E2 a world Divided: Superpower Relations 1944-1990. Kq2 Why and to what advantage did an arms race develop between the Superpowers 1949-63? The arms race 1949-63



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E2 A World Divided: Superpower Relations 1944-1990.
KQ2 Why and to what advantage did an arms race develop between the Superpowers 1949-63?
The arms race 1949-63: nuclear technology; delivery systems; the Cuban missile crisis; the Test Ban Treaty.






  • In a Nutshell: Overview of developments 1949-63.




  • Causes and Analysis of developments: The development of arms race 1949-63.

  • Thematic Analysis of Wider context: What do the historians think and how does this develop my emerging interpretation?




  • Cracking the Puzzle – Preparing for assessment.

(I)In a Nutshell: Overview of developments 1953-63.

Content overview

This relates to the impact on international relations of developments in weapon technology. Students should understand the importance of thermo-nuclear weapons development from the Soviet’s acquisition of fission technology in 1949, the explosion of the first hydrogen bomb in 1952 by the USA and the USSR’s gaining of H bomb technology in 1955. They should also understand the importance of delivery systems and the strides made by both powers in rocket science and the consequent balance of terror. The stages by which the Cuban Missile Crises developed should be addressed, as should the process of its resolution and the easing of tensions in 1963, marked by the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and the establishment of the hot line.



Activity 1 – On your marks…..
There are 3 video series that you should watch as preparation for and during this unit. They are

a) Nuclear Scare Stories of the Cold War. An introduction to the nuclear arms race. Make notes on the A3 sheet provided.

b) CNN Cold War. 8 Sputnik, 10 Cuba and 12 MAD. Make notes on the A3 sheet provided.

c) History File. U2 and the arms race. Make notes on the A3 sheet provided.






  1. Causes and Analysis of developments: The development of arms race 1949-63.

Activity 1; The causes of the arms race.


a) What was the significance of the discovery of the nuclear bomb, H bomb and rocket delivery systems development by the Superpowers?

b) What were the causes of the arms race (C/W, developments and technology)?


ii) Activity 2; The analysis of the arms race 1949-61, escalation or de-escalation?.

a) What was the balance of terror, achievements and failure of diplomacy in the arms race 1949-61?


iii) Activity 3; The causes and progress of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

a) How did the Cuban Missile Crisis progress? Factors include I, Id, E, AR and GP.

b) How was the Cuban Missile Crisis resolved? Factors include I, Id, E, AR and GP.
iv) Activity 4; The analysis of the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

a) Why was there a thaw in relations in 1963, marked by then hotline and the NTBT?


Activity 1 A : What was the significance of the discovery of the nuclear bomb, H bomb and rocket delivery systems development by the Superpowers?





Emerging Armament technologies

Description of this technology

The significance of this development in the emerging Cold War

Nuclear Bomb (P170-173)



1

2


3


1

2


3


H Bomb (P170-173)



1

2


3


1

2


3


Rocket delivery systems (P170-173)



1

2


3



1

2


3


Activity 1 B : What were the causes of the arms race (C/W, developments and technology)?

The causes of the arms race




Ideology. Democracy v Marxism (L 36 P 151)



1
2
3


Economic. Capitalism v Communism (P 152-3, 161 )



1
2
3


Role of Individuals and foreign policy (P149-52 )



1
2
3


Arms (P 148-9, 153)



1
2
3


Geo Political balance of power (P148-9 )



1
2
3


US suspicion of USSR (P148-9 )



1 Europe
2 Far East
3 Middle East


USSR suspicion of US (P148-9 )




1 Europe
2 Far East
3 Middle East





Activity 2 A; What was the balance of terror, achievements and failures of diplomacy in the arms race 1949-61?

Events and developments in the arms race 1949-61

Escalation of the arms race and failures of diplomacy.

De-escalation of the arms race and achievements of diplomacy.

The US Nuclear monopoly 1945-49 (L52)








The Baruch Plan June 1946 (L53)







The actions of Klaus Fuchs (L53)








The USSR detonation of its Nuclear bomb July 1949 (L53)









Trumans authorisation of H bomb research January 1950 (L53)








The US detonation of H bomb Nov 1952(L53)









USSR detonation of H bomb Aug 1953 (L53)








Delivery systems by 1955-56 and US SAC (L53-4)









Thor and Jupitor versus SS1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (L54)









The USSr launch of Sputnik Oct 1957 (L54-5)









Gaither Report Nov 1957 and its consequences (L55)








Soviet strategic Rocket Force May 1959 (L55)









US defence education Act 1958 (L55)









Kennedys review of Missile gap Aug 1961 (L55)









The Missile gap by 1962 (L55-6)









The difference in economic resources to fund the Missile gap (L56)







The missile balance by 1962 (L56)









MAD (L56)













Activity 3 A; How did the Cuban Missile Crises progress? L p57-60

Since 1898 Cuba’s proximity to the USA made it an ideal target for US economic exploitation

From 1933 Cuba was ruled by Batisa, a military dictator supported by USA

By mid 20th Century USA was dominant force in Cuban economy



In 1956 Castro launched a rebellion

On New Years Day 1959



The USA

In Feb 1960 Castro



On 17th April 1961

This drove Castro into

By March 1962

In September 1962 Kennedy warned


On 15thOctober 1962 a USA U2 spy plane



On the 16th October Kennedy

Views on how to respond differed



On the 22nd October the crisis

Kennedys strategy was



At 10:25 am the Soviet ships stopped and turned away from Cuba. The USA Joint Chefs of Staff called for an immediate invasion of Cuba to destroy the missile bases

On the 23rd October Khrushchev



On the 26th October Khrushchev indicated in a letter

But the following day

Kennedys response was to

On the 28th )ctober

Summary


Activity 3 B : How was the Cuban Missile Crises resolved?

There is no doubt that diplomacy was the chief factor in the resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis, although there are different views about which ingredients of the diplomacy were primarily responsible. L outlines these different view p59-60.



Ingredients of diplomacy which resulted in the resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Evidence which supports the primacy of this ingredient.

A resolute Kennedy not prepared to bargain with Krushchev and the USSR



1

2

3





A diplomatic Kennedy willing to bargain with Krushchev and the USSR



1

2

3





A resolute Krushchev not prepared to bargain with Kennedy and the USA



1

2

3





A diplomatic Krushchev willing to bargain with Kennedy and the USA



1

2

3









Activity 4 A; What were the consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis?


The consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Explanation of the consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis

For Cuba



1
2
3



For Kennedy



1
2
3



For Krushchev



1
2
3



International relations 1. The Presidential hotline telephone link



1
2

3



International relations 2. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963.



1
2

3







(III) Thematic Analysis of wider context: What do the historians think and how does this develop my emerging interpretation?
i) Extent to which the arms race had a significant impact on the Cold War 1949-63?

ii) Analyse Lightbodys interpretation.


The reasons for the continuation of the Cold War have variably been interpreted as being due to the desire for supremacy by either the USA or the USSR, or because of misjudgements and insecurity, leading to a desire to contain the other.
Activity 5 – Divide yourself into two groups. One group should take the position that America always had the lead in terms of military superiority during the arms race 1949-63, the second that Russia presented a significant challenge to Americas military superiority. Each group should prepare a five minute presentation according to the position you have been asked to take. Each group will be given a set of event cards for the period 1949-63, your group must spin these events according to their interpretation.


The US Nuclear monopoly 1945-49.


The Baruch Plan June 1946.

The actions of Klaus Fuchs.

The USSR detonation of its Nuclear bomb July 1949


Trumans authorisation of H bomb research January 1950.

US detonation of the H bomb Nov 1952

The USSR detonation of the H bomb Aug 1953


Delivery systems by 1955-56 and US SAC

Thor and Jupitor versus ss1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

USSR launch of Sputnik Oct 1957


Gaither report Nov 1957 and its consequences

Soviet strategic Rocket Force May 1959

US Defence Education Act 1958


Kennedys review of Missile gap Aug 1961

The Missile gap by 1962

The difference in economic resources to und the arms race


The Missile balance by 1962

MAD

Cuban Missile crisis 1962



Presidential hotline

NTBT 1963


Activity 6 – Analyse Lightbodys interpretation of the arms race (p52-56) with particular reference to the advantages that the USSR gained from it. Contrast this with your own evolving interpretation.



Activity 7 essay: To what extent did the nuclear arms race make the world a more dangerous place??


Explore in pairs and then in a whole class discussion how these factors of Cold war developments are interlinked by considering the material not only from this unit but also from KQ1.






Using the knowledge and understanding that you have developed, answer the following question in as much detail as you can. You might find it helpful to use the thinking frame below.


How far did the nuclear arms race make the world a more dangerous place 1949-63?
There are a number of different viewpoints with regard to this question. It is important to understand that there are also different views about which of these is most significant.


  • It is important to acknowledge that the nuclear arms race did contribute to make the world a more dangerous place. For example..




  • However, it is also argued that the arms race was not always de-stabilising on international relations between the Superpowers and may also have contributed to the need for diplomacy. For example…




  • It is important to recognise that other factors contributed to making the world a more dangerous place. For example..

Cracking the Puzzle- Preparing for Assessment




  1. Revisit the living graph. Consider whether the line you previously plotted for nature of relations between the Superpowers in the period 1949-63, accurately reflects you emerging interpretation. If not, adjust it.




  1. Complete Trigger Memory Activity 1949-63 using your background notes. An explanation on how to complete this is in your guidance booklet.




  1. There are many excellent Cold War websites which can be used to revisit the material covered so far. These include -


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/suez.htm
http://www.coldwar.org/
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ColdWar.htm
http://www.academicinfo.net/histcold.html
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=topics.home&topic_id=1409
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/coldwarfiles/index.cfm?fuseaction=resources.detail&thisunit=0&resourceid=9
Use these websites to gather contemporary documents for the period.


  1. As a class, design and play a game for the Game Show Presenter Game called arms race 1949-63.




  1. Revisit the examination criteria and advice on tackling the examination questions given in the guidance booklet.




  1. Apply these techniques to the specimen examination. You may be asked to work individually, in pairs or in group








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