Elizabethan Art in England



Download 84.23 Kb.
Date conversion21.05.2016
Size84.23 Kb.
Elizabethan Art in England

Queen Elizabeth I's loved the arts and it showed. During her reign, paintings were dominated by portraiture and miniatures in particular. Elaborate textiles as well as embroidery were also prevalent in the decorative arts while sculpture found a place in architectural decoration and tombs.

The Queen also took interest in her portraits. She guided many artists such as Nicholas Hilliard as well as Marcus Gheeraerts in creating stylized imagery which portrayed elegance, power and wealth. Artists like the ones aforementioned received various commissions from the Crown and they all employed the techniques from European Mannerism as well as from the school of Fontainebleau.

They created large-scale and full length painting which portrayed nobility in flamboyant and luxuriously decorated costumes which come with embroidery, armor, hunting gear, ruffs, lace and weapons. In doing so, they made this highly decorative yet artificial style a major characteristic of Elizabethan England Art.

Some of the most renowned Elizabethan England works of Art are the miniature paintings. Miniatures are a revived classical form of art stemming from the tradition of illuminated manuscripts as well as from the Renaissance's portrait medals.

It is believed that Nicholas Hilliard learned this craft from a foreign artist, Hans Holbein. Hilliard was able to produce miniatures which were painted on ivory card or vellum which often times functioned as lockets or cameos. Hilliard was considered to be the Queen's favorite artists and many of the court's larger portraits of the Queen were based on Hilliard's portraits and miniatures.

Elizabethan England decorative arts were dominated by silver works. The demand for silver saw a significant increase due to the increase in population and expansion of both middle and upper classes.

Many silver plates were decorated with embossed strapwork, vegetal forms as well as grotesque figures.

Intricate foliage designs as well as patterns were applied on to suits of armor and the textiles were embroidered with colorful silk and threads of pure gold and silver. In terms of art in architecture in Elizabethan England, it was all about a show of wealth as well as status.

The Elizabethan style closely followed the Tudor style but it was succeeded by the Italian style which was introduced by Ingo Jones. It answered the Cinque-Cento period in Italy, the Francois I from France and the Silversmiths or Plateresque style from Spain.

Art during Elizabethan England was at its peak. London, considered to be the heart of England, was then a center for both culture and commerce.

Many artisans as well as poets and dramatists, including William Shakespeare, were among the leaders of the day.

Elizabethan styles are often considered to be eclectic and borrow many motifs from the Italian, Continental Gothic as well as Flemish designs.

Architecture worked towards a well-ordered symmetry. Home exteriors and interiors were decorated with elaborate reliefs, ornate chimneys, mullions and friezes.

As mentioned beforehand, art during Elizabethan England was a show or expression of power, status and wealth. Quite fitting, actually, everything was grandiose as its people were the same.



Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life.com

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Elizabethan Clothing in England

Clothing wasn't just merely an insignificant thing in the days of Elizabethan England. In fact it is quite significant that there is even a law related to it. These laws stated the colors as well as the type of clothing an individual was allowed to own and wear.

These laws were called 'Statutes of Apparel" and was enforced by the Queen herself in Greenwich on June 1574. The intent was to maintain social structure as well as to keep a firm restrain on the people's expenditure towards clothing.

Basically, Elizabethan Clothing was a part of the social order. It is also indicative of a particular person's status not only reflecting how wealthy or poor they are but also of their social reputation. For example, back then it is absurd for a peasant to copy more well off individuals through "luxurious" clothing which were only worn by upper classes.

The upper class of Elizabethan England wore elegant and luxurious clothing that were made of expensive velvet, exotic silk and satin. Only the members of the Royal Family were allowed to own robes which were trimmed with ermine. Less noble folk wore clothing trimmed with either fox or otter.

Quite the contrast to the luxurious clothing of the affluent was the clothing worn by peasants. They wore clothing made of simple materials such as English cotton, wool and leather. Woolen clothing was in fact quite popular among the working as well as domestic classes since it was rather cheap and the wool trade saw a increase during the period.

The dyes that were used to color the lavish clothing of the noble of Elizabethan England cost quite a bit. In one of Elizabeth I's surviving portraits, she was shown wearing a crimson robe. The deep crimson coloring was obtained from an insect which was only found in the Mediterranean.

The brightest colors demanded a higher price tag and were only available to the upper class. The brightness of the color and its richness are the determining factors as to how expensive it would be. The working class or peasants wore clothes dyed in yellow, orange, green, pale blue, pink and russet.

Elizabethan England Clothing for women usually consisted of gowns, underclothing, corsets, hats, ruffs, collars and shoes. The men wore doublets, underclothing, breeches, ruffs, collars, hats and shoes.

Women often wore fancy jewelry but for both men and women ruffs were an indispensable item that adds to their elegant look. The Queen herself wore many elaborate collars. The ruffs were worn around the neck or wrists and became significantly larger later on.

Rich Elizabethan women also wore thick petticoats and on top of this came the corset and skirts. Their skirts were held up with hoops and are often padded at the hips. Then on top of all the was an outer bodice and a skirt or a fine dress and to finish it off, the women wore a coat or a dressing gown which went all the way down to the floor.

Talk about grandiose and not to mention heavy. But one must remember, that just like their art and architecture, clothing in the Elizabethan Era was also an indicator of a person's wealth and status.



Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web




Daily Life in Elizabethan England

The Elizabethan period in England had a daily life based on social order: the monarch as the highest, the nobility as second rank, the gentry as third, merchants as fourth, and laborers as fifth. The queen was believed to be God's representation here on Earth.

They also believed that God had formed these social ranks and had showered blessings on each rank. Their Parliament had also regulated the clothes that can only be worn by each rank. For a laborer to wear clothes of the rich was not allowed and considered to be a defiance of the order.

The Elizabethans had a high regard for family in a community. They believed that families were role models for the community. They were standardized and followed a deep respect for the importance of hierarchy.

They had customary rulings for the behavior of children that were taken from Bible passages. These passages were explanations on the duty of parents in properly raising their children and likewise the responsibility of children to respect and obey their elders.

Another law stated that when an individual dies, there was a need to write in an inventory all of the possessions accounted to that individual because this was an informative source or the remaining witness on how the subjects of Elizabethan era lived.

People from every social rank began to acquire more household properties during the period of Queen Elizabeth. It was noticeable how houses were constantly changing.

For reasons of privacy and comfort, medieval structures using a barn pattern were modernized and added up more chambers or divided rooms. Other town houses in London and big country properties were usually owned by counselors and courtiers of the Elizabethan time. These became great representations of architectural style during the period.

Despite the developing awareness of the significance of comfort in any household, daily life in England during the Elizabethan era was still very difficult for the majority of the subjects. The Westerners ate at least two day meals, which are dinner and supper.

The middle and low ranks ate vegetables and grains. The nobility class ate sweet food and meats. Generally, life expectancy reached until 42 years old, but of course the richer rank had lived years longer than that.

All the more Elizabethan problems with sickness and diseases were worsened by the town's low sanitary measures. The treatment and procedures for medical attention were unorganized and fell short to complete the need; even people who were able to seek medical help had to go through painful procedures and other medication problems. Worst, the poor ranks had to undergo their medication through the traditional form of healing that was solely based on superstitious beliefs.

Elizabethan period was considered to be the period where parlor was introduced, which became a section for new entertainment. The recreation was based on team or blood sports and other activities for personal amusement. For the wealthier rank, hunting became their favorite leisure game.



Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Crime and Punishment during the Elizabethan Period

Torture, as far as crime and punishment are concerned, is the employment of physical or mental pain and suffering to extract information or, in most cases, a confession from a person accused of a crime.

While torture seems barbaric, it was used during the Golden Age, what many consider to be that time in history when Elizabeth I sat on the throne and England enjoyed a peaceful and progressive period, and is still used in some cultures today.

During the reign of Elizabeth I, the most common means of Elizabethan era torture included stretching, burning, beating, and drowning (or at least suffocating the person with water). Torture at that time was used to punish a person for his crimes, intimidate him and the group to which he belongs, gather information, and/or obtain a confession.

Torture succeeded in breaking the will of and dehumanizing the prisoner, and justice during the Elizabethan era was served with the aid of this practice. In fact, it was said that Elizabeth I used torture more than any other monarchs in England's history.

During the Elizabethan era, treason was considered as the worst crime a person could ever commit. Consequently, it was at cases of high treason when torture was strictly and heavily employed. Other heinous crimes - including robbery, rape, and manslaughter - also warranted the use of torture.

The degree of torture that was applied was in accordance with the degree of the crime. Reportedly, women suffered from torture only rarely and lords and high officials were exempted from the act.

There were different ways with which to perform torture upon a prisoner, all of which are humiliating and painful. Boiling a prisoner to death was called for when the crime committed was poisoning. Cutting off the right hand, as well as plucking out eyes with hot pinchers and tearing off fingers in some cases, was the punishment for stealing. Mutilation and branding were also popular or standard means of torture.

The pillory, a T-shaped wooden frame in which the prisoner placed his hands on the crossbars and his head at the top, sticking out on a hole, was an infamous tool for inflicting torture. The pillory was often placed in a public square, and the prisoner had to endure not only long hours on it, but also the menacing glares and other harassments, such as stoning, from the passersby.

The dunking stool, another tool for inflicting torture, was used in punishing a woman accused of adultery. The prisoner would be placed on the stool and dunked under water several times until pronounced dead.

A prisoner accused of robbery, rape, or manslaughter was punished by trapping him in cages that were hung up at public squares. Again, people's jeers, taunts, and other harassments added to his suffering. He was only taken down when the loss of his strength became apparent, quartered, and pronounced dead.

All throughout the period, Elizabethan era torture was regularly practiced and as a result, the people were tamed and afraid and crimes were low in number.



Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Elizabethan Era Weapons - Swords, Muskets

During the reign of Elizabeth I, also referred to as the Virgin Queen, among other nicknames, England suffered from constant threat of war from the other superpowers of the time, Spain and France. To catch up with the needs of war, the army of the Elizabethan era tried to employ weapons that were modern and up to date.

The problem at that time, in terms of arms, was that weapons from the medieval period were still used and wielded by trained military men, thus showing a necessity for the immediate advancement of Elizabethan era weapons.

During the early years of the Elizabethan era, swords were the choice in weaponry. Nobles were required to learn fencing, so there were quite different kinds of swords - including broadswords, cutting swords, and the rapier - used not only inside fencing classrooms, but in war.

The rapier was the favorite among the swords mentioned. Men of nobility and military career chose the rapier because, although the other swords were wider, it was lighter, slender, and more sharply pointed. Men who held the rapier could use the sword for both thrusting and cutting attacks.

Swords were not the only weapons used during the early period of the Elizabethan era. Since weapons at that particular time in the era mainly composed of those used in the medieval period, the battle axe, dagger, halberd, longbow, mace, pike, spear, and the crossbow, specifically the arbalest, were some of the other choices in weaponry.

The crossbow or the arbalest, however, was ordered by Queen Elizabeth I to be replaced by what perhaps was the most advanced weapon that was ever used during her reign: the musket. Although the musket was created in 1520, the Queen only saw it fit for her men to use it in the 1590s, thus making firearms the new Elizabethan era weapons and changing the face of England's weaponry forever.

The kind of musket employed in the Elizabethan era used the matchlock mechanism, which tried automatic ignition through the use of a lighted match. Because of the process it took to fire, the musket was found to be slow to reload and inaccurate when used to shoot a target over a hundred meters. Still, the musket remained an indispensable weapon since it was introduced and throughout the rest of the era.

The crossbow was not the only medieval weapon replaced by recent innovations in weaponry during the Elizabethan era. The trebuchet, ballista, and the mongonel were replaced by the canon, which was crafted with bronze or iron, with the round shots made of iron or stone balls. The canon proved a most helpful change in Elizabethan era weapons since it could be used both at land and on sea.

The Elizabethan era has always been referred to as the Golden Age, a time when England reportedly proved successful in all its endeavors, including its military expeditions and conquests. The superiority of English warfare - the weapons used during war - proved itself time and again, and added to England's supremacy as a nation.


Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Elizabethan Education

Education in Elizabethan Era was highly influenced by the ruling monarch of the time and as such the education style would also reflect the religious belief of the ruling King or Queen. This constant changing might have considerable amount of confusion mainly due to the fanaticism of the devout followers of the 2 dominant religions of that time, the Catholics and The Protestants.

In the Elizabethan era, boy who were aged five to seven were sent to what was then referred to as a "petty school" or a "dame school".

These schools were in fact not actual schools but the house of a well-schooled housewife who teaches children in exchange for a small fee. The word "petty" is said to have been derived from the French word "petit" which means small. I say it applies very well.


In these petty schools children were taught how to read and write using English, they are also to learn catechism as well as lessons on proper behavior.

These things were considered to be the most important foundations in education and it should be taught during childhood. Education in Elizabethan England also focused on educating the children about the Christian Faith.

Children are to learn certain passages from the catechism book which relate to what being a good Christian is. It is widely believed that people then actually adhered to the theory that children, students, must have their education such as manners and deportment beaten into them. Many parents were said to have supported this theory. How lucky many of us weren't born during that time!

Elizabethan education also made use of what is referred to as a horn book. A horn book was a piece of parchment which was usually pasted on a small board made of wood which had a handle and was then covered with a thin plate of transparent horn.

The horn book displayed the alphabet in small and capital letters. The horn book was considered to be an important tool for every school boy during the Elizabethan era.

But of course, classic Education can only be provided at universities. Many different universities offered education on various subjects. These universities included, the University Faculty of the arts which taught Philosophy, Poetics, Rhetoric as well as Natural History among others.

The University Faculty of Liberal Arts might have included Grammar, Music, Logic, Arithmetic and Geometry as well as Astronomy education. There also was The University Faculty of Theology which taught religious education,

The University Faculty of Medicine which included the study of Hippocrates, Galen, as well as Jewish and Arabic medical texts. Last but not the least there also was the University Faculty of Law.

In addition to the education that could be learned in the universities, many of the privileged class also traveled around Europe to learn even more. But during the age of Elizabethan England, travelling was difficult.

There were laws that prevented people from travelling this is due to the fact that every village had the responsibility of looking after their own poor and did not want the additional task of having to pick up vagrants on the road.

Travelling also meant getting the permission from the monarch and as such only the nobility had the opportunity to travel abroad. For a lower class person to travel, they could do it only by taking up a military career or becoming a sailor. For the privileged, it was easier to continue their formal education in Elizabethan times through travelling.


Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Elizabethan Marriages/Weddings

Comparable to these days wherein every woman would look forward to that day when they have to walk in the aisle, Elizabethan marriages was also one of the highlight of every woman's life. The chief difference is, back then; the woman possesses very little right in choosing her husband.

It is foolish to marry someone because of love even if love may occur sometimes in marriage. The matrimony is arranged by families of the bride and the groom in order for the two sides to benefit from one another.

Mostly, it was arranged for wealth and reputation. Families of landowners were expected to marry just to augment their land possession.

Couples may even only see each other for the first time during the wedding day itself! This was rampant among lofty nobility, however people in the lower class would normally arranged the marriage with the children of friends and neighbors.

Thus, the lower the status a family holds in the society then the larger power a person may have in choosing lifetime mates. Because of this practice, the marriage will too often fail.

Among the famous couple who experienced disastrous marriage were Lord Darnley and Mary Queen of Scots; Robert Dudley and Amy Robsart; and Edward earl of Oxford and Anne Cecil. Still, successful marriage is not a myth since there were the 2nd Earl of Bedford and his 3rd countess: and 7th Baron and Lady Berkeley.

Elizabethan Era marriage normally takes place through the help of a miniature picture given by the man. The picture is a symbolism of the traits and looks of the girl he wishes to marry. Women were regarded as second class citizens and they were expected to tie the knot despite of their social standings.

Single women were regarded as witches. With parent's consent, a boy and a girl were allowed to marry at the age of 14 and 12 although it was not common for marriage to take place on such a young age. Boy would often not marry until they reached the age of consent, 21.

Ironically, the dowry in marriages in Elizabethan England would benefit the male. A dowry is a certain amount of cash, property, and goods that bride would bring during the actual ceremony. It is known as her share. The husbands were given all the rights to take over their wives thus the girl would became the man's property.

Like today, Elizabethan England marriage ceremony was considered to have a religious intonation. The ceremony would vary but the prerequisites before the matrimony was always the same.

It commenced with the Crying the Banns in where the intention of the couples to marry was made into public. It will be announced into three consecutive Sundays or Holy days thus when there were any objection, at least such party was given the time to speak out. Wedding invitations were not provided.

Gifts were rarely offered but it was their tradition to celebrate the occasion with a blast thus the event is carefully planned beforehand. The menu comprised of exotic dishes like peacock.

Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Elizabethan Era Superstitions and Beliefs

Superstitions are irrational beliefs. In England, during the Elizabethan era, there were also superstitions that they believed in, a handful of them actually still evident in our modern world. Not only were these believed by the common folk, they were also held true by even the nobility, up to the monarchy. Here are some of them:



1. It was believed that when you open your mouth to sneeze, you give the devil a chance to enter your body and bring about spiritual harm. Saying "bless you" allegedly stops the devils from entering since they thought that no demon could stay in a place that a Christian has blessed.

2. A pot stirred counter-clockwise brings bad luck to those who ate the contents and this also caused the spoilage of food.

3. The seventh son of the seventh son is believed to have supernatural powers.

4. Balance was considered a great deal in the Elizabethan era. They saw that the evil and good should balance each other. During the plague, they walked around with sweet-smelling flowers in their pockets and burned scented firewood to drive out the disease.

5. Leaving the door open behind you, keeping a peacock's feather, a lunar eclipse, spilling salt and a cat crossing your path (or any encounter with a cat for that matter as they are associated with witches- another superstition to be discussed later) brought about bad luck.

6. Many good luck charms involved the following elements: iron, silver, fire, salt, and running water.

7. It was also believed that if you touched a man about to be executed, if a cow breathed on you or if you spit into a fire, then you will have good luck.

8. Retention of the egg ("female sperm") caused sickness.

9. A superstition that was most influential to them was that witches exist and they can cast spells on anyone. The spells were understood as so grave, they can lead to death. They were also blamed for mostly everything unexplainable -- the plague, famine, diseases and low crop yields during harvest time.

In 1563, to prove how much they believed in this, the Witchcraft Act was passed to persecute those witches said to invoke evils spirits to commit murder. There were also a number of superstitions revolving around witchcraft:



a. Witches had the ability to fly using broomsticks.
b. Witches used a huge black pot or cauldron to make and brew their magic potions.
c. Witches had the ability to change into animal forms like cats, dogs, raven, etc.

10. Sailors wore golden hoop earrings all the time. It is said that this was done so they would have gold to pay their fare in the underworld if ever they sink and drown.

11. Sudden loss of hair was also seen as unlucky. It supposedly meant that there would be health problems and financial turmoil. Elizabeth I had red hair and it was said that red hair meant that the person has a short temper.

12. The right hand of an executed prisoner was said to be lucky as it had the power to heal and it could give the bearer stealth.

Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Elizabethan England Music

People during the Elizabethan era considered music as one significant part of their life. Their music is famous because of its classy and varied forms. In fact, theater became eminent during the time because it was always enhanced by music that would normally accompany the presentation.

Since it was always used in theater, it should project a sense of conversation to intensify the drama. It was classified into kinds which include: Elizabethan court music, Elizabethan church music, Elizabethan town music, Elizabethan street music, and Elizabethan theater music.

Moreover, the Elizabethan England music paved the birth of the Madrigal, Anthem, Masque and Opera. Different composers were famed like William Byrd (1543-1623), John Dowland (1563-1626), Robert Johnson (1500-1560), John Farmer (1570-1601), Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), Thomas Campion (1567-1620), and Thomas Tallis (1505-1585). Their compositions would reflect moods and feelings thus Elizabethan England music was far more expressive than of today.

Elizabethan Theater Music:

Music was reflected on the plays made by the famed William Shakespeare who had created more than five hundred poems and plays. Basically, the creations of Shakespeare were divided into three main categories which include Tragedies, Comedies, and Histories. As expected, each genre shows dissimilar emotions from one another.

Elizabethan England Court Music:

Much refined sound were produce because of the introduction of musical instrument known as viol for violin, hautboy for oboe, spinet for keyboard, etc. These instruments were still under the experimental stage although the tone was enough to create beautiful sound.

Stringed instrument was the most rampant kind and the ability to play them was an important skill in the court of Queen Elizabeth. The Queen would encourage people to study music since she herself was an expert musician for she knew how to play virginal and lute.

Elizabethan Street Music:

The popularity of traveling minstrels suddenly vanished during the time of bubonic plague. The idea of traveling was feared by the people and they would look at the travelers with angst and suspicion. Traveling minstrels were replaced by theater and tavern musicians. During occasional fairs, Elizabethan street music was played with fiddles, lute, percussion instruments, and recorders as the main instrument.

Elizabethan Town Music:

There were the 'Waits' who were the official musicians in English towns. They brought hautboys and high-pitched pipes with them. The group is tasked to compose and play music for the town ceremonies thus they are known to provide free concerts although they were financed by the town.

Elizabethan Church Music:

A lot of composers would not merely made music for the court but for the church as well thus Elizabethan church music was expected to be beautiful. Church music comprise of ballets, madrigals, canzonets, and 'sacred song' whose music were recognized as choral polyphony which connote more than one part. Among the famed composers of the time were William Byrd and Thomas Tallis.

Indeed, this was the era when people learnt to appreciate the value of music in their life. The documents from the past only showed how creative Elizabethan people were in terms of composing lyrics and creating melodies.



Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

Importance of Family in England during Elizabethan Period

Like any other nation, family in England during the Elizabethan times was regarded important in its role to society. These people believed that families were to become the models of the society. Family rules and children's behavior were standardized and close-knit; most of them were based from Bible sections.

These Bible passages were full of explanations about the responsibility of the parents to raise their children in a proper manner. So are the responsibilities of children in obeisance to their parents incorporated in the passages.

Love was not considered an important reason to marry, but they did recognize that love may come during married life. It was vital for parents, relatives, and other friends as mature individuals to always see the best for your interests. They were given the right to share what they think would be the best partner for you.

Arranged marriages were mostly between neighbors and friends, except for the case of the noble classes. But lower social classes were freer to take their stand in marriage matters.

Wives were regarded as properties of husbands. Women were expected to get married and dependent on the males all her life. Yet, some women were born to be stronger and independent than others. For the Elizabethan age, marriage meant being in full charge of your household. Marriage was also seen as a business for political and economic ends.

Children were also acknowledged as properties of the parents, so children were strictly commanded to respect them. But childbirth was regarded as a dangerous event at that time, making abortion a common case in Elizabethan community. They take herbs and other dangerous physical activity to lose the baby inside.

Widows were also handed down the right to own a property and take hold of businesses. She was entitled to have a share of 1/3 of the dead partner's assets, less the bills of course. Re-marriage was still seen as a good move to secure the widow's interests. But if she refused to marry, her relatives and friends were troubled for her, the fact that she might be taken advantage by some servants.

Like most women, men were expected to ask women for marriage. Marriage was a requirement to be able to take legal command of the household, to work in an ecclesiastical or public office, and to get involved in any position with civic duties. If widowed, he was also advised to remarry, most especially if he has children.

During the Elizabethan age, families in England considered sex as destiny because both women and men were expected to follow the duties and responsibilities toward each other. But one good thing was that they had acknowledged, too, of the fact that education was truly significant. These led them to understanding the whole process of a genuine education and learning as well.

As a whole, it was perceived to be very significant to have family ties that were close-knit and well-respected; and to regard house rules with proper obeisance.

Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

The elegance in every Elizabethan England food

The food and the presentation of it that was served and consumed during the time of Elizabethan England can be viewed as varied, and the variations of the food was due to differentiation in social standing and wealth.

Meat was the primary food consumed by most people that are considered to be part of the wealthy and privileged class. But meat wasn't just the type of food consumed by people during those times. Agricultural products were also widely consumed, thanks partly to the introduction of agricultural techniques during those times. Food during the Elizabethan England was not an issue for most people.

The population during those times resorted to the planting of fruit trees that helped boost food production. The era also saw the improvement of food security due to the introduction of food supplies from the New World.

The food that was served during the era was no simple food. Their food was marked with great detail and was always presented with elegance. This was especially true for the food that was usually prepared for the wealthy and the nobility class. The taste of the food served during those times is as important if compared to the overall look of the food.

People who lived during this era treasured their food and used different methods in order to make the presentation of the food over the top. For example, Elizabethans of this era domesticated peacocks not just for the meat of the poultry but also for its feathers. The feathers that can be harvested from the peacocks are used to decorate the foods that are usually served during banquets.

Meat was the most popular food for people of the Elizabethan era. And the meat was usually sold at large markets, and the other food supplies were sourced from small markets. Meat, fishes and poultry during those times are cooked in varied ways as well. Some of the more common methods employed by Elizabethans was spit roasting, baking, boiling, smoking, salting or thru frying.

The smoking of the meat was popular, and was intended in order to preserve the food. Though there are a number of cooking variations that were employed during those times, the people of Elizabethan England mostly preferred cooking that was conducted over open flame.

Elizabethan England food and dishes are usually prepared with the use of a number of different kitchen utensils. Pots, pans, skillets and cauldrons are examples of utensils used in the kitchen. Food preparation was made possible with the use of ladles, knives and scissors. Baking trays crafted from hardened pastry was used for baking.

To complete their meal, Elizabethans also had their own versions of drinks. People of this era were known to patronize wine and ale. And the choices of drinks also revealed the social status and the standing of the person. For example, the person of higher class drank both, while the other person of lower class drank ale.

Aside from these two drinks, it was also the time of an alcoholic drink called mead. Mead was drunk by people of all classes and this particular drink was concocted using honey as its main ingredient.
Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015

Type of Medium: Web

England Fashion during the Elizabethan Age

Fashion in England during the Elizabethan Age was considered a way of self-expression for all members of the social ranks.

For women, fashion was simple but made attractive. It covered the skin from the neck to the ankle. During this time, women worked hard to achieve a small waistline because gowns had a tight body piece to show off the tiny waistline. Details like ruffles were accentuated to the gowns to denote the high status of the woman-wearer in the society.

The gowns also had some sort of a puffy sleeve. Shoes were not important since they were covered by the long dresses. They also accentuated the clothing with big gold necklaces and a hood-like detail to cover the neck area. But as time evolved, so does their fashion, too. Waistlines had shifted into straight figures.

The ruffled sleeves became fitted to the arms with various small detail pieces held onto it.

There were changes in styles for men's fashion. The early part of the Elizabethan era had men sporting embroidered vest-looking and front-buttoned shirts with loose pants until the knee. The rich men wore finely-made-of-leather shoes, a flat silk or velvet hat, or a tall hat like a crown that was made of feathers of fabric.

Later on, they were dressed in cloaks held by a crucifix and chain with fine stockings in silk, and bonnets or hats with a plume on the side. Like women's clothing, men's clothes were detailed with inconvenient ruffles, too. It was inconvenient because these ruffles were stiff and about eight inches in width.

Similarly, the ruffles also revealed the status of men in the society. The gems attached to the clothing were also heavy. Boys and girls also wore dresses of the same styles. Dressing was regarded as an art form that is why Elizabethan people took time and effort to dress themselves.

Aside from clothing, hair was also an important factor in Elizabethan fashion in England. They made all efforts to wear their hair in fabulous styles and at the same time put joy and pride on themselves for this.

Most likely, they took a long wait to get their hair done in wonderful styles and do not mind about the cost it would take them. They managed to stay in parlors or barbershops for the longest time just to make their hair looked fantastic.

Even when men went bald, they wore wigs to put up with fashion trends of the time. Men's beards were also made sure that trims were done to fit the trend. Women had undergone hair bleaching to secure the right color for their hair. Sometimes, they also detailed it with hair accessories or hats to greatly emphasize the look.

Fashion was considered an important lifestyle in the Elizabethan era. Fashion represented social status of men and women and gave them a sense of pride. Both went through extreme measures just to achieve the look that they want or every time their fashion changes.




Source Information:

Name of Website: Elizabethan England Life

Name of Article: (insert the name of the article)

Name of Author: Prasad Mahabal

Date Published: 2013

Date of Access: April 2, 2015



Type of Medium: Web


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page