our country.

Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:





Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?
In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:








And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.
My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:








Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.

Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:












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