Engelsk programfag I studiespesialiserende utdanningsprogram



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DEMOCRATS

Joe Biden

Hillary Clinton

Chris Dodd

John Edwards

Mike Gravel

Dennis Kucinich

Barack Obama

Bill Richardson

REPUBLICANS

Rudy Giuliani

Mike Huckabee

Duncan Hunter

John McCain

Ron Paul

Mitt Romney

Fred Thompson


        • Primary/caucus calendar 2008

      • The Presidential race=people

        • Nomination

          • Primaries→winner from each party gets the delegates at the party convention

            • Democratic primaries 2008

          • Caucuses→winner from each party gets the delegates at the party convention

          • National conventions

            • each party formally announces the party’s candidate for the Presidency and the chosen candidate picks his/her “running mate” = the ticket

            • party platform

            • Democratic national convention 2008

        • Election

          • The Campaign

          • Election Day = Tuesday after the first Monday of November, the winner in each state gets the electoral votes of that state at the Electoral College

            • Election Day 2008

          • Electoral College=the 538 Electors formally elect the President 41 days after election day (the Monday after the second Wednesday in December)

            • Electoral College

            • Electoral College

    • The Anglo-American world: political influence

      • Parliamentary democracy = national assembly makes laws and decides who to execute them (GB)

      • Presidential democracy = the executive chosen by the people presiding over the government (US)

      • Exerting influence

        • Emulation (US)

        • Colonization (GB)

        • Imposition (GB)

      • America & emulation

        • Central and South-America Am. pol. system after Spain/Portugal 1800s = 3 branches & constitution

          • Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Chile + Norway

usamexicoborder

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:mp8bcf2ix9ey1m:http://www.travel-earth.com/bolivia/la-paz-congress.jpg

Bolivia's Congreso Nacional (National Congress) is seated in La Paz



      • GB and colonization/imposition

        • Two types of colonies

          • Settlers the majority: Canada, Australia, NZ (independence middle 1800s)

http://www.bbcwhodoyouthinkyouaremagazine.com/userfiles/nzancestorsb.jpg

Immigrants to NZ



          • Indigenous the majority: as Malaysia, Nigeria, India, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Jamaica, Malta, Singapore, Ireland, Grenada, Trinidad, Tobago (independence after WWII)

http://www.mod.uk/nr/rdonlyres/b42d7e30-55b9-40d7-981c-0371746f8b6d/0/rmr01.jpg

120 soldiers of the Royal Malay Regiment have become the first all-Islamic Company to provide a British monarch's ceremonial guard (2008)



      • Influence in modern times

        • After WWII imposition in defeated countries

          • Japan 1952: constitutional monarchy, 2 chambers, 4 & 6 years, cabinet responsible to parliament)

          • Germany 1989: federal republic, 2 chambers, 4 years, president 5 years, indirectly elected)

        • Attraction of Anglo Am. democracies in Eastern Europe, collapse of communism: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Slovakia

          • The Collapse of the Soviet Union 1991

map of european countries

        • Where democracy went badly wrong: South Vietnam, Iran, Uganda, Nigeria, Burma, Zimbabwe

          • Uganda & Idi Amin

      • India – an interesting mix

        • GB: parliamentary democracy

        • US: president every 5 years: can call for a new GE

    • The Anglo-American world: Riches and rags

      • GB→US path-breakers in world economy last 2 centuries

      • GB & industrialization end 1700s: inventions (Spinning Jenny & the steam engine)/coal/transportation/fleet (trading ships & war ships)→Germany/US 1800s

      • GB & free market economy (capitalism) = A market economy is a realized social system based on the division of labour in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand (this is often contrasted with a planned economy, in which a central government determines the price of goods and services using a fixed price system)→British Empire→copied by the US

      • 1945: shift of leading powers: from GB as first industrialized power to US as first post-industrial consumer economy = A recent re-definition of "consumer economy" is an economy that only consumes, one that does not produce. A "consumer economy" must avoid satisfying demand, because if people already have what they want they wouldn't keep consuming enough to provide full employment

      • The challenge: increased competition

        • 60s: GB competition from Europe

          • Slow to adapt to technological & economic developments

          • Industries hard to make efficient

          • Widening gap have-nots north & haves south/London

        • 70s: US competition from Europe & Asia

          • Cheaper goods

          • Industries Northwest bankrupt

          • Production moved=outsourced

      • The response: back to basics

        • Return to free market economy = successful

          • Low taxes

          • Reducing gov. programs and regulations (Thatcherism)

      • Riches

        • Gross Domestic Product (table p 222) = GDP is defined as the total market value of all final goods and services produced within the country in a given period of time (usually a calendar year)

      • Disturbing questions

        • Poverty

          • Poverty line US = 4 members $21000 (2008:39,1 mill)

          • Poverty in the United States

          • Poverty in the United Kingdom

      • Welfare

        • UK→National Health Service

        • US→Medicaid & Medicare

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/lyndon_johnson_signing_medicare_bill%2c_with_harry_truman%2c_30_july%2c_1965.jpg/250px-lyndon_johnson_signing_medicare_bill%2c_with_harry_truman%2c_30_july%2c_1965.jpg

President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Medicare Bill at the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri 30 July 1965 . Former President Harry S. Truman is seated at the table with President Johnson. The following are in the background (from left to right): Senator Edward V. Long, an unidentified man, Lady Bird Johnson, Senator Mike Mansfield, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, and Bess Truman.



      • Deserving and undeserving poor

      • Limiting welfare

        • “deserving poor”→US/UK less on welfare

        • US 1996 Workfare (5 years)

        • “Obamacare”

      • Increasing inequality

        • “the rich get richer, the poor get poorer”

        • Hunger in the US

        • What happened to the American Dream?

      • Defenders and critics




  • Chapter 5: TB 233 The Good Life

          • TB 245 The land of the fat

          • TB 255 The grass eaters

          • TB 278 Wedded to work, and in dire need of a wife

          • TB 283 Big car guilt

  • Chapter 6: Outsiders

          • TB The nothing-to-do generation

          • TB 294 The living dead

          • TB 300 Gangland

          • TB 316 Panache




  • Chapter 9: TB 389 Black America: never immigrants, loss of identity, minority

    • Slave trade 1620-1808: 10-15 mill.

slavet

slaveship

    • Triangular trade

st

    • Slavery 1620-1863: all states, but died out in the North

auksjon1
auksjon

    • South/North→antagonism

    • Origin of the ideology of racism: inferiority

    • Resistance and Civil War

      • Slavery accepted by the Constitution 1787, outlawed in 1863

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/emancipationproclamation.jpg/250px-emancipationproclamation.jpg

That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.



http://www.bridgemanart.com/media%20library/images/lincolnsouv2.jpg

1909 postcard Lincoln as the Great Emancipator of the

Black slaves


      • Abolitionism

        • Underground Railway

        • Fredrick Douglas (1818-1895)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/frederick_douglass_portrait.jpg/225px-frederick_douglass_portrait.jpg

Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, circa 1818 – February 20, 1895) an American abolitionist, women's suffragist, editor, orator, author, statesman, minister and reformer. Escaping from slavery, he made strong contributions to the abolitionist movement, and achieved a public career that led to his being called "The Sage of Anacostia" and "The Lion of Anacostia". Douglass is one of the most prominent figures in African American and United States history.

        • Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s cabin (1852; 40 languages)

utc

hbs

        • 1865: Freedman’s Bureau during Reconstruction (1865-1877)

          • self-sufficiency

    • Jim Crow laws (Black Codes) = segregation 1877→

      • “Come listen all you galls and boys,

I’m going to sing a little song,

My name is Jim Crow.

Weel about and turn about and do jis so

Eb’ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow”



http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/images/3jimc0315b.jpg

Thomas Darthmouth Rice dressing up as an African 1828



      • Withdrawal of black civil rights→segregation

      • No black protests→KKK (Greek kuklos (cilcle), founded 1865 Confederate soldiers)


kkk

      • Lynching after Charles Lynch, justice of peace (1736-1796), since 1882: 4200

jackson

      • 1896 Supreme Court: “separate but equal”

    • A dream deferred

      • segregation→two choices

        • Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), Tuskegee Institute: hard work, no protest

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cd/bookertwashington-cheynes.loc.jpg/185px-bookertwashington-cheynes.loc.jpg

        • W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: segregation had to be fought

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/web_dubois_1918.jpg/200px-web_dubois_1918.jpg

        • The Great Migration to the North (1914-1950): 1,5 mill, jobs, poverty,segregation,education

migration

        • The Ghettos: development of black culture: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Minneapolis, Detroit, Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Oakland


        • Harlem, 1904→black residents: Harlem Renaissance

        • Harlem Renaissance

http://weblogs.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/politics/blog/harlem-north60txt6.jpg

    • TB 394 SC

    • Fighting for black rights

      • 1948: segregation abolished in the army

      • 1954: Supreme Court declared segregation unconstitutional

      • 1950s/60s: civil rights movement: Freedom Riders

        • Martin Luther King (1929-1968): Southern Christian Leadership Conference

        • MLK marching in Selma Alabama

        • Segregation in the 60s

        • Martin Luther King, Aug. 28th 1963: I have a dream

martin luther king jr.

        • 1964: Civil Rights Act: outlawed unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations.")

        • 1965: Voting Rights Act: literacy tests outlawed

      • Black power

        • Blacks in the north→poverty→violent race riots→segregate→blck pride→Black Power

        • Malcolm X (1925-1965): Nation of Islam

        • Malcolm X

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/malcolm_x_nywts_2a.jpg/220px-malcolm_x_nywts_2a.jpg

        • Angela Davis (1944-)

        • Angela Davis

      • Pursuing equality

        • Voter registration

        • Voting rights into political power

        • 2000: 8000 black elected officials (2%)

        • 2000: rise in black median income (30%): still $ 25 000 vs $45 000

      • Black America today

        • Successful integration

        • “Presidential candidates”

          • Jesse Jackson

          • Colin Powell

          • Codoleezza Rice

          • Barack Obama

        • Growing difference rich vs poor: black middle class vs black “underclass”→split in the black community

      • TB 397 SC




  • Chapter 8 Devolution in the UK

    • 4 distinct people

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_eyxlmomuxic/sytz62i-lzi/aaaaaaaabek/tlvuxc0eqog/s400/mapnationsuk.jpg

http://www.mattwardman.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/flags.jpg

      • Map UK

    • The disunited kingdom?

      • The name of the country

      • 1997→LP→devolution = transferring power from central to regional/local authorities→Welsh Assembly & Scottish Parliament

senned national assembly for wales.jpg

Senedd Cardif



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/scottishparliamentfront.jpg/250px-scottishparliamentfront.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/af/scottish_parliament_logo.png/200px-scottish_parliament_logo.png

Edinburgh



      • 2007→the NI Assembly

parliament buildings stormont 4.jpg

Stormont Belfast



      • Will GB be dissolved?

    • The roots of national diversity

      • 43-410 Romans left→Celts alone→arrival of Angles, Saxons and Jutes (Germanic tribes = Anglo Saxon)→Vikings and Normans→Celts (Wales)/Gaels (Scotland)/Gaels (Ireland) driven to the “corners” of the country

    • Union

      • 1536: union England & Wales

      • 1707: union England & Scotland (of policy, very different countries, Eng. and Sc. Parliaments dissolved, common one in London)

    • Creating a new nation

      • Uniting the countries

        • religion→From Cath. to Prot. in 1534, during the common dynasty of the Stuarts (basically Cath.)→ unstable rel./pol. situation

          • James I (1603-1625) hated by the Puritans

          • Charles I (1625-49) Cath. wife & Civil War

          • Charles II (1660-1685) monarchy restored, trouble with Parliament

          • James II (1685-1689) trouble with Sc. ang Eng. Protestants

          • William of Orange (1689-1702) handpicked Prot. by Parliament

          • after Queen Anne (1702-1714) → Cath. half brother James wanted the crown

        • no return to Cath.→Parliament seeking a Prot. king→George of Hannover (George I)

          • German Prot. stranger to both Eng. and Sc.=neutral

        • The Cath. threat helped unite Sc. And Eng.

          • Jacobite rising 1745 headed by Suart supporters

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/the_battle_of_culloden.jpg/300px-the_battle_of_culloden.jpg

Highlanders supporting Charles Edward Suart attacking George II’s soldiers



        • The united kingdom (GB) born with imperial ambitions by pooling their resources (money & manpower)→British Empire→creating a British identity→fighting together against common enemies (France)

        • The “colony” of Ireland union of 1801, everlasting conflict Prot. vs. Cath.

    • When the spell stops working: 1707-2007

      • Go separate ways?

        • Influence of the church weakened

          • Protestantism no longer glue

          • Immigration

          • Secularism

        • Loss of the British Empire

        • Earlier enemies now friends and allies

        • Monarchy’s position weakened

    • Nationalism and devolution

      • Wales and Sc.→peaceful pol, process

        • 2005: Plaid Cymru 3 MPs, SNP 6 MPs, Sinn Fein 5 MPs/DUP 9 MPs & UU 1 MP

        • Gained momentum

          • Success of other small nations

          • Thatcher’s right-wing free-market policies of the 80s→high unemployment in Wales and Sc.→resentment and bitterness

          • LP devolution on the pol. agenda→trying to win seats in Parliament from Wales and Sc.

      • NI→violent pol./rel./ethnic process

        • Unionists/Loyalists vs. Republicans/Nationalists

        • 2007 NI Assembly

    • “Englishness”

      • Wales→Welsh

      • Scotland→Scotish

      • Ireland→Irish

      • England→British

        • But come-back of St. George

      • Resentment of favoritism towards small countries at the expense of England: devolved national assemblies

        • Eng. affairs decided by UK Parliament, also by Welsh and Scottish MPs

        • Devolved Eng. Parliament?

    • “Breaking up is hard to do”→dev. leading to a final breakup?

      • No clear pol. majority supporting this

      • But grassroots support

      • SNP(independent Sc. within the EU) and Plaid Cymru (greater independence, but not full) gaining support

      • Two scenarios

        • Dev. leading to “Let the steam out”

          • Responsible policy makers, taste for independence will pass

        • Dev. leading to “The slippery slope theory”

          • Priority to issues on the nationalist agenda→taste for doing it their way→increasing resentment

      • Consequences

        • UN

        • British Army

        • Monarchy

        • EU

©Ole Jørgen Møllerop
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