|TOPIC 9 REASONS FOR COLONIALISM
by 1870s countries developing second industrial revolution facing double problem:
1 need to sell overproduction, new markets
2 need to buy larger amounts of raw materials at cheapest price
Besides: wish to invest surplus of capital in places with cheaper hand labour in order to get larger profits
RESULT: most developed countries occupied territories esp. in Africa and Asia – areas with weak political and economic structures. This is known as colonialism.
Main countries: Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy later also the United States and Japan
Population excess of industrialised countries: search better living conditions creating colonies in areas having similar climate, i.e. South Africa, Australia, Algeria.
RESULT: millions of Europeans emigrated to colonies preventing further social discomfort to the metropolis i.e. strikes, stoppage or workers rioting
POLITICAL the “national pride” forcing to increase the number of colonies
MILITARY need to occupy ports, build strategic canals to guard commercial routes in competition with nations aiming the same
JUSTIFICATION FOR COLONIALISM
Some countries mentioned moral or ethical reasoning: Europe’s civilising mission: due to technological supremacy + religious = sanitary, educational, improving lifestyles, social peace,…
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (December 30, 1865–January 18, 1936) was an English author and poet, born in Bombay, British India, and best known for his works The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895
However, later in life Kipling also came to be seen (in George Orwell's words) as a "prophet of British imperialism." Many saw prejudice and militarism in his works
(The heavy responsibility of the white man)
"The White Man's Burden" is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. I
RESULT: ideas lead to racism: white man superior to other races
JUST only a few intellectuals and socialist leaders opposed colonialism charging brutal and inhuman exploitation in colonies.