Egypt and Mesopotamia Matching



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Egypt and Mesopotamia
Matching
Match the terms to the descriptions.

a.

delta

f.

Sabbath

b.

Zoroaster

g.

Sargon

c.

Rosetta Stone

h.

hieroglyphics

d.

cuneiform

i.

Nebuchadnezzar

e.

Diaspora

j.

Hatshepsut

____ 1. the marshy area formed by silt deposits at the mouth of some rivers


____ 2. the form of writing in which symbols or pictures represent concepts or sounds
____ 3. the ruler who created the world’s first empire
____ 4. the Jewish holy day of rest and worship
____ 5. the ruler who is thought to have built the Hanging Gardens in Babylon
____ 6. the female ruler of Egypt who encouraged trade during the New Kingdom
____ 7. the form of writing composed of wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets
____ 8. the scattering of Jews across different parts of the world
____ 9. the key to unlocking the meaning of ancient Egyptian writing and language
____ 10. religious figure who introduced the idea of a single wise god to the Persian empire
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 11. In the Sumerian civilization, the purpose of a ziggurat was to

a.

hold back floodwaters.

b.

keep the gods and goddesses happy.

c.

irrigate the fields.

d.

protect the people from foreign invaders.

____ 12. Later civilizations developed basic algebra and geometry by building on the number system first created by the



a.

Sumerians.

c.

Egyptians.

b.

Israelites.

d.

Babylonians.

____ 13. Hammurabi’s Code was important because it was the first time that a state’s laws



a.

applied to the royal household.

c.

were set down in writing.

b.

provided prisons for punishment.

d.

imposed taxes on citizens.

____ 14. Iron was important in the ancient world mainly because



a.

it was a very scarce metal.

b.

it was used to make coins.

c.

it could be made into harder, sharper weapons.

d.

it was less expensive than bronze.

____ 15. Darius improved economic life in the Persian empire by



a.

encouraging a barter economy.

b.

switching from a barter to a traditional economy.

c.

switching from a traditional to a barter economy.

d.

encouraging the development of a money economy.

____ 16. A major accomplishment during Egypt’s Old Kingdom was



a.

the conquest of Syria.

b.

the conquest of Nubia.

c.

the building of the Great Pyramids.

d.

a large drainage project to increase farmable land.

____ 17. How did the beliefs of the Israelites differ from those of most nearby peoples?



a.

They believed in an afterlife.

b.

They believed in a fearful underworld.

c.

They believed divine forces ruled this world.

d.

They believed in one all-powerful god.

____ 18. According to the Torah, who led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt?



a.

David

c.

Moses

b.

Abraham

d.

Solomon

____ 19. Which of the following best describes the way in which Sumerians viewed the afterlife?



a.

a place much like Earth

c.

a grim underworld with no way out

b.

a place of perfect happiness

d.

a temporary place of atonement

____ 20. The world’s first civilization developed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in



a.

Sargon.

c.

Babylon.

b.

Nubia.

d.

Sumer.

____ 21. Which of the following matters would be covered under the civil law section of Hammurabi’s Code?



a.

murder

c.

divorce

b.

robbery

d.

assault

____ 22. The skill of ironworking spread across Asia, Africa, and Europe through the migration of ironsmiths from what empire?



a.

Assyrian

c.

Sumerian

b.

Hittite

d.

Babylonian

____ 23. Persian thinker Zoroaster spread the idea of



a.

the rule of law.

c.

irrigating crops.

b.

heaven, hell, and judgment day.

d.

mummifying the dead.

____ 24. In the bureaucracy of Egypt’s Old Kingdom, government matters, such as tax collection and the irrigation system, were supervised by the



a.

vizier.

c.

chief scribe.

b.

pharaoh.

d.

satrap.

____ 25. To show the importance of their subject, Egyptian artists typically portrayed pharaohs as



a.

sky gods.

c.

winged warrior-gods.

b.

larger than other human figures.

d.

warriors on horseback.

____ 26. Who made a covenant with God in which Canaan was promised to the Hebrew people?



a.

Solomon

c.

David

b.

Moses

d.

Abraham

____ 27. The first five books of the Hebrew Bible are also known as



a.

the Psalms.

c.

the Torah.

b.

the New Testament.

d.

Buddhism.

____ 28. The Ten Commandments are a set of laws that the Jews believe God gave to them through



a.

Moses.

c.

Abraham.

b.

Isaiah.

d.

David.

____ 29. In ancient Egyptian society, most people were



a.

slaves.

c.

artisans.

b.

merchants.

d.

peasant farmers.

____ 30. Which of the following was a Sumerian innovation that later civilizations built on?



a.

irrigation system

c.

cuneiform

b.

code of law

d.

system of weights and measures



Short Answer
31. Identify Central Issues Identify and describe the two branches of law codified in Hammurabi’s Code. For each branch of law, give two examples of the kinds of matters that the laws addressed.
32. Summarize Describe the steps in the journey of a person’s soul after death according to Egyptian beliefs.
“Egypt is wholly the gift of the Nile.”

—Herodotus


33. Draw Inferences Read the quotation above by the Greek historian Herodotus. What did Herodotus mean by this statement?
34. Make Comparisons How was the Phoenician alphabet different from cuneiform? How did the Phoenician alphabet develop into the alphabet we use today?
35. Summarize What was the purpose of mummification? What belief led the Egyptians to mummify their dead?
36. Identify Central Issues Why was the Rosetta Stone an important discovery? How was Jean Champollion able to decipher its meaning?
37. Drawing Conclusions How may the history of the Israelites have influenced how Jewish people today feel about Palestine?

Egypt and Mesopotamia

Answer Section
MATCHING
1. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 45

OBJ: 2.3.1 Understand the ways in which geography helped shape ancient Egypt.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 5.D.1 TOP: geography
2. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 54

OBJ: 2.4.4 Outline the advances that the Egyptians made in learning the arts, science, and literature.

TOP: Egyptians
3. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 36

OBJ: 2.2.1 Outline the achievements of the first empires that arose in Mesopotamia.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 TOP: Mesopotamia
4. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 60

OBJ: 2.5.3 Analyze the moral and ethical ideas of Judaism. STA: 2b.A.1.5

TOP: Israelites
5. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 40

OBJ: 2.2.2 Understand how conquests brought new empires and ideas into the Middle East.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Middle East
6. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 47

OBJ: 2.3.4 Explain how Egypt grew strong during the New Kingdom.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Egyptians
7. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 33

OBJ: 2.1.2 Outline the main features of Sumerian civilization. STA: 2b.A.1.3

TOP: Sumerians
8. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 60

OBJ: 2.5.2 Outline the main events in the early history of the Israelites.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Israelites
9. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 55

OBJ: 2.4.4 Outline the advances that the Egyptians made in learning the arts, science, and literature.

TOP: Egyptians
10. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 42

OBJ: 2.2.3 Describe how the Persians established a huge empire.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Persians
MULTIPLE CHOICE
11. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 32

OBJ: 2.1.2 Outline the main features of Sumerian civilization. STA: 2b.A.1.3

TOP: Sumerians
12. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 34

OBJ: 2.1.3 Explain how the advances in learning made by the Sumerians left a lasting legacy for later peoples to build on. STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 6.C.1 TOP: Sumerians


13. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2.2.1 Outline the achievements of the first empires that arose in Mesopotamia.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 TOP: Mesopotamia
14. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 38

OBJ: 2.2.2 Understand how conquests brought new empires and ideas into the Middle East.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Middle East
15. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 42

OBJ: 2.2.3 Describe how the Persians established a huge empire.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Persians
16. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 45

OBJ: 2.3.2 Analyze the achievements of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 3.B.1.3 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Egyptians
17. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 57

OBJ: 2.5.1 Understand what made the ancient Israelites' belief system unique from others at the time.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Israelites
18. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 59

OBJ: 2.5.2 Outline the main events in the early history of the Israelites.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Israelites
19. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 32

OBJ: 2.1.2 Outline the main features of Sumerian civilization. STA: 2b.A.1.3

TOP: Sumerians
20. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 30

OBJ: 2.1.1 Understand how geography influenced the development of civilization in the Fertile Crescent.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 2b.I.1 | 5.D.1 TOP: Mesopotamia
21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2.2.1 Outline the achievements of the first empires that arose in Mesopotamia.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 TOP: Mesopotamia
22. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 38

OBJ: 2.2.2 Understand how conquests brought new empires and ideas into the Middle East.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Middle East
23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 42

OBJ: 2.2.3 Describe how the Persians established a huge empire.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Persians
24. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 45

OBJ: 2.3.2 Analyze the achievements of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 3.B.1.3 | 3.C.1.2 TOP: Egyptians
25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 56

OBJ: 2.4.4 Outline the advances that the Egyptians made in learning the arts, science, and literature.

TOP: Egyptians
26. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 58

OBJ: 2.5.2 Outline the main events in the early history of the Israelites.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Israelites
27. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 57

OBJ: 2.5.1 Understand what made the ancient Israelites' belief system unique from others at the time.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Israelites
28. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 60

OBJ: 2.5.3 Analyze the moral and ethical ideas of Judaism. STA: 2b.A.1.5

TOP: Israelites
29. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 53

OBJ: 2.4.3 Explain how the Egyptians organized their society. STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 3.B.1.3

TOP: Egyptians
30. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 34

OBJ: 2.1.3 Explain how the advances in learning made by the Sumerians left a lasting legacy for later peoples to build on. STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 6.C.1 TOP: Sumerians


SHORT ANSWER
31. ANS:

Possible response: Hammurabi’s Code codified civil law and criminal law. Civil law deals with private rights and matters such as business contracts and marriage. Criminal law deals with offenses against others, such as robbery and murder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2.2.1 Outline the achievements of the first empires that arose in Mesopotamia.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 TOP: Mesopotamia
32. ANS:

Possible response: First, the dead soul would cross a lake of fire by ferry to the hall of Osiris. Then the soul faced a test. Osiris would weigh the dead person’s heart against the feather of truth. Those he judged to be sinners would be fed to the Eater of the Dead. Worthy souls would enter the Happy Field of Food, where they would live happily forever.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 51

OBJ: 2.4.2 Understand how Egyptians viewed the afterlife. TOP: Egyptians


33. ANS:

Possible response: Herodotus meant that without the Nile Egypt would be just part of the barren desert that surrounds the river. The Nile made it possible for people to live in the region. They drank the water, irrigated their crops with it, and stored water for the dry season. The Nile’s annual floodwaters soaked the land and deposited a rich layer of silt, keeping the farmland productive.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 44

OBJ: 2.3.1 Understand the ways in which geography helped shape ancient Egypt.

STA: 2b.A.1.3 | 5.D.1 TOP: ancient Egypt
34. ANS:

Possible response: Cuneiform used symbols to represent syllables or whole words. In the Phoenician alphabet, each symbol represented a single basic sound. This alphabet contained 22 symbols that stood for consonant sounds. The Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet by adding symbols for vowel sounds. The alphabet we use today came from this Greek alphabet.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 43

OBJ: 2.2.4 Summarize the contributions the Phoenicians made to the ancient Middle East.

STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Phoenicians
35. ANS:

Possible response: The purpose of mummification was to preserve the dead person’s body. Egyptians believed that the afterlife would be much like life on Earth. They mummified bodies so that the dead would have the use of their bodies in the afterlife.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 53

OBJ: 2.4.2 Understand how Egyptians viewed the afterlife. TOP: Egyptians


36. ANS:

Possible response: Many records from ancient Egypt were carved on stone monuments in hieroglyphics. After the decline of ancient Egypt, the meaning of the ancient hieroglyphs was lost. The deciphering of the passages written on the Rosetta Stone made it possible for scholars to begin to read these records. The Rosetta Stone contained the same passages written in hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek. By comparing the different scripts, Champollion was able to work out the meaning of many hieroglyphs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 55

OBJ: 2.4.4 Outline the advances that the Egyptians made in learning the arts, science, and literature.

TOP: Egyptians
37. ANS:

Possible response: According to the Torah, God made a covenant with Abraham. As one part of the covenant, God declared that Canaan would one day belong to the Israelites. As a result, the Israelites viewed Canaan as their “promised land.” This land was renamed Palestine under Roman rule. In spite of the scattering of the Jews during the Diaspora, the Jews maintained their identity as a people through their religious laws and traditions. Today, the Jewish state of Israel occupies part of Palestine.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp. 58-59

OBJ: 2.5.2 Outline the main events in the early history of the Israelites.



STA: 2b.A.1.5 TOP: Israelites


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