|His 122 Dr. Hutton
Spring 2014 NVC
Paper #2 Assignment
Due: Tuesday, May 20
Write an essay of 3 to 5 pages in length (double-spaced) addressing this question:
The period between 1000 and 1400 has often been interpreted as a time of great religious conflict. Some historians have argued that the violence of the period was due to a “clash of civilizations” between Europe and Islam. Other historians emphasize trade contacts and coexistence in the “Mediterranean world.” To what extent did religious differences divide people of Christendom and the Muslim world? Were there other factors that led Latin Christian rulers to conquer Muslim kingdoms? Were the trade and other contacts between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean world more or less important than the Crusades and other conflicts between Christians and Muslims?
Fulcher of Chartres, “Pope Urban Calls for a Crusade,” in Translations and Reprints from
the Original Sources of European History (Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania
Press, 1897), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 5-8 – In Crusades Perspectives on course website.
Usamah Ibn Munqidh, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades,
trans. Philip K. Hitti (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 160-70.
Ibn Jubayr, “Description of Sicily, 1184,” in Medieval Italy: Texts in Translation, eds.
Katherine L. Jansen, Joanna Drell, and Frances Andrews (Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 234-5.
Geoffrey Malaterra, The Deeds of Count Roger of Calabria & Sicily & of Duke Robert
Guiscard his brother,” translated by Graham A. Loud, http://www.medievalsicily.com/Docs/03_ Norman_Conquest/Malaterra - In Crusades
Perspectives on course website.
Emanuel Piloti, “Description of trade through Cairo,” in Cairo, City of Art and
Commerce, by Gaston Wiet (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), 61.
Pope Innocent III, “License to Venice to Trade With The Saracens, 1198,” in A Source
Book for Medieval Economic History, ed. Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson
(Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1936; reprint ed., New York: Biblo &
Tannen, 1965), pp. 104-105.
James, King of Aragon, The Book of Deeds of James I of Aragon: A Translation of
the Medieval Catalan Llibre dels Fets, translated by Damian J. Smith and
Helena Buffery (Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate, 2003), 1-3 – on course
You should use at least one quotation (direct or indirect) from at least four (4) of these sources.
This assignment was written with the intention that you would not have to do any outside research to write the paper. If you do use outside sources, please include them on your bibliography. You may not use any internet sources, unless they are primary source documents.
Writing Guide for History Papers
The key elements of a history paper are the argumentative thesis, argument development, evidence and historical context.
Your argumentative thesis must be analytical and interpretive. “Galileo’s ideas challenged the Church’s worldview” is not a thesis. “Galileo’s ideas challenged the Church’s worldview because they contradicted the basis of its authority” is a thesis. If you have a simple idea, try adding “because” and a good reason after it. Another type of argumentative thesis relates a theme in a primary source to a pattern or problem in the wider society. For example, “Galileo’s writing widely publicized contradictions to the Bible, church fathers, and Greek scientists, at a time when the Catholic Church was trying to strengthen its authority after the shocks of the Reformation.”
There should be three or four major points which support your argument. Each point should be the topic sentence of a body paragraph. Each body paragraph should begin with a clear statement of the point. Then support that point with specific evidence and analysis. At the end of the paragraph, you need a concluding sentence restating your point and making a transition to your next sub-argument.
Identify each source by its author, title and date and explain the background of the writer, his or her audience and the historical circumstances surrounding the document. This does not have to be a long description. An example for Ibn Battuta would be: “Ibn Battuta, the great fourteenth-century Muslim traveler, thought the people of Quanzhou, the huge Chinese entrepôt, were ....”
The major difference between a history paper and an English paper is that you are expected to add much more specific evidence in a history paper. Try for four to six sentences of specific evidence – names, dates, places, names of laws, institutions, battles, etc. – in each paragraph. Use direct quotations from the primary sources, but keep them short (three or four lines at most.) Use indirect quotations for evidence from secondary sources, like the Tignor textbook or the introductions in the reader, but be careful to choose statements that are really evidence (i.e. specific) and not just generalizations.
When you are quoting indirectly (rewriting the evidence in your own words), do not copy more than two words in a row from the original source and change the entire structure of the sentence.
For example, here is a direct quote from a primary source written by Benjamin Franklin:
Franklin observed, “Between one and two o’clock, all eyes were gratified with seeing it [the balloon] rise majestically from among the trees, and ascend gradually above the buildings, a most beautiful spectacle.”1
Here is the same evidence rewritten in my own words as an indirect quotation:
Benjamin Franklin, who was present at the launch, described the thrill he and the other spectators felt as they watched the balloon rise up from the wooded park.2
Footnotes or endnotes are required for all quotations. Use the Chicago style; parenthetical citations are not used in history. See the guide, “How to Do Footnotes,” for complete instructions. If you use endnotes, make sure that the endnotes print out on a separate page which is entitled “Endnotes.” You only need to cite my lectures when you are repeating what I said word for word, or you are paraphrasing one of my arguments (i.e. not just factual information.)
Your paper should also have a bibliography page.
All papers should be double-spaced in 10- or 12-point font, and printed on one side of the paper only.
Papers should be handed in at the beginning of lecture on the day that it is due. Papers turned in after the beginning of the lecture are late. For each day the paper is late, you will receive a 1/3 letter grade deduction. This means that if the paper originally earned a “B+” and was one day late, it will then receive a “B.” If the paper was two days late it will then receive a “B-,” etc.