Earnings and occupational attainment: immigrants and the native born



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Race (BLACK): This is a dichotomous variable, set to one if the individual is Black, and set to zero for all other racial groups.
Marital Status (MARRIED): This is a dichotomous variable that distinguishes individuals who are married, spouse present (equal to 1) from all other marital states.
Location: The two location variables record residence of a Metropolitan Areas or of the Southern States (SOUTH). The states included in the latter are: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia.
Veteran (VETERAN): This is a dichotomous variable, set to one if the individual is veteran, and set to zero otherwise.
APPENDIX B
Table B.1

Estimates of Quantile Regression for Mean Occupational Income, 25-64 Year Old Native Born Males, 1999

Variable

OLS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Constant

8.759

(1347.98)



8.312

(610.55)


8.472

(726.15)


8.573

(800.06)


8.613

(877.21)


8.658

(872.80)


8.761

(931.10)


8.866

(957.05)


9.012

(821.50)


9.308

(822.60)


Educational Attainment

0.083

(382.53)


0.075

(140.58)


0.077

(237.42)


0.079

(243.85)


0.086

(242.41)


0.091

(227.64)


0.091

(294.22)


0.093

(266.58)


0.093

(245.40)


0.087

(437.18)


Experience/100 (EXPER)

0.051

(2.42)


0.340

(8.31)


0.201

(5.96)


0.114

(4.17)


0.052

(1.86)


0.007

(0.24)


-0.066

(2.29)


-0.074

(3.12)


-0.083

(2.40)


-0.285

(10.44)


EXPER Squared/1000

0.020

(4.64)


-0.076

(8.64)


-0.037

(5.32)


-0.012

(2.12)


0.013

(2.13)


0.033

(5.27)


0.054

(9.05)


0.066

(13.72)


0.078

(11.29)


0.123

(20.08)


Log Weeks Worked

0.088

(67.71)


0.101

(40.48)


0.103

(41.08)


0.106

(47.13)


0.099

(53.25)


0.093

(48.34)


0.088

(49.07)


0.082

(50.13)


0.072

(35.88)


0.064

(31.98)


Married

0.102

(89.31)


0.138

(69.10)


0.134

(72.93)


0.117

(78.41)


0.097

(62.49)


0.102

(71.61)


0.098

(72.63)


0.086

(54.06)


0.075

(40.04)


0.059

(43.67)


South

0.026

(23.61)


0.036

(18.03)


0.033

(16.43)


0.026

(17.69)


0.029

(19.24)


0.029

(19.57)


0.026

(18.83)


0.022

(14.75)


0.018

(10.22)


0.009

(6.51)


Metropolitan Area

0.065

(24.53)


0.052

(9.49)


0.046

(10.30)


0.048

(11.41)


0.047

(15.09)


0.055

(16.40)


0.062

(15.71)


0.062

(17.80)


0.065

(16.83)


0.066

(14.50)


Veteran

-0.009

(7.33)


0.004

(1.94)


0.004

(2.01)


0.004

(2.50)


-0.000

(0.21)


-0.006

(3.55)


-0.009

(6.26)


-0.015

(9.49)


-0.023

(12.97)


-0.028

(13.03)


Blacks

-0.116

(65.86)


-0.094

(26.24)


-0.119

(34.23)


-0.129

(52.22)


-0.115

(49.84)


-0.122

(51.61)


-0.127

(54.30)


-0.125

(46.95)


-0.114

(39.70)


-0.117

(38.08)


English Very Well

-0.023

(9.59)


-0.036

(8.83)


-0.035

(9.58)


-0.031

(7.66)


-0.030

(9.80)


-0.029

(7.86)


-0.024

(6.93)


-0.017

(4.25)


-0.010

(2.54)


-0.001

(0.18)


English Well

-0.030

(5.05)


-0.046

(4.16)


-0.048

(3.88)


-0.048

(4.37)


-0.028

(3.39)


-0.026

(3.44)


-0.023

(2.47)


-0.018

(2.10)


-0.008

(0.77)


-0.014

(1.07)


English Not Well/Not at All

0.015

(1.82)


-0.018

(1.10)


-0.017

(1.24)


-0.008

(0.65)


-0.007

(0.59)


0.003

(0.22)


0.018

(1.42)


0.043

(2.67)


0.047

(3.54)


0.047

(2.58)


Notes: ‘t’ statistics in parentheses; Results based on sample of 533,906.

Source: 2000 US Census 1% PUMS.Table B.2



Estimates of Quantile Regression for Mean Occupational Income, 25-64 Year Old Foreign Born Males, 1999

Variable

OLS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Constant

9.354

(488.39)


9.080

(311.90)


9.194

(399.87)


9.262

(427.30)


9.346

(433.27)


9.413

(414.99)


9.501

(443.44)


9.588

(334.69)


9.684

(301.45)


9.790

(272.04)


Educational Attainment

0.048

(134.06)


0.025

(46.75)


0.031

(56.76)


0.036

(67.76)


0.038

(69.47)


0.041

(91.05)


0.044

(89.44)


0.050

(91.22)


0.053

(98.01)


0.058

(114.26)


Experience/100 (EXPER)

-0.820

(15.95)


-0.285

(4.41)


-0.317

(4.86)


-0.514

(7.96)


-0.762

(10.80)


-0.783

(12.03)


-0.970

(12.61)


-1.295

(13.43)


-1.116

(14.54)


-0.522

(6.21)


EXPER Squared/1000

0.185

(19.02)


0.054

(4.70)


0.067

(5.42)


0.111

(9.55)


0.161

(12.39)


0.173

(15.31)


0.213

(15.78)


0.283

(17.33)


0.255

(18.73)


0.167

(9.83)


Years Since Migration/100

0.109

(7.08)


0.171

(8.89)


0.192

(10.76)


0.164

(8.62)


0.159

(8.00)


0.134

(7.34)


0.081

(3.67)


-0.002

(0.05)


0.024

(1.02)


0.092

(3.04)


Log Weeks Worked

0.059

(20.14)


0.054

(11.65)


0.043

(11.13)


0.047

(13.34)


0.052

(14.65)


0.053

(13.57)


0.054

(15.63)


0.060

(14.19)


0.057

(12.62)


0.042

(7.36)


Married

0.079

(26.53)


0.053

(13.76)


0.059

(18.32)


0.072

(21.14)


0.081

(20.60)


0.083

(22.46)


0.087

(21.03)


0.097

(19.52)


0.083

(17.36)


0.062

(10.64)


South

0.017

(5.51)


0.015

(3.98)


0.024

(7.09)


0.027

(7.63)


0.025

(6.99)


0.021

(5.52)


0.020

(4.67)


0.017

(3.06)


0.016

(3.24)


0.011

(1.94)


Metropolitan Area

0.098

(7.10)


0.102

(5.11)


0.080

(4.86)


0.076

(5.21)


0.087

(6.29)


0.090

(5.78)


0.107

(7.33)


0.126

(6.13)


0.155

(7.03)


0.122

(4.26)


Veteran

-0.035

(5.35)


-0.002

(0.23)


0.003

(0.32)


-0.000

(0.00)


-0.007

(0.84)


-0.007

(0.72)


-0.011

(1.16)


-0.049

(4.52)


-0.054

(4.37)


-0.079

(5.78)


Blacks

-0.139

(25.85)


-0.031

(6.28)


-0.077

(15.75)


-0.113

(19.00)


-0.135

(22.22)


-0.148

(20.34)


-0.158

(21.41)


-0.188

(24.26)


-0.204

(22.34)


-0.153

(15.27)


English Very Well

-0.028

(6.53)


-0.017

(3.64)


-0.021

(4.24)


-0.023

(4.22)


-0.031

(5.48)


-0.019

(3.29)


-0.024

(3.50)


-0.027

(3.35)


-0.029

(4.57)


-0.038

(4.81)


English Well

-0.172

(36.99)


-0.087

(18.07)


-0.103

(19.59)


-0.134

(24.46)


-0.165

(28.44)


-0.187

(32.19)


-0.205

(32.46)


-0.245

(32.49)


-0.251

(32.33)


-0.186

(20.06)


English Not Well

-0.235

(45.18)


-0.131

(26.60)


-0.140

(24.87)


-0.170

(29.62)


-0.215

(34.33)


-0.245

(43.68)


-0.279

(43.41)


-0.321

(38.71)


-0.353

(40.73)


-0.303

(27.88)


English Not at All

-0.214

(30.95)


-0.147

(19.59)


-0.144

(15.99)


-0.162

(23.84)


0.193

(24.45)


-0.217

(28.75)


-0.246

(27.67)


-0.294

(27.44)


-0.330

(28.94)


-0.307

(23.31)


Notes: ‘t’ statistics in parentheses; Results based on sample of 84,290.

Source: 2000 US Census 1% PUMS.



1 This classification was developed based on the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Manual: 2000, which comprises a hierarchical structure presenting 23 major occupational groups being divided into 96 minor groups, 449 broad groups, and 821 detailed occupations. Note that not all 821 detailed occupation titles are included in the Census classification, with many smaller detailed occupation titles being combined.

2 This is consistent with the findings in Chiswick and Miller (1998).

3 The number of intercept terms for the foreign born is less than the 509 occupation groups recorded in the Census owing to the omission of several where adult, foreign-born males were not represented in the sample.

4 The definition of status ranking is derived by Goldthorpe and Hope (1974) based on respondents’ rankings of occupations according to general standing or prestige.

5 Nickell (1982) thus contends that occupational success is simply reflecting a relatively high average hourly earnings in an occupation.

, Leigh (1976) examines occupational change over a five-year period, 1965 to 1970, using a variant of the above approach. In Leigh’s (1976) study the change in median occupational earnings (measured at the three-digit level) is used to determine whether occupational change is upward, lateral or downward.

6 This appears to be consistent with Duncan’s (1961, p. 139) comment that “There can be no such thing as a single index of socioeconomic status for all purposes of social research…Given the actual complexity and multidimensionality of the stratification structure, any particular variable or index can at best reflect a selected aspect of the structure that may be strategic from a certain point of view”.

7 The results for the weeks worked, marital status, location, veteran status and race variables accord with expectations, and do not warrant comment.

8 These elasticities are derived from the human capital earnings functions presented in Tables 1 and 2 augmented with a variable for the mean occupational earnings.

9 A comparison of Tables 1 and 2 with Tables 5 and 6 reveals that the log of weeks worked is the only variable whose coefficient changes dramatically. The coefficient of the log weeks worked variables goes from about 1.0 in Tables 1 and 2, to about 0.1 in Tables 5 and 6, respectively. This implies that whereas those who worked more weeks per year in 1999 have (approximately) proportionately higher individual earnings in 1999, having worked in more weeks did not have much of an effect on increasing occupational status. To the extent that weeks worked in 1999 reflects long-term average weeks worked, it may imply greater U.S. labor market experience and, hence a higher occupational status. Yet, this effect is modest.
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