The ancient Egyptians worshipped many gods. These gods and goddesses often represented the natural world, for example the sky, earth, wind, or sun. They took the form of animals or combined animal and human forms. Egyptian gods had a life that closely resembled human life; they lived, died, hunted, went into battle, gave birth, ate, drank, and had human emotions. The importance of the various gods and goddesses changed over time and depended on the beliefs of the king in power. Certain gods were worshipped in different areas.
AMUN-RA (or-Re) was a combination of Amun and Re from later Egyptian mythology, also called Amon-Ra. The Theban god Amun became the national god of Egypt under this name.
ANUBIS (Anepo) was an ancient Egyptian god. He was the son of Osiris and Isis. He was described as having the head of a jackal. He guided the souls of the dead from this world into the next. He was also a sort of judge of the underworld since he weighed the actions of the dead ones in the presence of Osiris.
ATUM was the god that created himself. He was represented in the form of a human and a serpent.
BA was the god of fertility and childbirth.
HATOR was the goddess of love, beauty and dance.
HORUS was the earliest royal god and had the shape of a falcon, with the sun and moon as his eyes. The sky-god was the ruler of the day.
ISIS was one of the most popular goddesses in Egypt. She was regarded as the mother and protector of the pharaohs. She was worshipped as the divine mother-goddess, and was the dedicated mother of Horus.
NUT was the Egyptian sky-goddess. She was the personification of the sky and of the heavens, the daughter of Shu and Tefnut. Nut was the barrier separating the forces of chaos from the ordered cosmos in this world. She swallowed the stars and gave birth to them later. In the death cult she plays an important role in the resurrection of the dead; she is portrayed on the inside of the lids of the sarcophagi. As sky-goddess Nut was portrayed as a naked woman covered with painted stars, held up by Shu. Thus she formed the firmament above her husband Geb, the earth. Her fingers and toes were believed to touch the four directions.
MAAT was the goddess of truth and world order. “Maat” was also a general term for the law and order under which the Egyptians lived.
MENTHU was the god of war.
NEPHTHYS was the goddess who protected the dead. She was the daughter of Geb and Nut and later was married to Seth.
OSIRIS was the god of goodness and justice. He was married to Isis, a sky goddess. He was also the protector of the dead.
PTAH was the creator-god of Memphis, the city that served as the capital of ancient Egypt for most of its history. Ptah was depicted as a mummified man with only his hands free to hold a scepter composed of the symbols of life, power, and stability.
RA was the ancient Egyptian Sun god and Lord of the sky. In some versions of the Egyptian creation he created the universe.
SETH was the god of evil. He is also a god of war, deserts, storms and foreign lands. As the god of the desert he protected the caravans which traveled through the desert, but he also caused great sandstorms which destroyed them. This brought him into conflict with the fertility god Osiris.
SHU was the son of Atum and the brother of Tefnut. He and Tefnut created the twins Geb and Nut. Shu then separated the twins, leaving Geb to float in the primordial ocean and Nut to remain high above the earth as a pathway for the Sun to travel each day from horizon to horizon.
SPHINX was a goddess of wisdom and knowledge.
GEB (SEB) was the earth god. He was masculine, contrasting with the tradition that the god of the earth was usually female.
TEFNUT was the personified goddess of moisture in Egyptian mythology. She became the mother of Geb (Earth) and Nut (Sky).
THOTH was the god of wisdom.