Egypt (founded in 3100 b c. e.; chapter 1)

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Alyssa Copeland- Extra Credit on Africa


Egypt (founded in 3100 b.c.e.; chapter 1)

-natural isolation on Nile River Valley which they depended on for agriculture, unified early history

-writing: hieroglyphics, papyrus, many genres of literature

-mostly relied on stone tools, metals like bronze were reserved for the elite

-pyramids served as tombs for the elite (Pharaohs and Administrators), capital from Memphis to Thebes

-polytheistic religion: gods of natural forces, trusted deities brought order and prosperity, belief in afterlife, mummification, Book of the Dead containing rituals

-Pharaohs were "divine" and their administrators were literate, women more respected than in Mesopotamia

-trade with Nubia (rich with gold and metals, adopted Egyptian culture), spread of wheeled vehicles

Madagascar and Mozambique (5th century c.e.; chapter 7)

-Indonesians reach Madagascar and Mozambique from the Indian Ocean Maritime System

-cultivation of bananas and yams, contact lost with Asia

Major Trade: Saharan Trade and Trans-Saharan Trade (3rd century c.e., chapter 7)

-major trade routes above and below Sahara Desert linked

-cave paintings of camels and chariots

Sub-Saharan Africa (300 b.c.e.- 600 c.e.; chapter 7)

-many environmental zones (steppes, highlands, savanna, sahel, tropical rain forest)

-"great traditions" and "small traditions" make sub-Sahara African cultures diverse except theme of kingship

-Bantu migrations spread iron and other technologies

Mali in Western Sudan (1240-15th century c.e.; chapter 13)

-established by Sundiata in 1240, Muslim

-economy focused on agriculture, gold mines in Niger, and trade across the Sahara

-leader Mansa Kankan Musa shows wealth on trip to Mecca, once back, establishes mosques/Quran schools

-collapsed in mid/late 15th century from interior rebellions and exterior attacks

Swahili Coast and Zimbabwe (1200-1500; chapter 13)

-1500, Swahili Coast participates in Indian Ocean Trade, slavery increases

-Kilwa (and other inland cities) has economy around gold

-Great Zimbabwe relies on agriculture, cattle herding, and trade; declined due to deforestation and overgrazing

-Islam spreads literacy and Greek discoveries, promotes mixing of Islam and individual traditions

Malindi (1400-1550; chapter 15)

-one of the few cities spared from the Portuguese in the Maritime Revolution, Swahili Coast

Major Trade: The Atlantic Circuit and the Triangular Trade (1550-1800; chapter 18)

The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast (1550-1800; chapter 18)

- trade increases after 1650 as slavery becomes more popular, forced buying Euros to observe customs and make unfair deals, exchanged slaves for firearms (seen in the expansion of Dahomey; Oyo & Asante trade overland too)

Bight of Biafra and Angola (1550-1800; chapter 18)

-kidnapping & prisoners of war = main sources of slaves; Portuguese middlemen care for slaves between initial capture and final sale

-slaves across Sahara mostly women while slaves across Atlantic mostly men; no significant population decrease

-Songhai, Hausa, and Bornu in Western and Central Sudan

Muslims in Coastal Africa (1500-1750; chapter 19)

-sparse, no contact between, always competing for business

-Arabs of Omen push Portuguese out of Swahili ports and conquer (1650-1729)

-North Africa as part of Ottoman Empire

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