By using his wealth and his political influence, he encourages corruption in the government
Promotes the oppression of the masses
Hastens the moral degradation of the country so that the people may become desperate and fight
He smuggles arms into the country with the help of a rich Chinese merchant, Quiroga, who wants very much to be Chinese consul of Manila
His first attempt to begin the armed uprising did not materialize because at the last hour he hears the sad news that Maria Clara died in the nunnery
Simoun perfects his plan to overthrow the government
Beautiful lamp was given as wedding gift to Paulita Gomez and Julio Pelaez
Only he and his confidential associate, Basilio, know that when the wick of his lamp burns lower the nitroglycerine, will explode, destroying the house where the wedding feast is going to be held and killing all the guests, including the governor general, the friars, and the government officials.
Simultaneously, all the government buildings in Manila will be blown by Simoun’s followers.
The story of El Fili begins on board the steamer, Tabo
Medical student, whose medical education was financed by his patron, Capitan Tiago
Rejected by Paulita because of his liberal ideas
Was watching outside the house
Basilio, his friend, warns him to go away because the lighted lamp will soon explode
Realizes that Paulita was in grave danger
To save her life, he rushes into the house, seizes the lighted lamp, and hurls into the river, where it explodes
Life was unbearable in Europe because of his political differences with M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain
To be near his country
RIZAL AND THE GERMAN LADIES
The fast running steamer encountered a heavy squall and the door of the dining room was blown open
Nobody among the passengers who were busy eating stood up to close the door
A lady said to her companions in German: “If this man in front of us were a gentleman he would close the door
Upon hearing her remark, Rizal, without saying a word, rose and closed the door
He conversed with the German ladies in perfect German, and the ladies were very much embarrassed
FAMILY REUNION IN HONG KONG
The Christmas in Hong Kong was one of the happiest Yuletide Celebrations in Rizal’s life
He had a happy family reunion
OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG
To earn a living for himself and for himself, Rizal practiced medicine
A Portuguese physician, Dr. Lorenzo Marques, became his friend and helped him to build a wide clientele
BORNEO COLONIZATION PROJECT
In the face of the bleak outlook of the Calamba folks under Governor Valeriano Weyler’s terroristic regime, Rizal conceived the establishment of a Filipino colony in North Borneo (Sabah)
He planned to move the landless Filipino families to that rich British-owned island and carve out its virgin wildness a “New Calamba.”
He went to Sandakan to negotiate with the British authorities for the establishment of a Filipino colony.
Bengkoka River in Maradu Bay
Was offered by the British Borneo Company
His mission was successful
The British authorities of Borneo were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100, 000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor, and a good government for 999 years, free of all charges.
Hidalgo (Rizal’s brother in law)
Objected to the colonization project
Why should we go to a foreign land without first exhausting all means for the welfare of the country which nurtured us from our cradles?
New trends of events in the Philippines gave Rizal a new hope for realizing his Borneo project.
Weyler was relieved of his gubernatorial office
Eulogio Despujol, the new governor, announced to the Filipino people a fine program of government
In the belief that Governor Despujol was sincere in his beautiful promises of a better government, Rizal sent him a letter of felicitation and offering his cooperation.
The governor-general, violating the simple rule of Spanish courtesy, did not even acknowledge receipt of his letter.
In his second letter, he requested the governor-general to permit the landless Filipinos to establish themselves in Borneo
Despujol did not give Rizal the courtesy of a reply
Despujol notified the Spanish consul general in Hong Kong to tell Rizal that he could not approve the Filipino immigration to Borneo, alleging that the Philippines lacked laborers and it was not very patriotic to go off and cultivate foreign soil
WRITINGS IN HONGKONG
Rizal wrote “A Visit to Victoria Gaol”
An account of his visit to the colonial prison in Hong Kong
In this article he contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system with the moderm and more humane British prison system
Constitution of the La Liga Filipina
Most important writing made in Hong Kong
DECISION TO RETURN TO MANILA
To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project
To establish the Liga Filipina in Manila
To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid
Lete’s attack, which was printed in La Solidaridad, portrayed Rizal as cowardly, egoistic, opportunistic – a patriot in words only
Protest of Rizal to del Pilar:
Why did del Pilar permit Lete to write in the article?
It could harm more the interests of the whole country
LAST HONG KONG LETTERS
FIRST LETTER: ADDRESSED TO HIS PARENTS AND FRIENDS
I realized how much suffering I have caused you yet I do not regret what I have done in pursuit of my duty
Lived the examples he preached
A man ought to die for duty and his principles
To advance the future of the country, and shall willingly die for it, and even more willingly sacrifice all to secure justice and peace for you
I risk life to save so many innocent persons
There are many persons, filled with hope and ambition, who perhaps might be happier if I were dead
Should fate go against me, you will all understand that I shall die happy in the thought that my death will end all your troubles.
SECOND LETTER: ADDRESSED TO THE FILIPINOS
I cannot live on seeing so many suffer unjust persecution on my account
I prefer death and cheerfully shall relinquish life to free so many innocent persons from such unjust persecution
I appreciate the fact that at present the future of our country gravitates in some degree around me, that at my death many will feel triumphant; many are wishing for my fall
I hold duties of conscience above all else
I am all my parents have, but our country has many more sons who can take my place and even do my work better.
Besides I wish to show those who deny us the boon of patriotism that we know how to die for duty and principles
What matters death, if one dies for what one loves, for native land and beings held dear?
RIZAL FALLS INTO SPANISH TRAP
After Rizal’s departure from Hong Kong, the Spanish-consul general, who issued the government guarantee of safety, sent a cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim “is in trap.”
A secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers “for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation.”
The deceitful Despujol ordered his secretary, Luis de la Torre, to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen, as was rumored, so that he might take proper action against one “who had the protection of a strong nation.”
CHAPTER 21: SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA
Had an audience at Malacanang with Governor-General Despujol; Despujol agreed to pardon his father but not the rest of his family.
FOUNDING OF THE LIGA FILIPINA
Rizal attended a meeting of the patriots at the home of the Chinese- Filipino, Doroteo Ongjunco
Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga Filipina, a civic league of Filipinos
The patriots were favorably impressed and gladly approved the establishment of the Liga
CONSTITUTION OF THE LIGA FILIPINA
To unite the whole archipelago into one compact and homogenous body
Mutual protection in every want and necessity
Defense against all violence and injustice
Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce
Study and application of reforms
Motto: One like All
RIZAL ARRESTED AND JAILED IN FORT SANTIAGO
Rizal resumes his series of interviews with the governor-general
During this interview, governor-general Despujol suddenly showed him some printed leaflets which were allegedly found in Lucia’s pillow cases.
These incriminatory leaflets were entitled Pobres Frailes
They were a satire against the rich Dominican friars who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their monastic vow of poverty.
Rizal denied having those leaflets in either his or Lucia’s baggage, which had been thoroughly searched upon their arrival from Hong Kong by the custom authorities who found nothing.
Despite his denial and insistent demand for investigation in accordance with the due process of law, he was placed under arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago
The following day, the Gaceta de Manila published the story of Rizal’s arrest which produced indignant commotion among the Filipino people, particularly the members of the newly organized Liga Filipina
ARBITRARY DEPORTATION TO DAPITAN
The same issue of the Gaceta contained Governor General Despujol’s decree deporting Rizal to one of the islands in the South
The gubernatorial decree gave the reasons for Rizal’s deportation, as follows:
Rizal had published books and articles abroad which showed disloyalty to Spain and which were “frankly anti-catholic” and “imprudently anti-friar”
A few hours after his arrival in Manila “there was found in one of the packages… a bundle of handbills entitled Pobres Frailes”
His novel El Filibusterismo was dedicated to the memory of three traitors (Gom-Bur-Za), and on the title page he wrote that in view of the vices and errors of the Spanish administration, “the only salvation for the Philippines was separation from the mother country.”
The end which he pursues in his efforts and writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of our holy Catholic faith.
He was exiled in Dapitan for a period of 4 years.
CHAPTER 22: EXILE IN DAPITAN
BEGINNING OF EXILE IN DAPITAN
Dapitan, is a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the Jesuits
Rizal could live at the parish convent on the following conditions:
That Rizal publicly retract his errors concerning religion, and make statements that were clearly pro-Spanish and against revolution.
That he perform the church rites and make a general confession of his past life.
That he conduct himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject and a man of religion
Rizal did not agree with these conditions
Consequently, he lived in the house of the commandant; Captain Carnicero (the warden) and Rizal (the prisoner) were warm and friendly.
WINS IN MANILA LOTTERY
The mail boat, Butuan, brought no Spanish official to Dapitan but the happy tidings that:
the Lottery Ticket No. 9736 jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Rizal and Francisco Eqiulor (Spanish resident of Dipolog) won the second prize of P20,000
Rizal’s share of the winning lottery ticket was P6,200
He gave P2,000 to his father and P200 to his friend Basa in Hong Kong
The rest he invested well by purchasing agricultural lands along the coast of Talisay
Rizal never drank liquor and never smoked but he was a lottery ticket addict.
RIZAL-PASTELLS DEBATE ON RELIGION
Father Pastells sent Rizal a book by Sarda, with advice that Rizal should desist from his foolishness in viewing religion from the prism of individual judgment and self-esteem
Rizal revealed his anti-catholic ideas which he had acquired in Europe and embitterment at his persecution by the bad friars
It is understandable why he was bitter against the friars who committed certain abuses under the cloak of religion.
Rizal’s Catholicism requires enlightenment, like the Catholicism of Terilhard de Chardin
RIZAL CHALLENGES A FRENCHMAN TO A DUEL
Mr. Juan Lardet, a businessman, purchased many logs from the lands of Rizal.
It so happened that some of the logs were of poor quality
Lardet , in a letter written to Antonio Miranda, a Dapitan merchant and friend of Rizal,
expressed his disgust with the business deal
and stated that “if Rizal was a truthful man, he would have told me that the lumber not included in the account were bad.
Miranda indiscreetly forwarded Lardet’s letter to Rizal
Jose’s weakness: sensitivity
When he read Lardet’s letter, he flared up in anger, regarding the Frenchman’s unsavory comment as an affront to his integrity
Carnicero told the Frenchman to apologize rather than accept the challenge
Rizal accepted the Frenchman’s apology
RIZAL AND FATHER SANCHEZ
Father Pastells tried to persuade Rizal to discard his errors of religion
He assigned Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez, Rizal’s favorite teacher at Ateneo
Sanchez is the only Spanish priest to defend Rizal’s Noli in public
Failed to persuade Rizal to discard his unorthodox views on the Catholic Religion
RIZAL’S ENCOUNTER WITH THE FRIAR’S SPY
Pablo Mercado posed as a relative, secretly visited Rizal at his house
Strange visitor offered his services as a confidential courier of Rizal’s letter and writings for the patriots in Manila which might incriminate him in the revolutionary movement
Rizal, being a man of prudence and keen perception became suspicious
Rizal went to the comandancia and denounced the impostor to Captain Juan Sitges
As commandant of Dapitan, Sitges ordered the arrest of Pablo Mercado and instructed Anastacio Adriatico to investigate him immediately
The real name of Pablo Mercado was Florencio Namanan
AS PHYSICIAN IN DAPITAN
Patients are poor; he gave them free medicine
Studied the medicinal plants and their curative values
To poor patients, who could not afford to buy imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.
WATER SYSTEM FOR DAPITAN
Rizal held the title of expert surveyor which he obtained from Ateneo
He applied his knowledge of engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the townpeople.
Engineers marveled how Rizal could have built such a system of waterworks, for he had inadequate tools and his finances are limited
The Katipunan plot to overthrow Spanish rule by means of revolution was discovered by Fray Mariano Gil
This incident struck terror into the hearts of the Spanish officials and residents, producing a hysteria of vindicative retaliation against the Filipino patriots.
The tumult produced by the discovery of the Katipunan plot was aggravated by the Cry of Balintawak which was raised by Bonifacio and his valiant Katipuneros
The revolutionists led by Bonifacio and Jacinto attacked San Juan, but they were repulsed with heavy losses
After the Battle of San Juan, Governor General Blanco proclaimed a state of war in the first eight provinces for rising in arms against Spain:
Manila, BUlacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac
DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN
Rizal received from Governor General Blanco 2 letters of introduction for the Minister of War and the Minister of Colonies, with a covering letter which absolved him from all blame for the raging revolution
Letter by Blanco to the Minister of War:
His conduct during the 4 years that he was in exile in Dapitan has been exemplary
He is the more worthy of pardon and benevolence as he is in no way involved either in the criminal attempt that we are lamenting these days or in any conspiracy or secret society that they have been plotting.
Don Pedro Rozas and his son, Periquin
Fellow passenger of Rizal
RIZAL IN SINGAPORE
Don Pedro, with his son, disembarked at Singapore
He advised Rizal to stay too and take advantage of the protection of the British Law
Rizal did not heed his advice
Don Manuel Camus
Boarded the steamer, urging Jose to stay in Singapore to save his life
Jose ignored their appeal because he had given his word of honor to Governor General Blanco and he did not like to break it.
The brother of Luis Taviel de Andrade, Rizal’s bodyguard in Calamba
READING OF INFORMATION OF CHARGES TO THE ACCUSED
Jose was accused of being the principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion
As the accused, Rizal raised no objection on the jurisdiction of the court, but pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion.
He admitted that he wrote the Constitution of the Liga Filipina which was merely a civic association
He waived the right to amend or make further statements already made, except that he had taken no part in politics since his exile to Dapitan.
The withdrawal of Blanco from the gubernatorial office sealed Rizal’s fate, for he was more humane in character than the ruthless Polavieja
Blanco believed that Rizal was not a traitor to Spain
Had he remained in longer in office, Rizal would not have been executed
RIZAL’S MANIFESTO TO HIS PEOPLE
Rizal wrote a manifesto to his people appealing to them to stop the necessary shedding of blood and to achieve their liberties by means of education and liberty
My name had been used as a war cry among some who were in arms
When I had news of what was being planned, I opposed it and demonstrated its absolute impossibility
I was convinced that the idea was highly absurd and would bring great suffering
In spite of my counsels, the movement broke out
I spontaneously offered not only my services, but my life, and even my name so that they might use them in the manner they saw fit to suppress the rebellion
Liberty is desired by placing education as a premise – by means of education and of labor they might have a personality of their own and make themselves worthy of liberties
In my writings I have recommended redemption
I have written that reforms, to be fruitful, have to come from above, that those that come from below are irregular and unstable
I condemn this absurd, savage uprising planned behind my back, which dishonors us
I abhor its criminal methods and disclaim all participation therein.
Rizal’s manifesto was not issued to the people
Rizal was saved from the shame of his manifesto’s being misinterpreted and disobeyed by the Filipinos in arms
THE TRIAL OF RIZAL
His case was prejudged; he was considered guilty before the actual trial
Rizal was not given the right (which any accused is entitled to have in a real court of justice) to face the witnesses against him in open court
The prosecuting attorney urged the court to give the verdict of death to the accused
Rizal proved his innocence by twelve points:
He could not be guilty of rebellion, for he advised Dr. Pio Valenzuela in Dapitan not to rise in revolution
He did not correspond with the radical, revolutionary elements
The revolutionists used his name without his knowledge. If he were guilty he could have escaped Singapore
If he had a hand in revolution, he could have escaped in a Moro vinta and would not have built a home, a hospital, and bought lands in Dapitan
If he were the chief of revolution, why was he not consulted by the revolutionists?
It was true that he wrote the by-laws of the Liga Filipina, but this is only a civic association – not a revolutionary society.
The Liga Filipina did not live long, for after the first meeting he was banished to Dapitan and it died out.
If the La Liga was organized 9 months later, he did not know about it.
The La Liga did not serve the purpose of the revolutionists, otherwise they would not have supplanted it with the Katipunan.
If it were true that there were some bitter comments in Rizal’s letters, it was because they were written in 1890 when his family was being persecuted
His life in Dapitan had been exemplary as the politico-military commanders and missionary priests could attest
It was not true that the revolution was inspired by one of his speech at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco, as alleged by witnesses whom he would like to confront. His friends knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why did the Katipunan send an emissary to Dapitan who was unknown to him?
The military court unanimously voted for the sentence of death
POLAVIEJA SIGNS RIZAL’S EXECUTION
Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal o be shot at 7am of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field.
CHAPTER 25: MARTYRDOM IN BAGUMBAYAN
LAST HOURS OF RIZAL
Rizal gave to Trinidad the alcohol cooking stove instructing her that there is something inside
This “something” was Rizal’s farewell poem
10PM 29 December 1896
Rizal wrote his retraction, in which he abjured Masonry and his religious ideas which were anti-catholic
MARTYRDOM OF A HERO
He requested the commander of the firing squad, that he be shot facing the firing squad
His request was denied, for the captain had implicit orders to shot him in the back
Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo
A Spanish military physician asked his permission to feel his pulse
Castillo was amazed to find it normal, showing that Rizal was not afraid to die
It was exactly 7:03 in the morning when he died in the bloom of manhood – aged 35 y. o.
AFTERMATH OF A HERO-MARTYR’S DEATH
After the hero’s execution, the Spanish spectators shouted “Viva Espana!” “Muerte a los Traidores” (Long live Spain! Death to the Traitors!)