E. Heim fa09 ranc objectives



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  • Diversity

  • E. Heim FA09




  • RANC Objectives

  • Identify vulnerable populations

  • Recognize differences among identified populations

  • Define innate characteristics

  • Define acquired characteristics

  • Contrast individual innate & acquired characteristics based on:

    • Age

    • Gender

    • Race

    • Abilities

    • Individual life experiences

    • Sexual orientation




  • Diverse Thinking
    & Attitudes

  • Invigorates Problem Solving

    • Brain Dominance

      • Right-brained Creative, visionary ppl

      • Left-brained Preoccupied with details

    • Balances out Bias

  • Looks at Strengths & Weaknesses

    • Assertive persons

      • recognize that everyone including themselves has both

      • are comfortable with diversity

      • more likely to accept & supports others by recognizing & using their strengths

    • If the focus on weaknesses & differences tears down self-esteem, makes ppl defensive or hostile

  • Facilitates specialization & a variety of careers/services




    • What is diversity?

    • Culture

    • Values

    • Life experiences

    • Instinctual responses

    • Learned behaviors

    • Personal strengths & weaknesses

    • Native abilities or skills




  • Characteristics

  • Innate

  • 1.existing in one from birth; inborn; native

  • 2.inherent in the essential character of something

  • 3.originating in or arising from the intellect or the constitution of the mind, rather than learned through experience (Source: www.dictionary. Com)




  • Acquired

  • A physical or functional characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (Source: www.pbs.org).




  • Characteristics of Diversity

  • Primary characteristics: Obvious:

    • Nationality

    • Race

    • Color

    • Gender

    • Age

    • Religious beliefs

  • Secondary characteristics: Less Obvious:

    • Socioeconomic status

    • Education

    • Occupation

    • Length of time away from country of origin

    • Gender issues

    • Residential status

    • Sexual orientation




  • Check yourself!

  • Stereotype: Oversimplified belief, conception or opinion about another person or group based on limited information.

    • If primary characteristics are all you see, then you may fall into the trap of “stereotyping”

  • Prejudice: An opinion, prejudgment or attitude about an individual or a group

  • Discrimination is behavior that treats people unequally based on their characteristics




  • How does diversity affect health & health care?

  • Time orientation

  • Language & communication

    • ESL difficulties, even with interpreters

  • Economic factors

  • Health care system

    • Availability, “red tape”, transportation, general distrust of HC workers/systems, lack of ethnic-specific HC programs, knowledge of HC resources, no primary provider (ER vs only)

  • Beliefs & practices

    • Relevant care, fear/apprehension, mistrust of authority/gov’t, previous negative experience, folk medicine, herbal Tx, religion, unfamiliarity with Tx options, S&S gone=cured!


  • Disparity in Health Care

  • “In its 2002 publication, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care," the Institute of Medicine reports that racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive a lower quality of health care than nonminorities, even when patients’ insurance status and income are controlled. The study committee found evidence that stereotyping, biases, and uncertainty on the part of health care providers all contribute to unequal treatment. The report calls for cross-cultural training for providers. ”

  • Excellent resource website: http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?file=7.0.htm&module=provider&language=English&ggroup=&mgroup=




  • Diversity in North Carolina

  • Total population: 8,063,874

    • Male: 3,935,150

    • Female: 4,128,724

    • Age 0-19: 2.2 million

    • Age 20-34: 1.7 million

    • Age 35-54: 2.4 million

    • > 55yo: 1.7 million

    • White: 70%

    • Black: 21%

    • Hispanic: 5%

    • Am. Indian: 1%

    • Asian: 1.5%

    • Mixed: 1%




  • What are Vulnerable Populations?

  • Social groups with increased relative risk (i.e. exposure to risk factors) or susceptibility to health-related problems.

  • AEB higher comparative mortality rates, lower life expectancy, reduced access to care, and diminished quality of life.

  • Often discriminated against, marginalized and disenfranchised from mainstream society, contributing to their lower social status and lack of power in personal, social, and political relationships.




  • Vulnerable populations

  • General Categories

    • Physically or Mentally Disabled

    • Cultura/Racel differences

    • Geographically separated

    • Limited economic resources

  • Specific Categories

    • Frail elderly

    • Children

    • Homeless

    • Urban & rural poor

    • Racial or ethnic minorities

    • Poorly educated

    • Communication impaired (ESL or other)

    • ETOH or substance abusers

    • Homosexuals




  • Vulnerable Population & Characteristics

  • Contrast innate and acquired characteristics based on the following:

    • Age

    • Race

    • Gender

    • Sexual orientation

    • Abilities

    • Individual life experiences




  • Age

  • Chronologic Age

  • Physical Growth

  • Developmental Stages (*see other ppt)

    • Psychosocial, cognitive, moral

  • Infancy

  • Childhood

  • Adolescence

  • Young Adult

  • Middle Adult

  • Older Adult

  • Race

  • US Population: 304,059,724 (2008, US Census Bureau)

    • White—74.1%

    • African American/ Black—12.4%

    • Hispanic—14.7%

    • American Indian—0.8%

    • Asian—4.3%

    • Biracial or Multiracial—2.1%




  • Gender

  • Biological

    • Male

    • Female

  • Gender Disorders

    • Transsexual—trapped in a opposite body

    • Transvestite—dress like opposite sex but view selves as biological gender




  • Sexual Orientation

  • Sexual Orientation

    • Heterosexual

    • Homosexual

    • Bisexual



  • Abilities

  • Physical

  • Mental

  • Social

  • Cognitive

  • Technical

  • Professional

  • Personal




  • Individual Life Experiences

  • Family History

  • Education

  • Work-experience

  • Roles: Spouse/Child, Parents/Grandparents

  • War/Peace

  • Illness/Health Issues

  • Others




  • Multiple Risk Factors




  • Nursing Vulnerable Populations

  • Communication

  • Advocacy

  • Ethics

  • Legal

  • Bias




  • How diverse are HC workers?

  • In the US, minority populations make up about 25% of the population

  • In contrast:




  • Cultural Diversity website:

    • http://www.culturediversity.org/


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