1952 ÒThe development of international-mindedness does not mean the abandonment of national-mindedness; if it means anything it demands an informed consciousness of the place of oneÕs own nation in a world society and the contributions it can make to a world society whose survival depends on the maintenance of peace and relief from the fear of war.Ó (Kandel 1952, p 407) Leonard Kenworthy devoted an entire book to the development of the ideals of a Ôworldminded teacher. In World Horizons for Teachers he characterized such a professional as: Òan integrated individual; an expert in democratic human relations; rooted in his own country and culture; appreciative of other countries and cultures; an informed participant in efforts to strengthen the United Nations and to achieve world community; conversant with methods and materials for developing world-minded children and youth; buttressed by a faith or philosophy of life.Ó (Kenworthy 1952, 120-121)
In 1952 a working party of the Executive Board of UNESCO prepared a text on education for international understanding under the title ÒSome definitions of education for international understandingÓ (cited in Unesco document 17C/19, Annex II, page 22, Appendix 2) The text includes several points in definition of the aims of education programmes for international understanding: Ò1) Make clear the underlying reasons which account for the varying ways of life of different peoples both past and present, their traditions, their characteristics, their problems and the ways in which these have been resolved; 2) Make clear that civilizations results from the contributions of many nations and that all nations depend very much on each other; 3) Make clear that throughout the ages, moral, intellectual and technical progress has gradually grown to constitute a common heritage for all mankind. Although the world is still divided by conflicting political interests and tension, the interdependence of peoples becomes daily more evident on every side. A world international organization is necessary and it is now also possible; 4) Make clear that States, whatever their differences of creeds and ways of life, have both a duty to co-operate in international organizations and an interest in doing; 5) Make clear that engagements freely entered into by the Member States of international organizations have force only in so far as they are actively and effectively supported by those peoples; 6) Make it clear that unless steps are taken to educate mankind for the world community, it will be impossible to create an international society conceived in the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations; 7) Arouse in the minds, particularly of young people, a sense of responsibility to this community and to peace; 8) Encourage the development of healthy social attitudes in children so as to lay the foundations of improved international understanding and co-operation.Ó (cited in Unesco document 17C/19, Annex II, page 22, Appendix 2)
1953 1954 1955 Quincy Wright (1955) provides an intensive definition of international education; ÒInternational education cannot.... be differentiated from all education. The term merely serves to emphasize the broader scope of education necessary of a successful life in a world community which no one can escape.Ó (p 310)
Wright (1955) also provided an extensive definition of international education in a comprehensive history of the teaching of international relations: ÒInternational education is the art of developing the individualÕs attitudes, knowledge, understanding, and skills in order to adapt him to life in the contemporary world and to adapt the world community to civilized human life. As a discipline it is the philosophy guiding that art and the science seeking to predict the results of its application. It also includes historical studies contributing to this art, philosophy, and science. [para.] International education has arisen from the movements of proselytism and pacifism, but its modern form is a branch of the general discipline of education. It merges into the discipline of international communications, and both have roots in the psychology, sociology, and ethics of international relations. [para.] The term international education has several distinct connotations - education for internationalism, education in the discipline of international relations, education through international contacts, and education for international service. These four connotations respectively give propagandistic, informational, methodological, and practical emphasis to the term.Ó (p.307)
In connection with the status of education for world citizenship, in the modern era (Wright 1955) observes that ÒDuring the nineteenth and twentieth centuries such literature [related to an internationalistic outlook] and also the publications of national and international organizations devoted to education in pacifism, cosmopolitanism, and internationalism became extraordinarily abundant. As a reaction, however, officially sponsored education in nationalism kept pace, with the result that the ideal of world citizenship is less popular in the west, and probably also in the east, than it was in the eighteenth century.Ó (p. 308)
In the 1950s the two prominent aims of international education as noted by Caldwell (1955) were 1) to help people to know more about each other as a basis of better understanding and 2) to assist people in gaining the skill base and knowledge necessary for a raising of peopleÕs standards of living.
Issac Kandel, writing in the journal International Review of Education in 1955 outlined a detailed terms, the relationship between the aims of national education and the aims of international education: ÒA further interpenetration of cultures is in prospect through the closer contacts between East and West. The central point is that human progress has resulted from cross-fertilization of ideas in which no nation is autonomous or can claim to enjoy a monopoly. Here is to be found a reconciliation of the national and international aims of education. The international will not be something superimposed on but will grow out of national aim. For the international aspect of education does not imply instruction in international relations, which require for their study a broad background in the basic disciplines that make up this new discipline, nor does it involve the introduction of a new subject into an already overloaded curriculum. The international aspect means the injection of a new spirit into the content of education, which would conduce to an emphasis on cultural rather than aggressive nationalism...... From the national point of view the function of education is to train the citizen; from the international point of view that function is to train the citizen as a human being. The two aims are, therefore, not incompatible but are complementary.Ó (Kandel 1955, pp 12-13)
1956 Thomas Woody of the University of Pennsylvania writing in a special issue of School and Society devoted to the works of Issac Kandel, reflected upon the historical tension between the aims of national education and the aims of international education: ÒThe Hague Conference (1899), the League of Nations, and the United Nations are conspicuous symbols of the conviction, crystallized by wars of the 19th and 20th centuries, that order under law is preferable to unrestricted exercise of national sovereignty. While the political desideratum of world order became clearer, there was reluctance to work in forthright fashion to utilize education to promote world order, as education in the 19th century had been used to serve the national state. Educational leaders and idealists in many lands, East and West, saw the vision and were ready to work to realize it; but politicians and men of affairs were reluctant.Ó (Woody 1956, p 19)
1957 Issac Kandel, writing in the Harvard Educational Review in 1957 on ÔNationalism and Internationalism in EducationÕ reflected his definition of the aims and purposes of international education: ÒWhen the Constitution of UNESCO was drafted and submitted for consideration and comment, I was critical of the statement in the Preamble that wars arise in the minds of men. I believed then and I believe now that a more correct statement would have been ÔSince wars are put into the minds of children still in school, it is in the minds of children still in school that the defenses of peace must be constructed.Õ For it is not enough to create institutions to promote international understanding and cooperation; such agencies still remain outside the direct and immediate concerns of members of the different nations that participate in them; they are supranational rather than a part of the machinery in the running of which citizens of various nations should have a direct interest.Ó (Kandel 1957, p 77)
1958 1959 In 1955 the Director General of UNESCO assembled an international committee of 14 distinguished scholars and educators from 14 different countries to advise the Director General on Ôthe principles and methods of education for international understanding and co-operationÕ The report that followed (UNESCO document ED/142, Paris, 1955) reflected directly on the tension that exists between the perceived requirements of education for the nation-state and education for an evolving global society: ÒIt is not easy to find the right kind of education to enable the peoples of the world to understand each other and work together for the common good. Seen globally, the world has shrunken, but the world of each individual has expanded enormously, and this has left him exposed to strains and anxieties that may seriously affect his attitudes towards other men, particularly those beyond his own national borders..... The problems which these new forces, tensions and fears create confront educators, whether of children or adults, with tasks of new quality and magnitude. Not only must people be given a wider variety of new skills, but it must be a conscious aim of education to find ways of carrying over from smaller groups to increasingly larger ones, and finally to the world as a whole, attitudes and values which make for decent living in a complex society. Not least of the problems in this regard is that of the relation between national and international interests and loyalties. It would be idle, even dangerous, to deny that conflicts exist. But - and here lies the crucial task for the educator - it is possible and necessary to teach that loyal citizenship of oneÕs own country is consistent with world-mindedness and that national interests are bound to suffer if international interests are ignored.Ó (cited in UNESCO 1959, pp 10-11)
1960 Professor David Scanlon (1960) of Columbia University publishes the first and only Documentary History of International Education in which he defines international education as Òa term used to describe the various types of educational and cultural relations among nations. While originally it applied merely to formal education, the concept has now broadened to include governmental cultural relations programs, the promotion of mutual understanding among nations, educational assistance to underdeveloped regions, cross-cultural education, and international communication.Ó (p. 1)
H.C. Good of Ohio State University in his History of Western Education (1960) directly linked his definition of international education to peace education: ÒIn professional books and papers, international education [emphasis added] is a term of several meanings and indefinite scope... And by Ôthe plain and historical methodÕ we shall try to show that one definition should have preference over others. This definition says that international education is education for peace, the education of nations not to learn the arts of war any more. (Good 1960, p 554) Good then reflects on the more popular ÔnotionÕ of international education: Ò International education [emphasis added] as frequently understood is a formless sort of concept. From earliest times education has tended to spread across both natural and social barriers. Neither mountains and seas nor the differences in the languages and customs and tribes and nations have been able to contain it. Soldiers, merchants, travelers, and missionaries have both incidentally and deliberately carried ideas, knowledge, and practices to those whom they have touched.Ó (Good 1960, p 555)
The nineteenth century also marked the beginning of great national systems of mass education. The motives behind these systems varied, from the despotism of the Frederick Williams to the warm humanitarianism of a Pestalozzi; but all were committed in one way or another to the advancement of national interests. It is against this background of vigorous nationalism that the efforts of early pioneers in international education should be examined. For fundamentally all were out of step with the nineteenth century. In an era of provincial loyalties, they argued for loyalty to mankind. And in an era of mass education for patriotism, they contended that the school was the only agency capable of advancing education across national boundaries. Little wonder that their proposals were viewed as radical, visionary, and utopian. (Scanlon 1960, pp 3-4) 1961 1962 International education may be regarded (1) as the spread of ideas, any ideas, across national frontiers; or (2) as the spread of educational ideas across such boundaries; or (3) as the attempt by educational means to promote peace and mutual understanding between nations. (Good 1962, p 522)
Brickman (1962) exposed the shortcomings of research into the movement of students across the globe in the past centuries by noting: ÒIt is interesting to note that most writings on international students exchange discuss its benefits and glories but very seldom give any hint of friction between the native and foreign students. A study of such conflicts would be a desirable addition to the literature and possibly would yield a better understanding of the complexities of international exchange of students. (p 213)
Brickman (1962) reflected on the history of international higher educational intercourse by observing ÒThe study of international higher educational history demonstrates that all types of nations - autocratic or democratic - take part in the dissemination of ideas across national frontiers. One might also learn that it is possible to obtain something of educational value from direct contacts with the newer developing nations. Furthermore, it becomes clear that international educational relations, however good and effective, do not, by themselves, necessarily bring about peace.Ó (p 238) Brickman further noted that the proper assessment of the role of universities in the development of world civilization would need to give Òproper account ...of what the university has achieved in the realm of its greatest competence - the creation and advancement of knowledge toward a better understanding of man in his world and toward a more effective co-operation for a world at peace.Ó (p 239)
1963 Stewart Fraser in writing of Marc de JullienÕs work in comparative and international education in The Educational Forum in 1963 reflected upon the major figures in these fields in the first several decades of the 20th century: ÒIt is understandable that those engaged in international and comparative education would wish to explore the historical and philosophical bases of their endeavors, not necessarily to produce a spurious veneer of legitimacy, but to extend the frontier of knowledge in their own research and teaching field. It is also to be expected that, as students investigate more closely the basic assumptions in this field of study, conflict and disagreement will arise as to the historical and respective contributions of various educators and scholars such as Jullien, Stowe, Mann, Sadler, Monroe; and in due course the significance of the contributions of todayÕs comparative educators as they have appraised JullienÕs works.Ó (Fraser 1963, p 182)
Wilson and Collins in 1963 attempted to clarify the meaning of Ôeducation for international understandingÕ which for the most part of the 20th century stood as the operative defining focus of the field of Ôinternational educationÕ in the West: ÒThe very term Ôinternational understandingÕ is difficult to define with precision. It refers to a compound of emotional attitudes and intellectual insights; for some it seems to be identical with friendliness, and for others with coldly objective intellectual analysis. What is here meant by international understanding lies somewhere between these extremes of emotion and intellectuality. International understanding involves sensitivity to human relations, adherence to ethical goals, perception of national characteristics, knowledge of cultural contacts and interstate relations, a realization of the difference between the ideal and the actual, a sense of continuity in time and contiguity in space, a deep loyalty to oneÕs own nation and the expectation of comparable loyalties in the citizens of other nations.Ó (Wilson and Collings 1963, p 11)
R. Freeman Butts (1963) at the Teachers College of Columbia University in reviewing the progress of education efforts in the United States in the area of Òinternational developmentÓ since the Second World War identified three stages in the development of international education efforts. The first stage Òwith it roots far back in history, has been largely devoted to increasing our store of knowledge and understanding about other peoples and informing them about ourselves by means of systematic study in schools, colleges and universities, and by means of cultural and educational interchanges sponsored by governmental and private agencies.Ó (xvii-xviii) Butts the described the second stage as Òproviding technical assistance and advice to governments and higher educational institutions of other countries....Ó (xviii) The third stage Butts described as the time in the early 1960s when the U.S. government Òbegan to respond to urgent requests to supply large number of Americans who will become regular teachers in the schools, teacher training colleges, and universities of other countries. Overseas educational service has now been recognized as the greatest need of the newest nations in their efforts to develop the human resources upon which all other national development.Ó (xviii-xix) 1964 W.F. Connell of the University of Sydney while working as a visiting scholar at the University of London Institute of Education in 1963 wrote of the imperative of education for international understanding in The Yearbook of Education. Connell addressed himself to the aims of international education: ÒWhat is the Aim of International Understanding? It is an endeavour to cultivate an attitude of mind designed to enable citizens of all nations to achieve basically two aims. First of these is the desire to live together with all persons within a social framework which provides equal justice for all irrespective of considerations of nationality, birth, class, race, colour, creed, or status...... The second fundamental aim of international understanding is that of enabling and encouraging all people to work together constructively towards whatever aims may be mutually decided upon by them..(pp 161-162) Connell further detailed the socializing aspects of education for international understanding by noting that Òthe incorporation of the aim of education for international understanding is a logical extension of the socializing work of the school. The behaviour that is taught in the school is based on the premise that the behaviour of human beings is moulded by the social contacts which they make, the contacts between pupil and pupil, between teacher and pupil, and between pupils and the members of the society whom they meet outside the school.Ó (p 163)
1965 1966 The United States Secretary for Health Education and Welfare in 1966 provided an explicit definition of Ôinternational educationÕ in response to a direct question when testifying before the United States Congress at the time of the consideration of the International Education Act: ÒIt covers a very broad range of programs, activities and interests. There is a highly professional area of international education, which is essentially graduate study for those going on to become scholars and teachers in the field, to become experts on various areas or functional problems. There is a level of international education which is concerned with preparing practitioners overseas, people who will have overseas careers who will not be scholars or teachers but will move on to do work with the State Department or AID [Agency for International Development] or other overseas activities in business. There is a level of international education that is concerned with the preparation of the citizen to live in this crowded world. International education is often applied to the exchange activities such as bringing foreign students to this country or sending our students abroad and to our efforts to assist other countries in developing their own educational systems.Ó (Gardner 1966, cited in Swenson 1999, p 9)
1967 William Brickman of New York University and the editor of School of Society, in describing the Ogontz Plan of International Education in the Philadelphia area cited the definition of worldmindedness education by quoting one of the members of the US National Commission for UNESCO, Anna L. Rose Hawkes: ÒThe main objective of education for world-mindedness is to develop attitudes of cooperation, friendliness, concern for others, and a knowledge of cultures, customs, and traditions based on facts. This cannot be done by the traditional methods of education, which have been aimed to prepare the young pupil for his future responsibilities by the presentation of an organized body of knowledge and by adhering to standards of subject matter and conduct handed down from the past.Ó (Brickman 1967, p 224)
R. Freeman Butts, writing in Comparative Education in 1967 viewed the study of the rise of human civilization over the centuries as an appropriate metaphor for the connection between comparative and international education. In the midst of this historical survey, Butts projected into the future of international education: ÒInternational education [emphasis added] will be particularly concerned with the study of the role of education as an international force in the modernization process, i.e., with the international (or intercultural or inter social) processes of civilizational interaction or transaction whereby one society is affected educationally by another. International education will also embrace direct preparation and specialized training for active participation in the international processes whereby educational personnel, institutions, or ideas are deliberately emulated or borrowed by one society from another or transferred from one society to another with a view to conscious adaptation or modification.Ó (Butts 1967, pp 167-168)
1968 What are the various types of educational relations among nations? Since international education can be traced to antiquity, it would seem that the literature of the field would provide a excellent starting point for resolving the question. However, the state of the documentation is such that there is little accessible material for the period before World War II and too much material for the material after the war to handle easily. Both periods present the serious scholar with complex research problems..... The research problem is intensified because so few historians are interested in international education. Thus, even where documents do exist, there has been almost no one to synthesize their contents. At the moment, there is no general history of international education, and data have to be sought in a variety of widely scattered sources. Consequently, the field of international education does not have at its command historical studies to fix the lineage, design a fitting methodology, or define its content. Because international education has not had the benefit of self-examination in the perspective of history, it has been hindered from developing into a bona fide field of study. (Scanlon and Shields 1968, Introduction, xii.) Lineage.....How does the history of international education inform our present modelling, planning, research and practice in international education?
Methodology..... What is the most appropriate methodology for investigating international education and what learning and teaching methodologies are most appropriate in the field?
Content.....What common human values and traditional areas of study are most suitable for inclusion within the field of international education?
Scanlon and Shields(1968, xiii-xix) propose a three part schema for the organization of the activities that Ôinternational educationÕ in the United States embrace. The proposed framework included the following three aspects; 1) Promoting Self-Image Abroad, 2) Promoting International Understanding and World Peace, and 3) Promoting Human Knowledge and Competence.
ÒInternational education is generally defined as Òthe various types of educational and cultural relations among nationsÓ[reference to a US government report of 1959]..... This definition accounts for most of the activities in the field; however, it does not incorporate all. For example it blurs the important distinction between the roles of the practitioner and the theorist... In effect, then, this definition does not do full justice to international education as an evolving academic field for the study of transmitting and fostering beliefs, skills, attitudes, and knowledge across national boundaries... Thus, learning experiences that take place merely because an individual is in a particular place at a particular time are not defined as education. In the context of this definition, the unintentional acquisition of learning by an individual does not qualify as international education. The value of applying this narrower definition to the field of international education is that it clearly separates the field from the broad, formless, and almost limitless areas of acculturation and general cultural contacts. In addition, it establishes reasonableness and order at a time when the field is burgeoning. Far too large a proportion of the current literature consists of breezy travelogue, sentimental reminiscence, or pamphleteering for a favored cause or project - and far too little concentrates on the specific processes of systematically educating individuals along national frontiers.Ó (Scanlon and Shields 1968, Introduction, x-xi) In of the few attempts in the 20th century to approach the task of providing an historical framework for international education, Stewart Fraser and William Brickman published a documentary history of the field which focused on the works which were evident from the nineteenth century. They do give credit to David Scanlon who several years earlier published a previous Ôdocumentary historyÕ of international education. Importantly they provide very detailed definitions of the fields in question: ÒThe terms international education and comparative education are related, but they are different in emphasis. International education connotes the various kinds of relationships - intellectual, cultural, and educational - among individuals and groups from two or more nations. It is a dynamic concept in that it involves a movement across frontiers, whether by a person, book, or idea. International education refers to the various methods of international cooperation, understanding, and exchange. Thus, the exchange of teachers and students, aid to underdeveloped countries, and teaching about foreign educational systems fall within the scope of this term.Ó (Fraser and Brickman 1968, p 1) In the concluding remarks of the introductory chapter the authors provide several characteristic descriptions of the historical context of international and comparative education: ÒThe early nineteenth century is clearly a watershed in the development of a systematic and methodological study of both international and comparative education. Prior to the nineteenth century, the terms cosmopolitanism and universalism were accepted and understood, but the idea of internationalism was virtually unknown...The emergence of newly created European states and newly freed Latin American republics, the greater awareness of Africa and Asia, and the discovery of the contributions of Hindu, Buddhist, and Moslem educators during the beginning of the 19th century all contributed to the emergence of comparative education as a new field of inquiry...... The era of the traveling comparative educator and scholar intent on borrowing and adapting came into its own in the nineteenth century. The start of the century saw JullienÕs exploratory treatise on Comparative Education exhort educators to travel and compare intelligently. By the end of the century, no self-respecting scholar, university president, or educational administrator from any European nation, the United State, or the British Empire could resist the urge to travel and make his own comparative analysis..... The nineteenth century.... has some very peculiar and distinct contributions to make in the methodological study of international and comparative education. Scientific studies of todayÕs educational developments in other countries can find their origin in the careful, but perhaps rudimentary, works of such devoted scholars as Horace Mann of the United States, K.D. Ushinsky of Russia, Michael Sadler of England, Yung Wing of China, and D. Sarmiento of Argentina. These men traveled throughout the world seeking answers to educational problems and improvements to aid their own children. Their answers were rarely intended to exacerbate international tensions, and their techniques were based on intellectual honesty and compassion for young people.....Ó (Fraser and Brickman 1968, pp 18-19)
Arum and deWater (1992) focus on another aspect of Fraser and BrickmanÕs (1968) definition of international education as: ÒInternational education connotes the various kinds of relationships - intellectual, cultural, and educational - among individuals and groups from two or more nations. It is a dynamic concept in that it involves a movement across frontiers, whether by a person, book or idea. International education refers to the various methods of international cooperation, understanding and exchange.Ó (cited in Arum and deWater 1992, p 195)
ÒInternational education, sometimes combined by others with comparative education... is seen here as the field concerned with cross-national relations and cooperation and exchanges of educational information and personnel. The three major areas of interest associated with international education are international relations and cooperation in education; cross-national movements of educational materials, students, teachers, consultants, and aid; and education for international and cross-cultural understanding.Ó (Spaulding, et al 1968, p 204)
Lee Anderson, of Northwestern University, one of the leading researchers in international education in the postwar era contributed to an understanding of the significance of international education in the special issue ofthe journal Social Education which was devoted to international education in November 1968. Anderson wrote: ÒThe adequacy of conceptions of international education depends in large measure upon the adequacy of our operating views of the world; that is, what we teach young humans about the world into which they have been cast must reflect our images of what that world is like, along with our guesses about what it will be like when our students become adults.Ó (Anderson 1968, p 639)
Kenneth Boulding provided sensible warning to international education researchers in his article which appeared in the special issue of Social Education in 1968. Boulding writes: ÒThe critical question of international education, therefore, is whether we can develop and image of the world system which is at the same time realistic and also not too threatening to the folk cultures within which the school systems are embedded; for if educators do not find a palatable formula, the ÔfolkÕ will revolt and seek to divert formal education once again into traditional channels.Ó (Boulding 1968, p 650)
In 1968 a recommendation concerning the ÒGuiding principles relating to education for international understandingÓ was adopted by the International Conference on Public Education under the auspices of UNESCO. (cited in Unesco document 17C/19, Annex II, page 22, Appendix 2) The contribution of this UNESCO conference to the discourse on defining international education is significant to a history of defining international education since 1968 represented a peak time of activity in the consideration of the meaning and future of international education: Ò1) Education as all levels should contribute to international understanding. 2) Education should help to increase a knowledge of the world and its peoples and to engender attitudes which will enable young people to view other cultures, races and ways of life in a spirit of mutual appreciation and respect. It should make clear the relationship of environment to patterns and standards of living. While providing an objective treatment of differences, including differences in political, economic and social systems, it should bring out the common values, aspirations and needs in the life conscience of the worldÕs peoples. 3) Education should show that the advancement of human knowledge has resulted from the contributions of the various peoples of the world, and that all national cultures have been and continue to be enriched by other cultures. 4) Education should encourage respect for human rights and their observance in daily life. It should stress the conception of the equality of human beings and the spirit of justice embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, emphasizing that this entails equal respect for all human beings without regard to such distinctions as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 5) Education should help to give to every pupil and student the sense of human dignity which combats all domination by man over his fellow-beings. It should do everything possible to arouse in young people a desire to understand the economic and social problems of their country and of their time and, in addition, should show to them objectively the harmful effects of colonialism, neo-colonialism, racialism, apartheid, and slavery and of all forms of aggression. 6) Education should stress the equal right of every nation, great or small, to direct its own life and to develop fully all its cultural and material possibilities. 7) Education should develop international solidarity and an understanding of the interdependence of all nations and peoples. It should show the necessity for international co-operation in dealing with world problems and should make clear that all nations, whatever the differences in their political systems and ways of life, have a duty of co-operate for this purpose and an interest in so doing . In this connexion the work of the United Nations and its related agencies should be studied in the school.Ó (cited in Unesco document 17C/19, Annex II, page 22, Appendix 2)