Due Date: Tuesday November 24 Name: Chris Raggett Comparison of the English Revolution and French Revolution



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Socials 9 Due Date: Tuesday November 24 Name: Chris Raggett

Comparison of the English Revolution and French Revolution

Your assignment:



Part One: To complete a comparison chart outlining the similarities and differences between the English and the French Revolution in 6 categories (one is done for you as an example) of your choice.

Be sure to consider the following as possible areas: (* must be covered)



  • Monarchs (Kings/Queens)

  • Parliament vs. Estates General

  • Rebel or Revolutionary leaders

  • Grievances or Causes of Revolution (can be broken down into more categories ie: social classes, taxes/money etc)

  • Targets of Anger, Violence, Destruction or Battles

  • Glorious Revolution vs. Directory

  • Immediate and Long Term Consequences

  • *Significance in history


Part Two: Based on what you have learned from studying the English and French Revolution, write a paragraph describing which country you believe the people gained the most benefits from their respective revolution? Be sure to also discuss each country’s detriments/losses as well as their gains in order to make an informed decision.


TOPIC


ENGLISH REVOLUTION

1625-1689

FRENCH REVOLUTION

SIMILARTIES

DIFFERENCES

Kings





  • Absolute monarchs

  • James I: intelligent; slovenly habits; “wisest fool in Christendom”; didn’t make a good impression on his new subjects; introduced the Divine Right of Kings

  • Charles I: Believed in Divine Right of Kings; unwilling to compromise with Parliament; narrow minded and aloof; lived an extravagant life; Wife Henrietta Maria and people despised her (Catholic)

  • Charles II: supposed to rule as a constitutional monarch; tried to protect Catholic freedom

  • James II: openly Catholic, believed in Divine Right of Kings; instituted reign of terror due to rebellions against him




  • Absolute monarchs

  • Louis XIV: known as the “Sun King”; saw himself as center of France and forced nobles to live with him; extravagant lifestyle; built Palace of Versailles ($$)

  • Louis XV: great grandson of Louis XIV; only five years old when he became King; continued extravagances of the court and failure of government to reform led France towards disaster

  • Louis XVI; originally wanted to be loved; not interested in governing; did not help middle and lower classes; married Marie Antoinette who people despised (Austrian)

  • Louis allowed critics of government to be imprisoned or killed




  • Kings ruled as Absolute Monarchs

  • Raised foreign armies

  • Charles I and Louis XVI both did not like working with Parliament/Estates General

  • Citizens did not like the wives of Charles I (Catholic) and Louis XVI (from Austria)

  • Both Charles I and Louis XVI punished critics of government




  • English Kings believed in Divine Right of Kings and French did not

  • Charles I did not care to be loved whereas Louis XVI initially wanted to be loved by his people

  • Charles I did not kill people who were against him (he imprisoned or fined them) whereas Louis XVI did

  • Charles I called Lord Strafford, Archbishop Laud and occasionally Parliament; Louis XVI only called Estates General as he had no advisors

Parliament vs estate general (government)




  • The parliament was the group of people who made decisions for England. Called together when the king decides.

  • Charles didn’t like to work with parliament because they didn’t also agree on the same things, he

  • Would rather work on his own.




  • Estates General – Legislative body of France. Each estate was entitled to one vote on legislative matters. Louis XVI was forced to call it together in 1789 to get more money.

  • Louis XVI was the one who summoned the estates general, and they worked under his power.







  • Parliament was only operational under the specific calls of the monarch.

  • In England, Charles I collected ship money to collect money and taxes, and in France the estates general collected the taxes from each estate




  • The estates general had no power in its own right unlike the English parliament it was not required to approve royal taxation or legislation; instead it functioned as an advisory body to the king

  • In France, the taxes were put onto the lower class people and in England the taxes were more scattered around to many different areas in England.




Targets of anger, violence, destruction or battles




  • Charles ruled without Parliament, the Parliament got angry.

  • Also that Charles obtained money without Parliament’s consent.

  • Charles brought back an ancient fee called ship money (he raised the ship money but kept most of it for himself).

  • Puritans - a group of religious people who believed that churches should be kept plain and simple.

  • Charles invades the House of Commons

  • The parliament was raided and Charles and his army tried to arrest the leaders.


Fall of Bastille

Great Fear

  • People believing that the king’s soldiers and the aristocrats would stop the revolution

  • Peasants stormed the Chateaux of the aristocrats,

  • Burned them to the ground and massacred hundred over hundreds of people.

Jacobins

  • Believed in universal equality among citizens,

  • the freedom of the individual


March on Versailles

  • Crowds of women meeting in Paris decided to march to Versailles to meet the king.

  • As they went they were joined by many others, and then they attacked the National Assembly and stormed the Palace.



  • Charles invaded the House of Commons that was very similar to the March on Versailles because that’s when the massive group of women attacked the National Assembly and stormed the palace.










  • The Puritans were different from the Jacobins because the Puritans wanted everything simple and then the Jacobins wanted things to be more complicated than they needed to be.

Revolutionary leaders





  • Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

  • Thomas Fairfax was the 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, was a general and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War.

  • Robert Devereux was an English nobleman. He was also politically ambitious, and a committed general.






  • Maximillian Robespierre was a Jacobin leader who became leader of Committee of Public Safety




  • Jean-Paul Marat was a physician, political theorist and scientist. He is known for killing a lot of people then being stabbed to death while having a bath in his tub.




  • Jacques Danton was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety.




  • Oliver Cromwell was a political leader and Marat was a political theorist so they both had a fair amount of knowledge about politics.



  • Cromwell, Robespierre, and Danton all had a position to do with public safety. Cromwell was the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England. Robespierre and Danton were leaders of the Committee of Public Safety.




  • Cromwell worked better for the people than Robespierre because he was the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth and Robespierre instituted the Reign of terror.




  • Cromwell did not like to kill people as much as the leading slaughterers in the French Revolution like Robespierre and Marat.

Grievances or causes of revolution



  • Religion was a major cause of the English Civil War. It was part of a Europe wide conflict between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism

  • King Charles and his lack of money.

  • Raising taxes and passing legislation they were also used as a source of advice and as a means of getting grievances heard.



  • The struggle of who was going to be ruling of France

  • Conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the “reform” of the tax system led to paralysis and bankruptcy.

  • Social antagonisms between two rising groups: the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie

  • Louis XVI was an ineffective ruler which didn’t rule according to the people

  • Large amounts of food shortages

  • Charles raising ship money was a tax collecting method which Parliament did not like.

  • France also had a tax system which was that most of the taxes were being laid mostly upon the peasants who were the ones who couldn’t afford to pay them let alone their own needs (food, clothing)

  • Both Louis XVI and Charles I kept money for themselves to spend on luxurious items and kept their large purchases on going.

  • In England those who were against parliament were normally imprisoned but it France they were normally guillotined.

  • During the English Civil war, England was not in debt or poor, it’s just that Charles kept money for himself. In France they were in debt and poor because of being in so many wars and not being successful.

  • In England, Charles I invaded the House of Commons but in France the government and Louis XVI get along pretty well.

  • In France one of the main causes of the revolution was the social classes which England didn’t really have. The English Civil War was more of a Parliament vs Charles I type of issue.



Significance in history


  • It established that the King couldn't rule without the consent of Parliament, particularly in terms of taxation, and that Parliament is basically ineffective unless supported by the constitutional presence of the monarch.

  • Parliament recognized that the king needed a sufficient income to pay for his own funds so that there is no need to dissolve Parliament and raise money which are not agreed taxes.




  • Established a democratic leadership representing the French citizenry.

  • France was on the edge of bankruptcy and desperate for ways to raise revenue. The offending tax was supposed to apply to all citizens. To dampen public outrage, the government called a meeting of representatives from the "three estates" of France.

  • Influenced other countries about democracy and individual rights,

.


  • Both Nations established a democratic rule and getting all the people of a state involved in making decisions about its affairs.




  • The primary significance in the French Revolution was that it removed power from a small group of rulers and established a democracy representing the French citizenry, while in England not much got changed according to power. The king held all the power.

  • In England, the monarch had to rule according to the constitution and laws of the nation rather than their own ideal and beliefs. In France, the monarch could rule however he/she wanted

  • The English fought the civil war to protect their rights, while the French fought the revolution because they had no say in the government, bad tax system, and many other reasons

In my opinion I am positive that the civilization in England benefited a large amount more than the people in France. To start off, there was a large amount of people that got guillotined, killed for no apparent reason but there were some people who were actually guilty of the crimes that they committed. People in France during this time were getting slaughtered hundreds of people every day getting their heads cut off. Even though they were not guilty for any crimes. People were going and saying that this person did this crime and for all I know they could have been neighbors but there was no need of proof or justification of the crime, if someone said you did it, you shall die. Many people in France were scared every day because one moment they could be living happily with their family eating dinner and the next moment they could be in the looking down at a wooden board that’s covered in somebody else’s blood. Another reason why is because the government in France at that time created a frightening law that anyone that goes against the government fair was to be executed. You could be on your front lawn and some salesman walking by your house could hear you disagreeing with what the government was doing and so he would go and say that you were disagreeing with them and you shall be executed. If you wanted to have a conversation with someone about how the government is not doing the correct thing, you should learn sign language because otherwise you are going to be dead soon. King Louis knew that his people were furious about his acts. He tried to escape, got caught, got sent back to his palace and later executed from trying to save his family. That shows how harsh the punishments were in that time period. During the English Civil war, the English monarchs had been required to accept the Bill of Rights, making England a constitutional monarchy. That made lives in England a whole lot easier. The taxes in France were getting payed by the third estate which is of course the poorest people of France but also the most populated. They already were having troubles paying for their meals and clothing and now they have to pay all of these taxes. They were not very happy about it. It made life a lot harder for them and for these reasons I believe that the people in France had it a lot harder than the people in England.



English and French Revolution Comparison Assignment Assessment

Name: chris raggett


Ex: Excellent VG: Very Good G: Good S: Satisfactory IN: Improvement is needed


Criteria

IN

S

G

VG

Ex

Chart:

English and French Revolution Columns:

Each section thoroughly completed:



  • All important details in each category are listed

  • Topic has a causal effect related to the particular Revolution

  • Evidence of critical thinking and analysis of points made

Similarities/Differences:

Each sections thoroughly completed:



  • All important details in each category are listed

  • Similarities/differences are relevant

  • Evidence of critical thinking and analysis of points made

Proper Conventions:

  • Point form

  • Proper grammar and spelling



















Paragraph:

  • Thorough and clear explanation of which country’s people benefited the most from the revolution

  • Supporting points relevant and accurate

  • Both benefits and detriments listed

  • Clear stance taken for one country with convincing points

  • Evidence of critical thinking and analysis of points made

Format:

  • Proper paragraph structure

  • Proper grammar and spelling



















Project was completed and uploaded to edublog on time










Due Date: Tuesday November 24


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