Enda tiers monde relais pour le développement urbain participé (rup)



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enda rup - 014 - 22.08.96

enda tiers monde



relais pour le développement urbain participé (rup)

Août 1997



CONTENTS

Appendix I : Sketch-map of the area




TABLES

I : Types of Residential District in Rufisque


II : Main features of Districts covered by PADE
III.a : Family compounds using the beach and the open sewer in Diokoul for the disposal of domestic liquid waste and sewage (Champ de Course)

b : Types of toilet in use in family compounds

c : Water supply to family compounds

d : Disposal of solid waste (Chérif)

e : Types of toilet in use in family compounds

f : Water supply to family compounds

g : Disposal of solid domestic waste

h : Disposal of domestic waste water


IV : Water supply and sanitation in the 9 districts covered by the PADE
V : Participation according to Gender
VI.a : Impact on community in general and on women as December 1995

b : Impact on employment : jobs created as December 1995

c : Economic impact
VII.a : Impact on the Environment of Diokoul private sanitation scheme

b : Impact on the Environment of Castors SOCOCIM private sanitation scheme

c : Quantities of solid waste in tons per day
VIII : Monthly budget for a horse-and-cart refuse collection unit in Rufisque
IX : Comparative unit cost of narrow/standard sewage pipes

Comparative cost plant : standard purification systems


X : Allocation of resources
XI : Effects of investment levels on subsidies and repayments
XII : Time period for cost recovery


INTRODUCTION

With Habitat II drawing closer, and the knowledge that soon more than half of the world's population will be concentrated in towns and cities, there is a growing awareness that the problems of urban settlements are not going to go away: they must be confronted.


In Africa today, the urban population is growing at a rate of over 5%. More than 70% of African urban areas are completely excluded from the urban public service network of drinking water distribution, liquid waste drainage, or household refuse collection. Local communities suffer from dramatic levels of unemployment. Above all, they suffer from a sense of powerlessness.
But this bleak picture is shot through with gleams of light. An alternative vision is slowly emerging in answer to the urban challenge. It is a vision based on ideas like decentralisation, democracy, community empowerment, appropriate and appropriable technology, sustainability and integrated development, a vision which sees protecting the environment as an integral part of development, rather than an obstacle to economic progress.
This new approach says that local problems can be solved by local communities, by all groups in the community, including women and young people, working and taking decisions together.
But there is nothing isolationist about this. The newly empowered local community, through democratic decision-making and problem-solving, matures into a body capable of interacting productively with the Local Authority and even with the State. Micro-solutions are integrated into the National Action Plan.
The new approach reduces technology to its proper place in human affairs: at the service of human beings, as a tool which they master, rather than a dominating, alien force which they buy at prices they cannot afford from other cultures. The new approach seeks to establish a friendly, familiar technology that even poor people can afford and appropriate, and that can be replicated from community to community, creating new jobs, new skills, a new self-confidence and faith in the future.
We feel that the Rufisque experience is part of this new vision, this new approach.
Rufisque is a small township just outside the Senegalese capital, Dakar. It was given its name - Rio Fresco, fresh water river - by Portuguese sailors over 500 years ago. But in 1990, Rufisque presented itself not as a land of fresh water but as a depressing place with serious problems of sanitation and refuse.
Most compounds had inadequate or no plumbing, and, because of lack of urban planning, the official refuse collection lorries could not reach many areas. Waste water was thrown into the street. The beach was used as a public toilet and an unofficial refuse dump. Diarrhoea topped the list of reported complaints at the Health Centres.
Today, through the efforts of 8 low-income communities, aided by ENDA Third World and the Canadian Host Country Participation Fund, and in collaboration with the Rufisque Local Authority, the Rufisque sanitation problem is well on the way to being solved.
A highly integrated and holistic approach uses horse-drawn carts, a common local form of transport, to collect rubbish, and low-cost narrow plumbing pipes, unsuitable in Europe but perfect for the ice-free African climate, to dispose of waste water and sewage. Sewage, waste water and refuse all end up in a Purification and Recycling Centre, where young people treat and combine them to form compost for use in market gardens. The purification system, using water lettuce which is abundantly available in the area, is very cheap and has been used in Africa for over 1000 years.
The scheme is run by Local Management Committees, which are democratically representative. The technical aspect is handled by local people, and is therefore both sustainable and replicable. Women and young people are active at all levels, from sorting refuse to decision-making. The major proportion of the funding comes from the community itself: credit initially provided by international funders will soon no longer be necessary, and will be replaced by a completely local revolving credit system.
The Rufisque experience shows that a public nuisance can, through community effort, be turned into a public asset. The best recommendation of the scheme is that it is now being replicated by other communities.
Finally, a note on urban indicators. We suggest that a relevant indicator of the democratic level of local management and of real impact is the proportion of the overall population involved. In Rufisque, this is very high : one third of the total population.


1 - SANITATION PROBLEMS IN RUFISQUE
The Diokoul and Surrounding Districts Sanitation Scheme (PADE: Programme d'Assainissement de Diokoul et quartiers Environnants) started up in October 1990 as an attempt to find at least a partial solution to the sanitation problem, first of all in Diokoul and later in other low-income districts of Rufisque.
Rufisque is situated 25 kilometres outside Dakar, and is one of the 5 local government areas of Dakar Urban Authority (CUD). When the project started, Rufisque had a population of 120 000, which is likely to grow to 200 000 by 1995.
See illustrations 1,2,3, 4 and 5. Sketch-maps of the area can be found in Appendix 1.

1.1 - General Problems
The problem of sanitation in Rufisque is enormous. It is partly geographical in origin : many areas are almost at sea-level, and ground water is often very close to the surface. But the main problem is the inadequacy or outright lack of sanitation infrastructures.
The collection of solid waste, carried out, before by a concessionary company on contract to the CUD, and now by private lorries hired by the Works Department of the CUD, is irregular. The lorries are few in number and break down frequently. Even more important, they can only supply a minimum service because most of the streets they are supposed to cover are too narrow.
Research carried out by SONED (Société Nationale d'Etudes pour le Développement : National Association for Development Studies) describes the various types of residential district in Rufisque. The features of these districts can be found in Table 1.

Table 1: Types of Residential District in Rufisque


Type

District

Surface area

(hectares)



Total

occupants



Pop. density

(pop/ha)


1

2

3



4

5

6

7



semi-luxury

old colonial partly residential



planned

regular unplanned

irregular unplanned

village type

vacant lots
TOTAL


13,50

54 ,00


27,45

97,37

426,00

128,00


19,35
765,67

443

5 848


4 502

19 636

79 090

8 526


__
118 045

33

108


164

202

186

67

__


154

Source : SONED 1986.

Categories 4, 5 and 6 are low-income districts with hardly any water supply or sanitation. Water consumption is between 10 and 30 litres per head per day. Rapid population growth (3.5% annually) makes it impossible for the urban authorities to respond adequately to the ever-increasing demand for facilities and services.


The vast majority of households in Rufisque have individual sanitation systems for the disposal of waste water and sewage. Each individual system collects the waste water from the individual compound and passes it into the street and the open drains, onto waste ground or the beach, or into the sea. The use of conventional plumbing is minimal, and limited to the few planned areas: Escale (the commercial area), the old colonial area, Castors SOCOCIM and Cité HLM (low-cost housing). Even in these areas, individual systems are common.

1.2 - Sanitation in Diokoul and other Low-income Districts
Castors SOCOCIM and Cité Filaos are the only districts of those covered by the PADE which fall into the third category, the "planned" areas, with relatively low density, or lower at least than the other areas, and with a water consumption level of 35 litres per person per day. At Castors SOCOCIM, most households used to empty their waste water into a system connected to a sealed septic tank. But given the geological problem mentioned earlier and the badly constructed tanks, these had to be emptied frequently, which was expensive, or dirty water and sewage had to be emptied in the bush.

Table II: Main Features of the Districts covered by PADE


Name of

District


Surface

Area


(ha)

Population

(hbts)


Population density

(hbts/ha)



Type of district

1. Cité SOCOCIM

2. Colobane I

3. Dangou

4. Cité Filaos

5. Médine

6. Diokoul

7. Arafat 1, 2, 3

8. Colobane II

9. Champs de Course
TOTAL


1,15

23,00


2,50

4,25


8,00

57,78


99,00

90,75


6,50
293

227

4 747


563

664


1 516

12 509


16 083

14 621


1 408
52.338

197

170


225

156


190

217


162

161


217
179

3 - planned

5 - irreg. unplanned

5 - irreg. unplanned

3 - planned

4 - reg. unplanned

5 - irreg. unplanned

5 - irreg. unplanned

5 - irreg. unplanned

5 - irreg. unplanned


Source: PDU (Plan Directeur d'Urbanisme: Urban Master Plan) - 1990
Diokoul is an old Lebu fishing village which has lost little of its traditional, village appearance. Most of the streets are not laid out in a grid pattern: rather, they are narrow and winding.

Although there has been a water supply system in Diokoul since the 1930s, most households get their water from the public tap and the plumbing system is totally inadequate.


A number of studies have been done, on Diokoul in 1988, Champ de Course (Race Course) in 1993 and Chérif in 1994 (Chérif is not covered by the PADE).
The results below confirm the extremely insanitary conditions in Rufisque, especially in the poorer districts.

DIOKOUL
Table III.a : Family Compounds using the beach and the open sewer in Diokoul for the disposal of domestic liquid waste and sewage

Location

%

Sub-districts of Ndiourène and Kaw

Sub district of Wague



75,8

88,5



Source: ENDA-Rup Survey, l988


CHAMP DE COURSE (Race Course)
Table III.b : Types of toilet in family compounds


Type

Number

%

WC connected to central plumbing system

WC with private septic tank

Pit Latrine

Public Toilet

Use of bush

chute


TOTAL

0

39

19



0

11

3



72

0

54

27



0

15

4



100

Source: ENDA-Rup Survey, 1993


Table III.c : Water Supply to family compounds


Type

Number

%

Public Taps

Tap inside compound



TOTAL

60

12

72



81

19

100



Source: ENDA-Rup Survey 1993

Table III.d : Disposal of solid waste


Place of disposal

No. of households

%

Bush

Other


TOTAL

65

7

72



90

10

100



Source: ENDA-Rup Survey 1993

CHÉRIF
Table III.e : Types of toilet in family compounds


Type

No. of households

%

WC connected to central purification system

WC with private septic tank

Pit Latrine

Public Toilet

Use of bush or Waste land

No response



TOTAL

0

551


59

47

371



21

1049

0

52,1


5,6

4,5


35,4

2,4


100

Source: ENDA-Rup Survey - December 1994

Table III.f: Water supply to family compounds




Type

No. of households

%

Public tap

Tap in compound

Well

TOTAL


889

104


56

1049

84,7

10

5,3



100

Source: ENDA-Rup Survey, December 1994

Table III.g : Disposal of solid domestic waste


Type

No. of households

%

Bush/waste ground (unofficial dump)

Burning


CUD's concessionary societies refuse containers
TOTAL

596

83

370


1049

56,8

7,9


35.3
100

Source: ENDA-Rup Survey, December 1994

Table III.h : Disposal of domestic liquid waste


Type

No. of households

%

Public places (skeet, waste land)

WC, etc.
TOTAL



1030

19
1049



98,2

1,8
100



Source: ENDA-Rup Survey, December 1994

In addition to Diokoul, therefore, eight other districts in Rufisque are covered by the PADE (Diokoul and Surrounding Districts Sanitation Scheme): Dangou, Colobane 1, Colobane II, Médine, Castors SOCOCIM, Arafat, Champ de Course and Cite Filaos.


These nine districts have a total of 52,000 (fifty-two thousand) inhabitants, living in 5,225 (five thousand, two hundred and twenty five) households, which altogether account for 44% of the population of Rufisque local government area. Out of the 52,000, 51% are women, and 49% men. 30% are illiterate. Each inhabitant produces about 0.60 kg of waste per day (source: Department of Urbanisation and Housing, 1994), and total waste for the nine districts is 30 (thirty) tons per day. Table IV shows the extreme lack of sanitation in the nine districts.
It is important to emphasise that the pollution of the beach and the open spaces by excrement, dirty water and sewage has had devastating effects on the health of the population, especially the children. Statistics prior to 1990 show that 75% of patients treated in the Diokoul dispensary suffered from diarrhoea, dysentery or skin diseases, and were usually children. The Director of the Mother and Child Protection Service (PMI) complained in an interview of the frequent recurrence of diarrhoea in the children she was treating, and attributed this to the lack of sanitation and the dirty surroundings.
Table IV: Water supply and sanitation in the 9 Districts covered by the PADE: as a % of the 5,225 households.


Type of supply

%

1°) Water supply

- Tap in Compound

- Public Tap

- Well


2°) Excreta

- WC connected to central plumbing system

- Use of bush and waste land

- Combination septic tank, pit latrine, use of public toilet



3°) Disposal of Domestic Liquid Waste

- beach, waste ground, rain-water drains

- proper facilities

4°) Disposal of Solid Waste

- unofficial dumps

- CUD's concessionary societies refuse containers

35,00


64,00

1,00
5,50

11,50

83,00
96,00



4,00

65,00


35,00


Source: Senegal Habitat Population Census, 1988
NB: At least two households share a family compound. Each household has 8 members.


2 - THE DIOKOUL AND SURROUNDING DISTRICTS SANITATION SCHEME (PADE)
2.1 - Background
At Rufisque, the sea is eroding the coast. The damage done by the waves during storms is a regular topic of conversation. In Diokoul, especially, during the rainy season (July to September), the sea eats into the coast, destroying everything in its way. According to P. Freiburghaus et al. (1981), the beach has shrunk from 300 metres in 1950 to 20 metres in 1981, due to the advance of the sea. Already, some houses, a mosque and a part of the cemeteries have been destroyed. ENDA Third World first got involved with the people of Diokoul in 1980 over a project to deal with this problem.
The project drew up a plan for the construction of a series of twelve parallel dykes jutting out into the sea, 47 metres long and 85 metres apart, to break the current and allow sand to build up on the beach. By 1988, nine of the twelve dykes had been built with financial aid from French and Finnish Cooperation, technical assistance from ENDA Third World and the active participation of local communities, local authorities and the Public Works Department.
Already after the 1983 rainy season, it was obvious that the first dykes had made a great difference.
During the building of the dykes, it was obvious that the people of Diokoul were very capable of getting organised to do something to improve their area. It was also during this exercise that ENDA Third World became aware of the extent to which the beach was used as rubbish dump and a toilet, and of how unhealthy this was for the people. This led to a discussion with the local community on what could be done to clean the place up. Plans were drawn up and a new project came into being in 1991: The DIOKOUL and Surrounding Districts Sanitation Scheme.

2.2 - Aims of the Sanitation Scheme
The Scheme operates on a number of levels :
• economic : job-creation and income-generation
• social : to make women's work easier, improve the quality of life and the social status of the participants, and increase the family budget
• ecology and health : the safe disposal of rubbish, the elimination of excrement as a source of disease, the reduction of flies and mosquitoes and their accompanying diseases, including malaria
• community : to reinforce the independence of the community and give people a sense of citizenship, through training and interaction between various groups.

2.3 - Achievements

(see illustrations 6,7,8,9 and 10)


• private sanitation : 420 family compounds have benefited from the private sanitation scheme : 250 in the Diokoul district were provided with the conventional system (Turkish hole-in-the ground toilet, shower, waste water sink, tank for water from all sources, filter system). Also 30 houses in Diokoul and 140 houses in Castors SOCOCIM were connected up to purification plants using a series of small reservoirs, with a natural purifier in the form of water lettuce.
• renovation of public lavatories : a list of public toilets for renovation was drawn up by the local authorities and ENDA, and these were refurbished. Work to clean up and improve the areas around public taps had only just begun when it had to be cut short due to a change in management: the Rufisque Local Authority1 brought in a new policy in 1992, replacing the public taps with a private water supply system, or turning the taps over to private companies.
• refuse collection : 20 horse-and-cart units were provided for door-to-door collection of domestic refuse. The rubbish collected is dumped at official collection points, from where it is transferred by lorries on contract to the CUD, either for incineration or, a new idea, recycling into compost.
• purification of waste water (domestic waste water and sewage) transferred from the private sanitation systems to the reservoirs in the purification plant. There are two plants : in Castors and in Diokoul. In Castors plant, water lettuce is used to remove sediment and purify the water. This lettuce is the Pistia stratiotes which grows abundantly around Dakar. The vegetable biomass collected in the reservoirs and the biodegradable waste, combined with the purified water, produces a rich compost for use in urban agriculture. In Diokoul plant, water is purified by bacteriums and micro-algas (microphytes).
• sanitation loans : the money contributed by individuals in return for the installation of private sanitation systems is put into a revolving fund, guaranteed by the Local Management Committees, and this is used to promote self-financing sanitation for the low-income districts. At the end of 1995, assets amounted to 25 m Fcfa (U5$ 50 000)2.

The project involves three interesting new ideas :


• the use of the horse-and-cart for refuse collection although horse-drawn transport is very common in Rufisque and Dakar, this is the first time the system has been used for refuse collection. The idea has been so successful that private entrepreneurs are now beginning to use it.
• the use of water lettuce for purification : this was not so much a new idea as the revival of a traditional practice in use in Sudan for over a thousand years. This is an excellent example of low cost, appropriate and ecologically sound technology.
• the use of narrow pipes in the sanitation system : these are particularly suitable in a climate which never reaches freezing point, and are much cheaper than conventional plumbing.

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