Egypt Today Chap 9 Sec 3 Notes The Suez Canal Giving Up the Canal and Control



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Egypt Today

Chap 9 Sec 3

Notes

The Suez Canal

Giving Up the Canal and Control

Egyptian ruler Ismail Pasha builds Suez Canal in 1860s

- cost bankrupts Egypt

Pasha sells Egypt’s share of Canal to Britain

Britain has some control over Egypt until 1956

From Ancient to Modern Times

Foreign Rule

Egypt is ruled by Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Arab Muslims

Mameluke military group rules from 1250; Ottomans invade in 1517

France, Britain control Egypt in 1800s

- Britain gives up absolute control in 1922

- Britain still controls Egypt’s foreign policy, defense

Becomes monarchy in 1922; ruled by King Faud, then King Farouk

Nasser Takes Over

Egyptian army officer Gamal Abdel Nasser resents British control

Topples King Farouk in 1952, rules Egypt as republic until 1970

Controlling the Nile

Nasser builds Aswan High Dam to stop Nile flooding

- gives farmers steady water; creates electricity, fishing industry

Nile does not deposit rich soil; artificial fertilizers pollute water

Dam is a tradeoff—exchange of one benefit for another

Rights for Women

Women help gain independence, but are denied vote until 1956

Muslim Personal Status Law limits women’s marriage rights until 1979

A Search for Peace

Egypt is anti-Israel until President Anwar Sadat signs 1979 treaty

Egypt leads 1990 Arab opposition of Iraq, seeks Israel-Palestine solution

The Muslim Brotherhood

Muslim Brotherhood—extremist group seeking Islamic government

Opposes Egypt working with Israel, U.S.

The Land and the People

Egyptian Cotton

Most of Egypt is desert; 70% of people live, farm along Nile

Cotton is major primary product and export, considered world’s best

- textile industry makes secondary products such as yarns, fabrics



Village Life

Over half the people live in villages

Most are fellahin—peasant farmers

- most are poor, uneducated; suffer from malnutrition, disease



Africa’s Largest City

The Capital of Egypt

Once full of gardens, trees, Cairo is now paved, crowded, polluted

Population, unemployment grow as villagers come seeking work

Life in Cairo

Many poor live in older sections, some in cemeteries or on roofs

Many poor have no work or are unskilled factory workers

Most well-educated, professional people live on west bank of Nile



The Region’s Cultural Leader

Education and Information

Egypt has been Arab world’s cultural leader for over a century



- leads region in education, women’s rights

Many Arabs get information, entertainment from Egyptian media


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