|Early Man Study Guide Name ___________________________
Division of labor
Major Cultural Developments in Early Humans
Hunting and Gathering
Creation and use of tools
Use of fire
Human migration throughout the world
Development of Agriculture
Stone Age Man - from scavenger to hunter to farmer
Homo Habilis – existed 2.5 mya – 1.5 mya - used stones as tools, were mostly scavengers, one of the first tools was a hand axe,
Homo erectus – existed 1.8 mya – 300,000 years ago – lived in Africa, Asia, and Europe, used fire for warmth, cooking, and hunting, found that pine resin could be used as fuel for fire
Neanderthals- existed 230,000 – 30,000 years ago – lived in Europe and Middle East, first to bury their dead, hunted with heavy stone tipped spears which were hard to throw
Homo Sapiens (modern humans) appeared on the Earth about 200,000 years ago, they were the most advanced hominid, had the largest brain,
What kinds of tools did early man use?
Hand axe was one of first tools – used for ripping meat from bone
heavy stone tipped spears used by Neanderthals
lighter weight antler-tipped spear used by homo sapiens;
fire used by homo erectus
Reasons early man was able to survive –
Know the migration patterns of humans - where they began and how, and when they moved from place to place
Early humans first appeared in Africa.
125,000 years ago they began to migrate East. Over the next 100,000+ years they migrate to the Middle East, Europe, Asia, Australia, and eventually over the Bering Land bridge into North and South America.
They travelled in small bands of up to 20 people because small bands of people were easier to move and feed
What influenced the migration of early man?
Early man was concerned with survival. They were hunters and gatherers and where they went was dictated by weather and food.
The ice age caused man to seek out warmer climates and areas where game was plentiful
Each group had its own culture based mainly on its location and available resources.
Each group made different kinds of clothes, lived in different kinds of shelters, made different tools.
Over time cultures changed because of new ideas, changes in climate or the land, as well as contact with other cultures.
The increased use of language helped early man develop their own culture as they passed on knowledge and ideas and joined together to form societies
Larger societies found they couldn’t rely only on hunting and gathering for food.
Why did early societies change from food collecting to food producing?
Bands of people grew larger and they could not rely on hunting and gathering for their needs. They needed a more reliable source of food.
What were the effects of the development of agriculture?
Reliable source of food, development of economy, permanent settlements, population growth, division of labor, development of government to run the settlements, conflicts over land, insects, disease, harm to environment, new tools, further development of language…culture
Effects were both, positive and negative
What were some of the crops grown and livestock raised by early farmers?
Wheat, barley, rice, millet, peppers, squash, beans, potatoes, maize (corn), other veggies
Sheep, goats, cattle, chicken, pigs, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, turkeys,
Where did early people commonly form societies?
Near rivers and coastlines where there was a plentiful supply of water for drinking and for irrigation of crops, and where the soil was fertile from flooding