Tried to divide empires into eastern and western portions to make empires manageable
But too little too late
Working with Documents: Document 1 Excerpt from The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. “The decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness (large size)…The introduction … of Christianity, had some influence on the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. The clergy successfully preached the doctrine of patience; the active virtues of society were discouraged and the last remains of military spirit were buried in the cloister; a large portion of public & private wealth was consecrated to the …demands of charity and devotion … According to the excerpt from Gibbon, what were two causes for the fall of Rome? Explain both.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Document 2 This excerpt, from The New Deal in Old Rome by Henry Haskell, blames the decline on the heavy taxation required to support the government expenses. …Part of the money went into … the maintenance of the army and of the vast bureaucracy required by a centralized government…the expense led to strangling taxation… The heart was taken out of enterprising men…tenants fled from their farms and businessmen and workmen from their occupations. Private enterprise was crushed & the state was forced to take over many kinds of businesses to keep the machine running. People learned to expect something for nothing. The old Roman virtues of self-reliance & initiative were lost in that part of the population on relief (welfare)…The central government undertook such far-reaching responsibility in affairs that the fiber of the citizens weakened.
Why did the Roman government have large expenses? Describe the effects of high taxes.
Document 3 This excerpt, from Romans without Laurelsby Indro Montanelli, blames the fall on “internal decay,” specifically that of the military. Rome, like all great empires, was not overthrown by external enemies but undermined by internal decay. . . .The military crisis was the result of …proud old aristocracy’s…shortage of children. (Consequently) foreigners poured into the…Roman army [was] composed entirely of Germans…
What does this author identify as the cause of problems in the military?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Document 4 4a. According to the map above, what was the cause of the fall of the Roman Empire?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4b. Was this a unified attack?
Task: What caused the fall of the Western Roman Empire? List causes for each of the categories on the left using the documents and your studies of Ancient Rome Political – Social, Political, Economic, and Military.