Encyclopaedia sinica



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA

DAVID


is an inland on the opposite side of the river.
Thus Danes' Island was the anchorage for foreign
ships for 150 years, but under a wrong name !

Huntkr : I'he Fan Kwnv in Canton ; Chtnese
HKi§O3iTOHy : vol. i, p. 222; Bustschneider :
liittnry of Hit rope on Botanical Ditrorerie*. in'
t 'hitut, p. 633.

DANISH LUTHERAN MISSION.

Headquarters :—Copenhagen.
Works in Manchuria : - (a) in Liaotung Penin-
sula, ceded in 1895 by the Scotch and Irish
Presbyterians, (b) in the western half of Hei-lung-
chiang Province, and (c) in Harbin.

The first missionaries of the Society arrived in
China in 1893, and Manchuria was chosen as their
held. Port Arthur and Ta-ku shan ^c 5t |lj were
opened in 1896, Siu-Yen 0$ J& in 1898, and Feng-
huang ch'eng {JSLfilJjS in 1899. During the Boxer
troubles missionary work was prohibited^at Port
Arthur, and the three other stations were wrecked.
After 18 months these latter were re-opened and
in 1902 Antung & Jfc
was added. The Russo-
Japanese war again checked the work, but in 1906,
normal conditions returned, the prohibition ' at
Port Arthur was removed with the departure of
the Russians, and K'uan-tien 58 -fej was occupied.
In 1911, the province of Hei-lung chiang was
entered, a station being opened at Sui-hua fu
%< fb Jfjf i an(* Harbin was entered in 1912.

This mission specializes in evangelistic work,
and has not developed much educational or medical
activity, but it has since 1912 been represented on
the teaching staffs of the Union Arts and Medical
Colleges at Mukden, which it shares with the Irish
Presbyterian and United Free Church of Scotland
Missions. Statistics, 1916 : -


Foreign workers 47

Chinese assistants 109

Communicants ... 764 (1915)

D'ANVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE BOURGI-

GNON, " first Geographer of the King," was
born in Paris, July 11, 1697, and died on January
28, 1782. He prepared for Du Halde all the maps
for the Jesuit's great work. Some were reduced
from the maps made by the Jesuit Fathers in
China for K'ang Hsi; but a great deal of original
work was added by D'Anville, and some maps were
entirely designed by him. They were also thrice
published as an #Atlas, once to accompany the
edition of Du Halde printed in Holland in 1736,
once in Paris, chez Dezauche, without date, and
again to accompany the Abbe Ghosieii's Descript-
ion, in 1785.

The original maps are preserved in the Nation-
al Library in Paris.

Cordier : Du Halde et d'Anvillt, in Recueil
de Memoires Orientaux, 1905.

) DATES (fruit). ' Red dates ' humj tuan are

\ Jujubes ( * Black dates ' hti t*ao Are Persim-

i mons (7.r.). The export of black and red dates

; in 1916 was TU. 284,145.

I DATES (in time). There are two ways in

China to record a date; first the method of the
Cycle ( the year 1900, for example, being
known as the Kvtuj tut
year |jj£^p. This system

I has the disadvantage that the Ketiy fzii combinat-
ion is repeated every sixty years; some further
indication is therefore required as to the particular
cyclt.

The other method is by the reign-title, nie.n-
huo (q.v.), of the emperor, with a number; for
instance, K'anu Hsi, 20th year, means"* the 20th
year of the reign of the second ruler of the Ch'ing
or Manchu dynasty, who ruled under the nien-hau
K'ang Hsi.

DAVID, ARM AND, Abbe, a Lazarist mission
ary and a noted naturalist. He was born in France
near Bayonne in 1826 and died in Paris in 1900.
He entered the Congregation of the Mission in
1848 and devoted ten years to study. On arriving
in China in 1852 he was set apart at the request
of the French government for research work in
Natural History, the expense of his journeys being
provided by the government. Having first explored
the neighbourhood of Peking he went into Southern
Mongolia for seven or eight months in 1866. A
second journey took him through central China and
eastern Tibet in 1868-70. After a short visit to
Europe he made his third and last journey, 1872-74,
going over a great extent of China Proper. His
health was then so bad as a result of his arduous
work that it was necessary for him to return finally
to Europe.

His discoveries were many, both zoological and
botanical, and there #re many species called by
hih name. The Klaphure will always be the mopt
atriking if not most important of his discoveries,
in view of the swift extinction of the species. Of
plants he estimated that he had collected about
3,000 species, but not all of these reached Europe.

Hrt made a Natural History Museum at the Pei
T'ang in Peking, which was of great service in
breaking down the prejudice of the officials, who
frequently visited it. The princesses from the
palace were also frequent visitors, and it is said that
the Empress-dowager herself went there incognito.
When the Pei T'ang was removed the Empress-
dowager desired that the Museum should be left,
and it was presented to her and used in the
education of Kuang Hsu.

On his return to Paris he created another
museum of Natural History at St. Lazare for
the use of young missionaries.

189


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