INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE BYUMBA (IPB)EDUCATIO – SCIENTIA - MINISTERIA
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Faculty of Social Sciences, Management, and Development Studies
Departments of: - Social Sciences Level II WEEKEND UNIT: HUMAN GEOGRAPY
TOPIC: POPULATION PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES CASE STUDY CHINA
PRESENTED BY02633/W/12 complement
Lecturer: RUZIBIZA Jean Baptiste
Done at Byumba, on 11th July, 2014
POPULATION PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
CASE STUDY OF CHINA
China, officially known as the People’s Republic of China(PRC). Is a sovereign state located in East Asia.It is the world’s most popular country with over 1.35 billion. It is a single –party state governed by the communist party, with its seat the government in the capital city of Beijing.
1.ONE CHILD POLICY
The Chinese government introduced the in 1979. The aim of this policy was to attempt to control population growth. This policy limited couples to one child. Under this policy couples have the gain permission from family Planning officials for each birth.
If family followed this policy, they received free education, health care, and other family benefits. These are taken away if the couples have more than one child.
The benefits of this policy are that the growth rate of china’s population has declined without the policy, it is estimated that there would be an extra 320 millions more people in a country whose population is estimated to be over 1.35 billion as we said it above.
On the other hand, the scheme has caused a number of problems in china. This Is particularly the case for hundreds of thousands of young females.
Many thousands of young girls have been abandoned by their parents as the results of the one child policy. Many parents in China prefer to have a boy to carry on the family name. It’s a result; large numbers of girls have either ended up orphanages, homeless or in some cases killed. Also 90% of fetuses aborted in China are females
Lastly, one child policy becomes one big problem for China.
Since introducing this policy, more than 30 years ago, China claims it has prevented 400 million births and the worsening of many social, environmental and economic problems. But there have also been many consequences, including forced abortions sterilizations and imbalanced sex ratio. After decades controversy, Chinese burdens slightly loosened the policy to allow any parent who ‘is an only child themselves to have a second child and it would be the same to the farmers living in rural areas and the first child is female and when the parents are ethnic minorities. Let’s remember that this policy has been taken into account due to the china population density. As whole china has a population density of 139.6 people per square kilometers or 363.3 people per square mile. This ranks 81st despite the country itself being one of the largest in term of size and largest in term of population
2. DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS
I t is a well know fact that one child policy was set by the government of china. This leads to too low birth rate based upon nationwide census conducted in 2010, shows a total population for mainland china of 1.34 billion. It does also reveal a steep decline in average annual population growth rate, down to 0.57%. In 2000-2010, half the rate of 1.07%. in previous decade .The data imply that the total fertility rate ,which is the number of children a woman of child bearing age can expect to have, on average, during her lifetime, may now be just 1.4, far below the< replacement rate> Of 2.1, which eventually leads to the population stabilizing.
3.DRAMATIC(BURDEN)AGEING OF POPULATION
The slower growth goes with a dramatic ageing of population. People above60 now represent 13.3% of the total in 2000. In the a=same period, those under the age of 14 declined from 23% to 17%A continuation of these trends will place ever greater burdens on the working young who must support their elderly kin , as well as on the government run pension and health care systems. China’s great … demographic dividend % a rising share of working-age adults % is almost over. China’s working age population is declining. So will the overall population in the few coming years due to one child policy, introduced in 1979, and responsible for anywhere from 100 to 400 million less birth. It should be noted that it is not a<. one child Policy> across the board second children as we talked it above are allowed for ethnic minorities, rural families whose first child is a girl and for parents who are both only children. The one child policy has also led to a dramatic gender discrepancy.
The working of people’s Republic of China a great problem where young Chinese are highly welcomed In factories, and in every job opportunity. This means the end of the demographic dividend, which is a productive advantages brought about by a large labor force and a low dependency ratio-lower numbers of those not in the labor force us those in labor force. China has already begun to see the consequences of a smaller labor force and the of a demographic dividend.
This also goes with people’s smaller labor force as we said above and this also push even more manufacturing jobs move to countries like Myanmar, Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia, and a change dependency ratio poses a significant burden to a country in terms of health care costs.
So China is certainly aging quickly. In 1982, the 60 and over population was 8 percent of the total, a number that has grown to 14.3 percent. It is estimated that China’s elderly population will hit 360 million by 2030, from about 200 million in 2013
4. UNBALANCED SEX
According to what have been said above, the one-child policy introduced in CHINA, parents preferred to give birth to boys rather than girls. This leads too many abortions provided for girls. So that all offspring could be born are boys in order to carry out the one-child policy where no many offspring will be born.
The imbalanced sex due to the one –child policy was implemented and set for just making in plan this policy aimed at controlling births rates. This imbalance will provide many consequences to the future Chinese where there will be unmarried ones in terms of couples that will occur due to unbalanced children
Besides it is estimated that, this country, China ,will remain with only adults that will unfortunately be a great problem where there will be less births and it will cause the country not to have youths due to the policy of controlling the rapid growth by the use of one-child policy per couple.
The one child policy has also led to the unbalanced gender where it is compared to the global average of 103-107 boys for every 100 girls, china’s figures are 118 boys for every 100 girls.
In conclude, more short term solutions are needed solutions that would focus on adapting the economy to the new reality of slowing population growth and ensuing transition away from a low- skill manufacturing economy. For example, developing and supporting innovation, promoting a consumer- spending driven economy, and raising the workforce. Thus ending the one child policy is just one piece of the puzzle. Coping with these demographic changes will require the comprehensive strategy.
5. UNEMPLOYEMENT PROBLEM
The fast growth of population at working age was due to the fast shortage of Family Planning all over the country. The new entrants to labor force were born in around the mid-1970s when the births rates were about 3.5% The 1.5 percent points higher than about 2.0% of the births rates later gave rise to 3.5-5.0 million of population at working age today more than otherwise. What is more, agricultural demand for labor has declined because of the progress science and technology and the decline of farm. The increasing population in countryside is also an important reason of unemployment. Population is increasing while the farm is decreasing. Therefore, more and more people, especially farmers have work to do.
The inadequate skills of people are another cause of unemployment there are quantities of people cannot get job because of low quality in knowledge. In recent years, enhancing would be required and this is a challenge for workers as well. Furthermore, another data show that the rate of unemployment is connected tightly with the workers educational backgrounds .Most of the unemployed people is the ones who have very little knowledge.
According to the demonstrations above, difficulty in state enterprise’s development, increase population and inadequate skills and education have led to Chinese unemployment. It is not only a private but also a national problem which needs the solutions from both the labors themselves and the government.
6. MIGRATION PROBLEM
The driving forces of rural to urban are commonly in general by push and pull factors. This is the case of china. Younger migrants are more influenced by pull factors, such as expected earning opportunities, personal development aspirations and urban lifestyles.
On the other hand, older migrants are more driven by push factors including labor in rural area which is often regarded as the main push factor of internal migration in china. They move from rural to urban areas where development of the special economic zones and industries are highly crated for just accomplishing the physiological needs.
Besides, the left-behind in china refers to the children who live with one parent, usually mother, or extended family, usually grandparents, when their parents are absents from home as migrant workers in urban areas. They are left behind partly because of little access to basic welfare in cities without local status and partly because of high living expenses in cities, these children are less healthy, but the difference is very marginal in terms of physical development, psychological and school status. These problems either nutrition problems with low intake of some nutrients, depression and anxiety caused by being left alone in the countryside play a great role in just moving from rural areas to urban areas.
Therefore, According to the International Labor Organization, internal migration in china is defined by to essentials futures. The first of these is that migrants generally move from farmlands and agricultural areas into more urban areas and developed cities. The second cause of Chinese internal migration is that labor flows are basically directed from the interior to coastal areas, and /or from central and western regions to eastern areas. These two features go and work in interrelated manner.
7. HEALTH PROBLEM AND DISABILITIES
The dramatic rapid growth decline is causing china’s population to age at the fastest rates accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease and disability in the population. Meeting the health and long-term care needs of this growing elderly population will help to deal with poor health status at old age.
Because chronic health problems become more common in old age , china’s population aging has led to increases in the country’s the prevalence of chronic and disability , creating a greater need for long term care. Improved living standards in china have exacerbated the epidemic of chronic disease by increasing exposure to major risk factors such as smoking high- fat and high-calories diets and more leisure time without physical activity.
Chronic diseases accounted for almost 80 percent of all deaths in 2011, as reported by the guardian, with the major causes of being cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Hypertension (or blood pressure) prevalence of adult population has increase by one – third over the past decade. Prevalence of obesity, though still around 7 percent, has almost doubled in a decade. These trends suggest potential increases in the prevalence of these conditions for future life of china’s elderly.
So the Chinese government has recently acknowledged the consequences of rapid population aging and has started to address them in various policies and programs including strategies for long- term care and for primary and secondary prevention where the ministry of health has also been addressing chronic disease prevention and control.
As conclusion, China’s population projections are very interesting, given that it is the most populous country in the world. According to current projections done by United Nations, china’s population will finally peak in 2026 with a Shrinking labor force and over 65 population of 240 million.
We have also talked about very serious demographic problem due to sex-selective abortion and one-child policy of china, resulting in a ratio of 118 to 120 boys for every 100girls.It is estimated that the percentage of men in their late 30’s who have never married will quintuple by 2030, and this large number of unmarriageable young men cannot help the country.
The unemployment and health problems, the government of china took measures and policies in order to fight against them by providing several and different teaching and their ways conducting them.
Such internal migrations have been taken into account by creating jobs as the major pull of moving from rural to urban areas. The poverty and the bad life and difficult life conditions that push population to leave the countryside, the left-behind children, also with such difficulties have began to be helped in order to stay healthy, safe and quiet
3 International Labor Organization retrieved 2013-10-20
4.United Nations population division
6.Though road ahead for china census accessed online
7.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics-of - China