Engelsk programfag I studiespesialiserende utdanningsprogram



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We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

  • Peace treaty Paris 1783

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/preliminarytreatyofparispainting.jpg/300px-preliminarytreatyofparispainting.jpg

        • Establishing democracy

          • Distrust in centralized power

            • 1787 the Constitution

              • The American Constitution

            • The Philadelphia convention (Pennsylvania)

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/scene_at_the_signing_of_the_constitution_of_the_united_states.png/300px-scene_at_the_signing_of_the_constitution_of_the_united_states.png

            • “All men are equal”?→men right to vote 1830s, women 1920

            • 1789 George Washington

        • America’s manifest destiny

          • Westwards→the Frontier

          • To spread an empire of freedom and civilization

          • Driving force→immigration→1820-1940: 40 mill.

    untitled-2

    http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/activity/immigration/media/toget.gif

          • American Immigration

        • No escape for the Native Americans

          • Relocated→Oklahoma

          • Trail of tears 1838

            • The Indian Removal Act

    http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:77iysnkbknodem:http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/images/4tear44b.jpg

        • Slavery

          • Slave trade 1620-1808

    slavet

    slaveship

    • Amistad

          • Slavery 1620-1863

    auksjon

    auksjon1

          • South/North→antagonism

        • Expansion and Civil War

          • New states→free states or slave states?

          • 1854→law→slavery westward→Republican Party

          • 1861 Abraham Lincoln president

    al

    al2

          • 11 states→the Confederate States of America

          • 1861-1865 Civil war 600000 died

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/american_civil_war_montage_2.jpg/300px-american_civil_war_montage_2.jpg

            • The North victorious

        • The impact of the Civil War

          • →1877 the North controlled the South→protection of slaves

          • 1877→Regained self government→segregation

          • Economic/political and cultural divide between North and South

          • Gettysburg (film)

          • Battle of Gettysburg

      • The Civil War to the Second World War

        • The becoming of age of the US→economic and political growth (Northern values)→super power

          • 1865→industrial North→capitalism and free market economy

    http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/admin/tour/15131/15131factory.gif

          • End of the frontier

          • No Indian land unoccupied

    http://www.andrewsmithgallery.com/exhibitions/western/images/unk-1911.jpg


          • Growth in population 1865 31 mill – 1920 105 mill

          • Urbanization

    http://www.elderweb.com/sites/elderweb/files/albums/history/4a18585r.jpg

          • Waves of immigrants

            • 1820-1880

            • 1880-WWII

            • WWII-present

    http://jaha.org/edu/discovery_center/push-pull/img/ellis01.jpg

    http://gamesnet.vo.llnwd.net/o1/gamestar/objects/167593_main.jpg

        • Changing American culture

    http://www.jimhillmedia.com/mb/images/upload/sameul-goldwyn-portrait-web.jpg

    http://api.ning.com/files/nzitk4lytiasspv-zghlxricbslu303n7q6*jou6beq_/charlie_chaplin.jpg

            • Music

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/rudolph_valentino.jpg/170px-rudolph_valentino.jpg

            • Food

        • A shrinking world meets an expanding America

          • Anti-empire thinking, anti-colonist

          • →1900: Isolationism

    http://spartans.sstx.org/~wgoodman/isolationism.jpeg

    http://www.usdiplomacy.org/exhibit/images/isolationcartoon.jpg

          • 1900→not self-sufficient→dependent on Europe

            • Fright of one nation dominating Europe

        • Stepping on and off the world stage

          • WWI 1914-1918

            • →1917:neutral, supplies

            • Aug. 1917→war on Germany

            • “Tipped the scales”

            • Am. disappointment with the Treaty of Versailles (June 28 1919): Germany had to accept sole responsibility for causing the war and to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations of $31.5 billion (today $ 400 billion) to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers→turned down the creation of League of Nations→Europe not trusted→isolation→immigration cut down

    treaty of versailles, english version.jpg

    http://garciasweb.net/images/france_table.gif

    http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/images/nac_leaguenations_20920.jpg

        • Stepping on and off the world stage

    • From boom to bust in the 1920s

            • “Roaring Twenties”

    roaring twenties

            • Consumer economy

    http://www.enjoyart.com/library/transportation/motorcycles_scooters/large/harley_roaring_twenties.jpg

            • Inventions

    http://www.omnisitebuilder.com/sites/phenderson/_files/image/5%20refrigerator%20boy(9).jpg

            • New ways of paying

            • Success and materialism

            • Permissive morality

            • Prohibition 1919-1933

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e2/detroit_police_prohibition.jpg/250px-detroit_police_prohibition.jpg

      • The Untouchables

        • The Great Depression and the New Deal

          • 1920s→endless wealth→high value of company stocks→endless offers→too little buying power→overproduction→companies bankrupt→overvalued stocks lose value→speculating banks call in loans→debt→unemployment

    http://commonplacesketchbook.com/images/greatestmedicaldiscovery.jpg

    http://www.cmhpf.org/tompk14.jpg
    http://theblacksentinel.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/unemployment.jpghttp://www.greaterfool.ca/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/depression2.gif

    file:lange-migrantmother.jpg

          • Federal aid program providing jobs and immediate help

            • Growing up during the Great Depression

            • The New Deal

    http://www.hermes-press.com/fdr_labor2.jpg

    http://edgeofthewest.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/newdealposter.jpg

    http://www.vermonthistory.org/freedom_and_unity/create_image/images/dam.gif

      • The Second World War to the present

        • Americanization

          • Americanization

        • Superpower

        • American Dream

          • American Dream

        • 1935: Neutrality Acts

        • 1939: aid to GB and France was reluctant

        • “Thank God for the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean”

        • US President during WWII Franklin D Roosevelt→Germany a threat to the US

        • December 7 1941→full mobilization

          • Pearl Harbor

        • Aug. 8 1945 Hiroshima and Aug. 15 Nagasaki

          • The Hiroshima bomb: Little Boy

        • 1945: the US produced more than 50% of all goods in the world→Superpower

        • Permanent involvement and the Cold War

          • Permanent involvement

          • Supported the creation of alliances like the UN and Nato

          • The Cold War→USSR totalitarian→concentration of power and aggressive

            • Cold War

          • The Marshall Plan→Sec. of State George Marshall

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/george_catlett_marshall%2c_general_of_the_us_army.jpg/180px-george_catlett_marshall%2c_general_of_the_us_army.jpg

    • The Marshall Plan

    • The Marshall Plan

    • Marshall Plan 2

            • Containment & free trade

        • The consumer economy and global influence

          • US hard and soft power

          • 1945→mass produced consumer goods→wealth→consumer economy→renewed faith in free market economy

            • Pepsi Cola

          • The American Way of Life→worldwide spread→globalization

        • The price of containment at home: McCarthyism

          • The chase for “the reds under the beds”→”un-American”

          • Joseph McCarthy

          • Interview with Joseph McCarthy

          • Student project on Joseph McCarthy

        • The price of containment abroad: Korea and Vietnam

          • The support of undemocratic governments trying to fight communist or totalitarian countries

            • Iran

            • Chile

          • The Cuban missile crisis 1962

          • Korean War: 1950-1953

            • News flash from The Korean War

          • The Vietnam War 1965-73

            • History of the Vietnam War

          • SC 110

          • Civil rights and counter-culture

            • Civil Rights Movement

              • I have a dream

              • The murder of MLK

              • Martin Luther King

            • The Hippies: anti-consumer economy

              • Woodstock

          • Reform and recession

            • John F Kennedy (1961-1963)

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/john_f._kennedy%2c_white_house_color_photo_portrait.jpg/175px-john_f._kennedy%2c_white_house_color_photo_portrait.jpg

              • Peace Corps

              • “to promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained →manpower.”

              • The Kennedy assassination

              • The Kennedy assassination 2

              • The Kennedy assassination 3

            • Lyndon B Johnson (1963-1969)

    lyndon b. johnson

              • War on Poverty

              • Civil Rights Laws

              • New immigration laws→30 mill

            • Riots of the 60s→split society

              • Anti-war

              • Anti-racist

          • Limitation and reaction→scepticism of 60s reforms→move to the right

            • Foreign competition

            • OPEC (oil crisis 1973)

            • Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/63/richardnixon.jpg/210px-richardnixon.jpg

            • Gerald Ford (1974-1977)

    a man in a suit sits, arms folded, in front of a united states flag and the presidential seal.

            • Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/jimmycarterportrait2.jpg/250px-jimmycarterportrait2.jpg

              • Hostage crisis 1979

            • Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)→reaction to big government

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/president_reagan_speaking_in_minneapolis_1982.jpg/210px-president_reagan_speaking_in_minneapolis_1982.jpg

              • “Government is not the solution”→privatization

              • Reduced social programs

              • Gap rich poor

            • The New World Order

              • George Bush (1989-1993)

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/george_h._w._bush%2c_president_of_the_united_states%2c_1989_official_portrait.jpg/182px-george_h._w._bush%2c_president_of_the_united_states%2c_1989_official_portrait.jpg

              • Cold War ends

              • Germany unified

              • Communist rule ends Eastern Europe

              • US involved in peace-keeping military actions

                • Gulf War (1990-1991)

                  • Gulf War 1990-1991

                • The Balkan War (1991-2001)

                  • Balkan War

                • The Middle East→Lebanon 80s

            • SC 113

            • The New Democrats and a resurgent American economy

              • Bill Clinton (1993-2001)

              • Inauguration of Bill Clinton

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/bill_clinton.jpg/161px-bill_clinton.jpg

                • Military actions

                • New Democrat→party to the right→government with smaller admin.→winning back voters

                • Long sustained economic growth

                • Investment in IT

                • Payback of public debts→international business invested in America

            • George W. Bush (2001-2009) and 9/11

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/george-w-bush.jpeg/159px-george-w-bush.jpeg

              • More to the right

                • Less government involvement

                • Private enterprise

                • Family values based on Christian fundamentalists

                • No changes in foreign policies

              • 9/11

                • Invasion of Afghanistan

            • The war on terrorism (2002) and the invasion of Iraq (2003)

              • US losing sympathy

                • UN unsupportive

                • Allies warning

                • No WMD

                  • Bush on WMD

                • No connection al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein

            • Domestic unrest

              • Internal fright→Homeland Security

              • Guantanamo Bay

                • Guantanamo Bay

              • Congress measures→spying on Am. citizens with terrorist connections→undermining democracy, the basis of the US→silenced by patriotism

              • Republicans losing support over Iraq→2006 Democrat majority in Congress

            • SC 118

            • TB 141 Ambush




    • Chapter 4: TB 179 We the people

      • TB 180 Dividing Power: The American system of government

        • Distrust of central government

        • Constitution of 1787 after 4th of July 1776

    page one of the original copy of the constitution

          • The spreading of power

            • Representative government

            • The federal system

            • The division of powers

            • The separation of powers

          • Federalism

            • Delegated powers

              • Foreign affairs

              • Defense

              • Monetary policy

              • Trade

            • Reserved powers

          • Separation of powers

            • The Legislative: Congress

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1f/aerial_view_of_the_capitol_hill.jpg/250px-aerial_view_of_the_capitol_hill.jpg

              • The House of Representatives (435 for 2 years): rep. based on size of pop.

    obama health care speech to joint session of congress.jpg

              • The Senate (100 for 6 years): 2 from each state

    110th us senate class photo.jpg

              • Powers

                • Make laws

                • Levy taxes

                • Budget

              • Checks on Congress (The system of Checks and balances)

                • The President van veto a bill

                • The Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional

            • The Executive: the President

              • 4 years, 2 terms

              • Head of state & Chief executive

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/63/obama_cabinet_meeting_2009-11.jpg/340px-obama_cabinet_meeting_2009-11.jpg

              • Commander in Chief

              • Chief Diplomat

              • Checks on the President (The system of Checks and balances)

                • The Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional

                • Congress changes or refuse to pass bills

                • The process of submitting a federal budget

                • Override the President

                • Impeach the President

            • The Judicial: the Supreme Court

              • Supreme Court of the United States

    front of supreme court building

              • Highest court

              • All courts must accept the rulings of the SC

              • Federal law overrides state law=judicial stability

              • Interprets the Constitution=judicial review

              • 8 Justices and 1 Chief Justice, sit for life

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/official_roberts_cj.jpg/165px-official_roberts_cj.jpg

    John Roberts (2005)



              • Checks on the SC (The system of Checks and balances)

                • Congress can change the Constitution

                • Congress can impeach Justices

                • President can appoint Justices, approved by the Senate

          • Separation of powers – advantages and disadvantages

            • Under democratic control

            • Paralyzing Am. politics

          • State government

            • Most governing at state and local level=laws, taxes, welfare, police, education

            • Written constitution

            • Separation of powers

            • US=EU

            • Disadvantages

              • US hard to govern

              • Inequality; example education

            • Advantages

              • Innovation and strength

      • Political parties in the US

        • Nothing in the Constitution

        • Disliked by the Founding Fathers

        • Elections saw 2 parties evolving

        • The electoral system

          • Single seat election districts

          • Winner takes all

            • Majority of votes (if two candidates)

            • Plurality of votes (if more than two candidates)

          • Shooting for the center

            • Keep up coalition of interest groups = unclear pol. ideology

            • Win the voters in the middle = unclear pol. ideology

            • Registered votershttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7b/u.s._party_affiliation.svg/250px-u.s._party_affiliation.svg.png

          • The Democratic Party (1828)

            • Factions in the Democratic Party

    democratic party logo

            • More federal authority

            • Liberal = government in service of the people

            • Keen on shaping the Am. Society

            • Welfare programs

            • Taxes are a resource

            • Support

              • Large cities and states east/west coasts

              • Working class & minorities

          • The Republican party (1854)

            • Factions in the Republican Party



            • States rights

            • Decentralization

            • Resist federal government

            • Free market economies

            • Opposed to government regulation

            • Lower taxes

            • Lower federal spending

            • Freedom of the individual

            • Support

              • Suburbs of the large cities

              • Rural heartland Midwest & the South

              • Businesspeople

          • Advantages

          • Disadvantages

            • Wasted votes

            • Aim to gain power and keep it, not leading the nation

            • Blocks new ideas

            • Co-opting political movements, watering down new ideas




      • Interest groups (PACs) and Lobbyists

        • Aim: to influence a political process

        • PACs

          • Private group→political process(candidates/legislation)→PACs (connected 4600/non-connected 1594)→follow state/federal rules

            • Spending more than $1000 (contributions) on a political process=Political Action Committee

            • $5000 contribution limit from one individual

            • Unions/corporations cannot contribute

        • Lobbyists

          • Persuade individual politicians

          • Personal perks

          • In capitals

          • 34000 in WDC

          • Advantages

            • High political activity

            • Freedom of speech

            • Freedom of assembly

          • Disadvantages

            • Increasing power

            • Weakening the pol. parties

            • Strong connection between politicians and lobbyists

            • Bribe?

      • Electing a president

        • The nomination process=each party

          • First half year of the election year→primaries/caucuses→delegates to national conventions→party’s candidate elected (+ vice presidential candidate & party’s political platform next four years)

            • Roll call vote at the Democratic national convention 2008

            • 2008 Democratic National Convention

          • Candidates from each party 2008
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