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National Education Association (NEA/USA) hosts a World Conference on Education in San Fransisco with over fifty national bodies present at a meeting which was organised in order to Ô agree upon principles and plans for the promotion of good-will and mutual understanding... to be carried out in the schools throughout the world...Õ (Stoker 1933, p 120, Gregory 1938, p 202)
The official report of the World Conference on Education held in San Francisco in 1923 may arguably represent one of the most important presentations on the potential of the supporters of international education in the 20th century. While it was much smaller than the Congress held in Chicago in 1893 the official reporting of the presentations of the World Conference (NEA 1923) indicate that fifty national education groups were represented at the Conference as well as Òthirty distinct racial groupsÓ in the 150 official delegates. (p 3)
Dr. P.W. Kuo the president of the National Southeastern University of Nanking, China and the chairman of the Chinese delegation was the first to formally respond to the welcoming addresses of the World Conference. Dr. Kuo outlined a view of the requirements of international education of the time; ÒWe must remove through education and other effective means all selfishness, pride, hatred, revenge between nations, and cultivate in their place the spirit of good-will, of sympathy, and of mutual confidence. I share with others the belief that if the five millions of teachers and educators of the world are fully convinced of the evils of war and the necessity for peace and are willing to dedicate themselves to the task, they can make a great contribution to the cause through the various educational agencies at their command. Their greatest service will naturally be the bringing up of a new generation of people possessing the right kind of ideals of international relationship.Ó (NEA 1923, p 4)
The president of the Japanese Imperial Education Association, Dr. M. Sawayanagi focused the needs of international education efforts on the establishment of peaceÕ ÒPeace is just beginning to stand by itself without outward support. I consider this a great change in human history, foretelling the birth of a new order of the world.Ó The Japanese representative later highlighted the need for a wider civic education in schools around the world; ÒIn this way each each child should be trained to become a worthy citizen of his country and at the same time become a good citizen of the world. Nationalism must be reconciled with internationalism and patriotism must be harmonized with humanism. Nationalism which does not harmonize with internationalism should not be tolerated nor patriotism not in accord with humanism.Ó (NEA 1923, p 5)
In a record of the speeches to the World Conference (Sainsbury 1923) The president of the National Union of Teachers of England and Wales, E.J. Sainsbury, presented a perspective on international education following the first World War; ÒThe future of the world will depend largely upon the extent to which the peoples of the world will be prepared to temper national feelings and national egoism by the larger considerations of international well-being... The failure to educate people in international affairs has produced and will produce evil results. A good understanding and a feeling of trust must be engendered among the nations and this is possible, in the long run, only by laying the foundations in the schools..... All the generous impulse of youth must be directed and developed aright and not suppressed. Education will still be national but it must not exclude the wider and more comprehensive view, including the international one.Ó (Sainsbury 1923, pp 226-227) The speaker then finished her presentation to the World Congress with a reference to TennysonÕs ÔLockesley HallÕ from 1842.
World Federation of Education Associations (WFEA) formed following NEA World Conference on Education in San Fransisco in 1923 (Harley 1931, WFEA 1926, Brickman 1950) World Federation of Education Associations (WFEA) calls attention to Ôthe importance of history in the school curriculum as a means of promoting international respect, cooperation and good-willÕ (Stoker 1933, p 181)
Among the resolutions adopted at the World Conference on Education in 1923 were specific action recommended on the range of civic education. The ninth resolution read; ÒThat the World Conference on Education request the proper educational body of each country to outline for its own schools a system of training that will cultivate in children attitudes of mind and habits of thought and action appropriate to effective membership in this world community, such outlines to be presented to the next world conference for comparison, discussion, and publication throughout the world.Ó This sentiment for the education of world citizens was also amplified by the chairman of the World Conference on Education, Augustus O. Thomas in his address delivered to a joint meeting of the World Conference on Education and the National Education Association (USA) on July 5, 1923; ÒToday the citizen must be a citizen of the world. He must know the world, what is transpiring in the world, and know how to interpret that in the language of the relationships of the world. Therefore, the children of today must receive that larger viewpoint and that larger understanding. That understanding and viewpoint must come through the teachers of the schools of our country.Ó (NEA 1923, p 10)
Global interdependence was a visible aspect of the concept of international education from the earliest days of the 20th century. One example (Howerth 1923) speaks to the obligations of international education; ÒThe political federation of the world is still, perhaps, a mere poetic fancy, but the unification and interdependence of the people of the world is growing before our eyes. Hence education is rapidly becoming a world problem... Now as soon as one takes the world viewpoint, or even the international viewpoint, one may see how varied is the task of education, because of the widely different heritages it undertakes to transmit.... The first thing to be desired, then, with respect to effective world education, is that the social heritage of the most enlightened people, supplemented by the really valuable elements in the inheritances of other peoples, should become the heritage of the [human] race.Ó (p 70)
International Institute of Teachers College founded with the aid of a grant from the General Education Board (Brickman 1950, Scanlon 1960, p 26) under the direction of Issac Leon Kandel with the purpose to, among others, promote JullienÕs ideas (see 1817) (Good 1964, p 523)
During a tour of China, Tagore (cited in Chakravarty 1961) outlines a philosophy of international education; ÒWhen races come together, as in the present age, it should not be merely the gathering of a crowd; there must be a bond of relation, or they will collide with each other... Education must enable every child to understand and fulfill this purpose of the age, not defeat it by acquiring the habit of creating divisions and cherishing national prejudices. There are of course natural differences in human races which should be preserved and respected, and the task of our education should be to realize unity in spite of them, to discover truth through the wilderness of their contradictions.Ó (p 216)
International School of Geneva / Ecole Internationale de Geneve is founded by a group of the first international organisations established under the aegis of the League of Nations in conjunction with Adolphe Ferriere and Elisabeth Rotten of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva(online Ecolint 2001) Hill (2001) relates that,Óin 1924, the International School of Geneva was founded by a group of parents predominantly from the League of Nations and the International Labour Office in conjunction with Adolphe Ferriere, a sociologist and educationist, and Elisabeth Rotten, a German scholar, both of the Rousseau Institute (1912) in Geneva. (Hill, 2001, p 11) Hill further relates while citing the International School of Geneva Student-Parent Handbook for 1924, that the ÒSchoolÕs objectives were to meet the specific educational demands of Ôan international community such as exists in Geneva... to imbue the new school community in which the students were to live and grow with an earnest belief in ÒinternationalismÓ. Hill notes that the International School of Geneva Òis regarded as the first of the international schools; that is, a school offering curricula for a culturally, varied student population...Ó (p 12) The website for ECOLINT (www.ecolint.ch) indicates that Ferriere housed the initial class of students in his familyÕs chalet at the same time that he was involved in the establishment of the International Bureau of Education. He was associated with Arthur Sweetser and American and Dr. Ludwig Rajchman who was Polish. The Rector of the University of Geneva, William Reppard and Sir Arthur Salter of the League of Nations were also supporters of the early days of the school, The website states in quite categorical terms that ÒThe International School of Geneva - the first in the world - opened its doors in September 1924.Ó
A variety of terms were used in the first decades of the 20th century to describe international education. In 1925 in a retrospective survey of the resolutions of the World Conference of 1923 cited the undertaking of the Conference of 1923 to encourage the development of curriculum outlines in Òworld civicsÓ among the national educational bodies represented at the Conference. Dunn (in School and Society 1925) observed that two years on there was no evidence that any action had been taken on this resolution. (p. 771)
Buell (1925) reported that the Conference on Education in 1923 was attended by more than 30 distinct racial groups and 50 nations. Buell further reported that; ÒThe conference hoped to secure more accurate and satisfying information in text-books as to foreign countries, and to emphasize the essential unity of mankind in regard to the evils of war and the necessity of universal peace. These objects should be attained by the teaching of international civics, universal education, the exchange of teachers, and so forth.Ó (p 25)
Bureau International des Federations Nationales du Personnel de lÕEnseignement Secondaire Publique / International Federation of National Associations of Secondary Teachers considers the examination and revision of school textbooks and concludes that: Ôin the presenting of national history systematic glorification of nationality must be sedulously avoided,Õ and Ôthat the economic order and the interdependence of peoples should receive stressÕ (Stoker 1933, p 183
A number of different terms were used in the 1920s to describe international education. In his 1926 book, Prospects for World Unity, William Stuart Howe reports on the discussions of the annual meetings of school superintendents which included calls for a Ôworld patriotism which will develop a positive appreciation of the rights of other nationsÓ and further reports on the purpose of the 1923 World Conference on Education as being Òthe problem of educating the rising generation in habits, thoughts and sentiments of international kindness.Ó (p. 252)
ÔComite dÕEntenteÕ (Coordinating Committee of Major International Associations for teaching peace in schools / Comite dÕEntente des Grandes Associations Internationales) sets out a Declaration of a set of principles which is reported to have been widely adopted by international organisations involved in education. The declaration in part reads: Ò Alike for its own balance and for the general well-being, the child, who is a citizen of tomorrow, should be brought up to the idea of duty and should learn that it will have to fulfill actively all its obligations to its family, to its companions, to its village, town or city and to its country. At the same time the instruction given to children should not stop there. They should be taught that this essential solidarity neither can nor should be confined within the national boundaries; for there exists between peoples as between the various members of any one society a community of rights and duties as well as an actual and every-increasing interdependenceÓ (Stoker 1933, pp 125-126)
In possibly one of the earliest comprehensive works on educating world citizens in the West , William Carr of Stanford University published a proposed model with specific objectives of world-citizenship in the context of the League of Nations. Carr called for a wide vision linking diplomacy and education: ÒWhat is needed is to create a sentiment of responsibility for world welfare. Once this is accomplished the diplomat and the legislator can proceed. Until this is accomplished, both are helpless. The teacher must come to the aid of the diplomat. The school, through instruction in world-citizenship, is eminently qualified to create the desired sentiment or responsibility. But as yet no such sense of world-wide responsibility has been generally created, nor will it be created until the civic instruction in schools overstep national boundaries.Ó (Carr, 1928, p 48)

Wooton (1929) reports in School and Society, that the International School of Geneva had a Òschool population that is truly international in character, there being sixteen nationalities represented in the student body in grades from one to twelve, inclusive, and seven nationalities in the staff of twenty-two teachers.Ó (p 23) Wooton further reports that ÒThe school has deliberately set about the task of breaking down the narrowly nationalistic prejudices and building up a sympathetic understanding of individuals and groups of other cultures. This is achieved most successfully in courses in social science designed to treat of modern civilization as a composite of the contributing elements from all nations now in existence. (ibid) Wooton further characterised the experience of the school community in the following manner: ÒAlthough the International School is in its infancy, the experiences in the past lead the founders, the teachers and the parents who have been long associated with the school to an ardent faith in its future as an institution inculcating qualities of sympathy and understanding and a devotion to human service, to the end that those whom it may serve will realize the essential unity of all mankind.Ó (p 25)

The School of Education at Indiana University was the site of one of the earliest and most significant educational research project on international education. Smith and Crayton (1929) were responsible, under the auspices of the World Federation of Education Associations (WFEA) to support the mandate of that organization which was Òthat of instilling in all mankind good will toward each other.Ó (p 7) It was evident from the text of the report of the study that the WFEA had created a ÔsectionÕ to discuss the questions; 1) what teacher training institutions are doing to prepare teachers to teach world friendship and understanding, and 2) what materials and methods of instruction teachers in the classroom are using to attain this end with children. The methodology of the study resulted in over six hundred men and women from Canada and the United States contributing to a revised thesis based on sixteen points or principles. As was indicated; ÒThe objective of this study was a statement of principles relative to a program of education for world friendship, which would best represent the thinking of the group cooperating in the study, and in some measure, at least, of the thinking of all the people of the countries represented.Ó (p 38) Several of the revised points from the statement of principles are worthy of note in the consideration of the definition of international education as of 1929; Ò1... An important tasks before the world today is the creation of a new state of mind, a state of mind which will permit an understanding and appreciation of the character, attainments, and traditions of other peoples, and which will transcend national boundaries without seeking to destroy them. 2... Loyalty to both the nation and to mankind is a concept similar to that of loyalty to both city and nation and , while it may be somewhat more difficult to grasp and to hold, it is equally desirable and not unattainable. 3... It is, therefore, possible to develop, in the individual, world understanding and good will without the loss of any quality really essential to a desirable national citizenship..... 5... This world-mindedness is largely intellectual, and must be based on knowledge, and energized by emotion and sentiment..... 8... Internationalism, properly interpreted, implies an extended conception of citizenship rather than a super-government with its consequent minimizing of national importance. 9... It follows that there should be no real conflict between sane love of country and internationalism as defined in the preceding thesis..... 14... If children are to receive such instruction as will make them a part of a generation possessed of an international conscience and an international morality, they must be guided by teachers as ably trained in the command of these concepts as the best efforts of our teacher training institutions can produce. 15... If we accept the above theses, we assign to teacher training institutions the task of developing courses and methods of instruction which will enable prospective teachers to meet properly the demands made of them in the training of children in international understanding....Ó (pp 39-40)
Sir Gilbert Murray, the professor of Greek at Oxford University who held the first chairmanship of the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations outlined the philosophical framework of international education in an address before the World Conference on Education in Geneva Switzerland on July 26, 1929. His address (Murray 1929) focused on the broad needs of a liberal education as the Greeks understood that concept; ÒThe Greeks made a distinction between cosmos, the order of the world, and chaos, the absence of that order. The enormous changes of the last fifty years, including of course the war itself, have given a shock to all existing order and introduced a dangerously large element of chaos. In art, in literature, in philosophy, as well as in politics, I think the chief need of our times is the recreation of a cosmos, both inward and outward. And I strongly suspect that the surest way both to a good education and to international citizenship is to have oneÕs studies grouped around some central interest, oneÕs efforts devoted to some central purpose. Such a central purpose, to be at all satisfactory or enduring, must help or at least be consistent with the good of the whole; above the turmoil of momentary desires and egotisms.Ó (p. 215)
The International School of Yokohama was early on, grappling with the practical needs of raising monies in support of a new type of Ôinternational educationÕ and the Swiss Principal, Dr. Peter was quoted by Stanworth (1998) in the minutes of December 10, 1929 minutes of the governing board of the schoolÓ ÒThe building of an international curriculum would mean a crusade under the flag of International Fellowship for New Education, a movement started after the war and grown to a great movement in all civilized nations. It would mean the building up of an atmosphere which, as I see it, sooner or later is bound to be successful for our school, as it is a worldwide necessity and thus also a necessity in this worldwide port. [Yokohama] A prospectus should be written along these lines should be a document worth while to be sent to the corresponding financial institutions promoting international education.Ó (p 58)
Kees BoekeÕs ChildrenÕs Community Workshop at Bilthoven, Holland is established as one of the earliest international schools (year estimated, see Brickman 1950. also Meyer 1949, p 586) Meyer noted that Kees Boeke wished (in 1949) to Ôextend the work of the school on an international basis, with pupils in the ChildrenÕs Community coming from many lands.Õ (p 586) Lengyel (1951) indicates that the children came from many lands and the school Òattempted to do away with artificial boundaries of petrified institutions between man and man. It observed the individual, not his nationality, and sought to restore to him his original - as distinguished from national - attitude toward his fellow men.Ó (pp 602-603)
Daniel Prescott of Rutgers University undertook a comprehensive survey of the early results of educational programs in Europe which were concerned with international relations. With a grant from Harvard University he travelled through European nations in 1926 including England, Switzerland, France, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany. Over the course of two one year projects (1926-1927 and 1927-1928) he interviewed educational leaders and teachers, visited schools and universities, examined curriculum guides and materials, surveyed professional literature and interviewed international professionals associated with the several newly-formed multi-lateral institutions concerned with international education including the International Bureau of Education and the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation in Paris. He noted that his object would be Òto study conditions in the schools of the various European nations, to see whether educational leaders there were awake to the interplay of forces that had made people the pawns of a huge international lunacy. I wished to learn from them if possible what steps an educator should take to secure and maintain a realistic yet wholesome international understanding of the part of the school population, who are the next generation of citizens.Ó (p. 2) He gave some insight into the nature of his research project as well; ÒThe research dealt with social psychology rather than with courses of study and textbooks, for, as it turned out, it is the ÔspiritÕ of the schools that matter most. I found places where the subject-matter is the courses of study appeared very Ôinternationally-mindedÕ but where the instruction or the atmosphere of the school influenced the children to very different sentiments. But in many other places where the courses of study showed nothing significant about international problems, whole schools were characterized by feelings of goodwill, friendship, and sympathy for other peoples.Ó (p. 3) His focus on internationalism as an attitude which is formed in the formal schooling setting was framed in the concluding remarks of the introductory chapter; ÒI hope that those who are interested in education as an aid to the pacific solution of international difficulties will find in this study an insight into school conditions that will lead them to greater definiteness (sic) of effort directed towards more specific ends. I hope that the study will make educators, generally, conscious of the influences that determine their own positions in matters of policy and that it will lead them to a thoughtful reconsideration of the validity and desirability of their own attitudes. There is now a certain leaven at work gradually permeating the schools. It is a growing public opinion insistent on a sane conciliatory internationalism, insistent that schools bring up a generation of pupils who will try the experiment of peace and cooperation in the place of war and force. Educators fostering opposed attitudes are out of harmony with the trend of human evolution. This research has strongly established me in this belief.Ó (p. 9) Prescott provided a specific structure for the teaching of history with a global view; ÒIf civilizations and culture be regarded as matters relating to humanity as a whole, it is seen that the rise and fall of national cultures are stages in the spiral evolution of humanity. While a given national culture rises, goes over its highest form and declines, human culture undergoes a certain lateral displacement that is true progress, and the following national culture arises from a different starting point than the preceding one. There is a residuum of influence from earlier cultures that directs it and shapes human evolution. Thus, while each national culture will have a center, a point of reference that determines its particular quality, humanity has a line of reference, formed from the successive center points of each national life, which shows the trend of human evolution..... If the new line of reference be used, history might be very potent in hastening the spread of the new perspective among the citizens of this swirling globe, for all historical facts would be associated with their influence upon the evolution of humanity.Ó (pp 134-135) Prescott concludes his study by outlining both the expressive definition of international education as that which encourages Ôinternational understandingÕ and the more ideological definition which calls for the training of world citizens; ÒI found individual teachers scattered about in all countries who were hopeful that the schools could build a loyalty to humanity that would foster international understanding and , following that, international cooperation..... Current social problems, both local and international, must be studied in the light of the development of science in order that the schools may be brought once more into contact with reality, in order that they may harmonize their teaching with the direction which [the global] society is evolving.Ó (p 138) In the end, Prescott calls for a ÔscientificÕ grounding of international education; ÒIt is a splendid thing to be an idealist, to love humanity for humanityÕs sake and to behave accordingly, but one can scarcely teach pupils as though this millennium were about to arrive; nor can one avoid admiration for the sincere loyalty to strictly national accomplishments that is found in places. Yet we live in a world of reality that is being fearfully and wonderfully changed by science, but the social repercussions of such changes are most often ignored in the schools where they should be the key to an understanding of life and its problems. I am sure that I cannot conclude this discussion with any more significant suggestion than that the schools everywhere bring their pupils to as full a realization as possible of what science is doing to make the world an interdependent community that much choose between law with international cooperation and anarchy with self-destruction. It is this sort of unemotional factual approach to actualities that is needed rather than an abstract idealization of humanity or a vague cosmopolitanism that avoids any loyalty whatsoever.Ó (Prescott 1930, pp 138-139)
The International Secretary of the New Education Fellowship based in London, Clare Soper, addressed the annual meeting of the National Education Association (USA) in Columbus, Ohio on the topic of promoting Ôinternational educationÕ in the following manner; ÒWhy do we need to discuss this problem of internationalism? Because, as was said recently at Geneva, ÔThe world has just become conscious of itself, not as a composite of nations, but as a world.Õ We can see that industry and commerce are being forced into practical internationalism by sheer necessity; they are welding the world into a material unit. It is urgent that a parallel cooperation should take place within educational and cultural spheres. The new world unit needs a new type of mind to function in it. It is for the teacher to seek ways of cultivating that new type of mind in the young who will have to live in this new world and face increasingly complex world problems. As H.G. Wells has said, we are witnessing today a race between education and catastrophe.... It is my belief, however, that the international attitude cannot be taught, that like other great experiences such as religion and love it can only be conveyed from one person to another; it is a matter of contagion, not a matter of any statement of facts. Here we come to the problem of the teacher, for unless the teacher has some degree of world consciousness, nothing of permanent value can be conveyed to the school concerning internationalism.Ó (p. 75) After praising Prescott (1930) and his comprehensive study of internationalism in European schools, Soper presented the work of the Fellowship; ÒThere is an organized body of people with these new attitudes to education and internationalism with which the teacher can associate and so receive inspiration and practical assistance in the daily work. I will refer briefly to the New Education Fellowship, an international organization of teachers who are seeking to adjust education to the needs of modern life, an organization that gives expression to a great search that is going on throughout the world.Ó (p. 77) Soper then notes that the Fellowship was organized in twenty-eight countries and that a recent conference in Denmark saw over 2,000 teachers in attendance from forty-three countries and that the report of the conference was prefaced by Sir Michael Sadler.
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