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Myra Kelly (1909) urges the American public schools to become involved in a wider form of citizenship training; ÒAnd one of the functions of the Public School is to promote this [international] understanding and appreciation. It has done wonders in the past and every year finds it better equipped for its work of amalgamation. The making of an American citizen is its stated function, but its graduates will be citizens not only of America. In sympathy, at least, they will be citizens of the world.Ó (p 11)
First combined meetings of Cosmopolitan Clubs and Corda Fratres at the Hague Congress of Corda Fratre results in a formal affiliation between the two groups. under the motto ÒAbove all is humanityÓ (Lochner 1912, Stoker 1933, Gregory 1938, p 113) which Lochner (1911) described as an ideal of humanity which was Òall-embracing, all-including, linked with the idea of brotherly love, of sympathetic understanding, of service to mankind - this is a bond of union far transcending national, social, and racial lines of demarcation.Ó (p 441)

La Fontaine (1911) observes that from 1843 to 1910 there were more than 2,000 international meetings with 800 of those international meetings taking place in the first decade of the new century. He also noted that as of 1910 there were over 250 Òcentral offices of all kinds having for their object the study of questions of general human interest from a universal point of viewÓ (p 244)
Paul Geheeb establishes an international experimental school in Germany known as the Odenwald School with 20% of the students from international centres. The purpose of the school was to educate cultured, social human beings, a purpose which placed the school in direct conflict with the rising Nazi ideology. Geheeb later was forced to flee Germany and was directly responsible for the establishment of ƒcole dÕHumanitŽ in Switzerland in 1937.(Meyer 1949, p 145) Stewart (1972) notes that Paul and Edith Geheeb broke away from Wyneken and founded the New School at Odenwald which was a continuous project for twenty-five years when they set up the «Ecole de lÕHumanitŽ
ÔInternational School of PeaceÕ in Boston (Scott 1912, pp 380-389, Meyer 1949) is founded by Edwin Ginn who was inspired by Edward Everett Hale of Boston. The purpose of the school was to educate Òthe peoples of all nations to a full knowledge of the waste and destruction of war and of preparation for war, its evil effects on present social conditions and on the well-being of future generations and to promote international justice and the brotherhood of man...Ó(By-laws of the school cited online@www.worldpeacefoundation.org/founder.html) This international school was soon transformed into the present ÔWorld Peace FoundationÕ in Boston (Harley 1931, Stomfay-Stitz 1993) and is still operating to date.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace established with an endowment of ten million dollars and establishes, among other activities, support for international education for peaceful coexistence among the peoples of the world (Harley 1931, Butler 1912,1914, Scanlon 1960, Scanlon 1959) It has been indicated that Nicholas Murray Butler and Elihu Root had been instrumental in persuading Carnegie to establish the endowment (Metraux in Scanlon 1960, p 133)
School Books and International Prejudices (Hart 1911) is published and Hart outlines the major forces for mutual understanding: ÒThree large influences make for a mutual understanding from folk to folk. The first is the newspaper, which every morning prints information from the uttermost parts of the earth. The second is travel, which teaches a multitude of people that the Chinaman, the Turk and the Zulu, and the Mexican are after all, rather agreeable people. The third influence is the internationalization of men of learning in their world-congresses of doctors, of publicists, of engineers, of journalists, of what not, which may have a mighty effect in breaking down the feeling that a man is dangerous to you because he uses strange sounds, eats out of an unaccustomed kettle, and wears his traditional costume... One of the chief obstacles in the way of a better international understanding is the patriotic historian.Ó (p 4)
Nicholas Murray Butler (1911) spoke at the 1911 Lake Mohonk Conference regrading the establishment of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace the year before. He gave a brief description of the history and intent of the trustees: ÒThe Trustees of the Endowment have taken a broad and statesmanlike view of its aims and purposes. While they do not overlook the value of the work of propaganda and intend to aid in carrying it on, they believe that the time has come when the resources of modern scientific method and of modern scholarship should be brought to bear upon the problems of international relations. They believe that the leading jurists and economists of the world should be set at work in the service of humanity to ascertain just what have been and are the legal and economic incidents of war, and just what are the legal and economic advantages to follow upon the organization of the world into a single group of friendly and co-operating nations bound together by the tie of a judicial system resting upon the moral consciousness of mankind (emphasis added) from whose findings there can be no successful appeal...Ó(p. 23) In speaking of the specific work of the committees of the Carnegie Endowment, Butler further explained the work of the Division of Intercourse and Education as Òthe educational work of propaganda, of international hospitality, and of promoting international friendship...Ó (p 27)
MacKenzie (1911) also took up the case for the reform of school texts at the First Universal Race Congress (Spiller 1911) in which he notes: ÒThere is sometimes a tendency, especially in books for the young, to over-emphasize the patriotic side, to dwell upon our Òglorious victoriesÓ and to pass over our inglorious defeats, to advertise the wrong-doings of our enemies and be studiously blind to any ignoble actions of our own. It would no doubt be depressing and discouraging, especially to the young, to dwell morbidly upon the defects of our own people. We need the kind of inspiration and encouragement that comes of the consciousness that we inherit fine traditions. But this need not prevent us from rejoicing also in the heroic deeds of others, even if they were our own enemies.Ó (p 437)
Central Office of International Institutions established (La Fontaine 1911, p 254) Idea of international schools reported as being widespread (La Fontaine 1911, p 254) La Fontaine also outlines the work of international education efforts by noting; ÒAn effort is being made at the present time to attain an equivalence of diplomas, and to establish an International Pedagogical Centre. There are also in many countries institutes of higher studies, which are embryos of real international schools, and the idea has arisen of uniting them in a larger organisation, which would be the International University, or rather the World School. (p 252) La Fontaine also notes that an ÒInternational Federation of Permanent Exhibition CommitteesÓ has taken responsibility for the connections between the several universal exhibitions since 1878. This committee was first centred in Paris until 1900 and then in St. Louis. (p 253)
The International Mind: An argument for the judicial settlement of international disputes, is published (Butler 1912) in New York. Nicholas Murray Butler calls for the consideration of a world consciousness in a speech that was often cited and quoted in the following decades: ÒWhat is this international mind, and how are we to seek for it and to gain it as a possession of our own and of our country? The international mind is nothing else than that habit of thinking of foreign relations and business, and that habit of dealing with them, with regard to the several nations of the civilized world as friendly and cooperating equals in aiding the progress of civilization, in developing commerce and industry, and in spreading enlightenment and culture throughout the world.Ó (Butler 1912b, pp 6-7)
Nicholas Murray Butler also serves at the Director of the Division of Intercourse and Education of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace which in its first years of work organizes several international exchanges of students and professors as well as supports the work of the American Peace Society. (Butler 1912, p 43)
Butler (1914) describes the challenge of the educational work of the Carnegie Endowment of International Peace by noting; ÒTo promote the cause of international peace in a way that shall be lasting and effective means nothing less than to work for the intellectual and moral education of the public opinion of the world.Ó (pp 3-4)
Francis KemŽny (cited in Butts 1943) articulated six aspects of what he called Òinternational educationÓ [emphasis added] in 1914 as part of his plan for an international institute of education. The aspects of international education were: 1) State of education in foreign countries (descriptions, statistics, etc; 2) Organization by which several countries benefit (conferences, exhibition, etc; 3) Efforts and measures aiming at drawing together, or even unifying, education on certain points (organization, legislation, rights and privileges, etc; 4) International or world education (based on universal rights of man and on the knowledge of modern languages); 5) Education for peace (to counteract chauvinism); 6) Inter-racial education (to counteract race prejudice) In presenting this material from KemenyÕs 1914 proposal, Rossello (in Butts 1944 translation) in a footnote (page 26) indicates that ÒThe term Ôinternational educationÕ leads to confusion and we prefer the expression Ôeducation on an international plane,Õ although it is longer.Ó
ÒThe internationalists who care for the human future and enjoy some world citizenship have no precedents, no technique, no common tradition or understood procedure to guide them. The sciences of international relations is for them like the first stumbling of a child. They live at the dawn of new ways and thinking, and they are certain to meet many failures before their own minds have clarified their task. Our own generation may thus see no great discovery, no telling formulation of principles. It will suffer in experiments which are blind, and accumulate a little wisdom in suffering. The more naive will build high hopes and fall into disappointment. They will grow impatient with those who end every affirmation with a question mark and surround every plan with a disturbing doubt. But the more critical will know that peace is a long adventure, which would be crushing in its difficulties if it were not sustained by the finest hopes that lures the mind of man.Ó(New Republic or May 1, 1915 cited in Kuehl 1969, p 1)
The President of Mount Holyoke College, Mary E. Wooley (1915) addressed the annual meeting of the Lake Mohonk Conference in 1915 on the role of education in supporting international cooperation; ÒHistory marks the growth of the conception of human relationships - the family, the tribe, the nation. A new stress upon the international - a higher conception of what human relationships may and ought to be, bounded not by the family or the social circle or the community or the nation or the race, but world-wide - this is now the province and the mission of educators.Ó(p 142)
In an extensive essay in School and Society (Vol XXVI, no. 657, July 30, 1927) F.Fern Andrews relates the story of an international congress on education held in 1915 in connection with the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in Oakland, California which was attended by representatives from thirty countries including the belligerents in the World War. In reflecting on the duties of teachers with regard to international education, Andrews quotes from the Declaration of Principles agreed to at the congress; ÒOf all the institutions working for the unification of mankind and the improvement of social welfare the school stands first, and, in consequence, the importance of the stand to be taken by those who direct public education and those who teach in the schools can hardly be overestimated. What our civilization will be in a quarter of a century hence will depend very largely upon the attitude assumed toward these new questions of international relations by those who are responsible for the direction of public education in all lands and nations.Ó (Andrews, 1927, p 127)
In an address to students Milbank Chapel at Columbia Teachers College in 1915 Benjamin Andrews (1915) observed the necessities of international education in the following manner; ÒEducation will largely aid in bringing about this republic of humanity. We must as teachers work consciously for a world patriotism and culture; we must emphasize world citizenship as a supplement to national citizenship, and develop in each child international intelligence and sympathy. Then as the individual citizen becomes conscious of his place in a world organization we may expect him to submit himself to a larger governing agency and help in its creation. Though such proposals may seem visionary they alone point the way to lasting security and progress, and the first steps toward their realization wait on the teacherÕs taking a world view of his profession..... To internationalize yourself, is therefore not a counsel of perfection but a common-sense first step for a who really desire peace and unbroken social progress. In our profession we must exchange not only occasional professors and teachers between nations; we must learn to maintain a constant exchange of ideas and methods and ideals even, through professional books and journals and meetings. Specifically, each of us should know his own field internationally, whether it be a science, an art, or some other division of knowledge, that is, each of us should think in terms of the men and schools an ideas of other nations as well as of his own; or, speaking generally, we must create a cosmopolitan professional spirit concerned with world progress through education. Let our educational leaders state a world purpose for our profession and for the schools, and let each of us express such a purpose in his own teaching.Ó (pp 70-71)
Harold Shane writing in 1969 about the historical efforts at establishing practical curriculum frameworks in education for Ôinternational understandingÕ cited a NEA report of 1916 (Jones 1916): ÒAmong early bench marks in the slowly developing idea of international understanding was the report of the NEA Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. The 1916 Final Report of the CommissionÕs Committee on Social Studies (itself a new term at the time) recommended developing international-mindedness, stressing the concept of interdependence among nations, developing awareness of the worldwide interests of the United States and emphasizing the necessity of building world citizenship.Ó (Shane 1969, p 273)
International Federation of League of Nations Societies organised in Paris with the educational aim to introduce the ideals of the League in the syllabuses of national schools, to encourage textbook revision and to introduce teachers to the work of the League (Stoker 1933, pp 37-38)
F. Fern Andrews (1919) in her historical survey of the activities of the American School Peace League recalled the sentiment before the establishment of the League of Nations to have ÔeducationÕ included in the text of the Charter of the League. Andrews cited the resolutions of the Workers Educational Association of Great Britain and Ireland (representing almost 3,000 organizations) regarding the educational requirements of the age. She noted the resolution of the teaching organizations as stating that the attitude of mind Òessential to the successful and effective working of a democratic League of Peoples...can only be cultivated by education that aims at enlightening the peoples of the world as to the facts of the world they live in, more especially the social and economic facts that periodically divide the human family into warring communities, widens the human outlook, broadens and deepens human sympathies, and enables democracies of the world to realize their interdependence on each other for their future prosperity and security.Ó (cited in Scanlon, 1960, p 62)

Institute of International Education is founded to develop international understanding by means of educational and cultural activities (Harley 1931, Duggan 1920, Brickman 1950, Scanlon 1960, Duggan in Carr 1944) and absorbs the work of international academic activities of the American Council on Education and of the American University Union in Europe as a single organisation involved in what was then termed Ôinternational educational relationsÕ (Stoker 1933, p 11)

Stephen Duggan in his first annual report as the Director of the Institute of International Education in New York cited the historic purpose of the Institute as: Òenabling our people to secure a better understanding of foreign nations and of enabling foreign nations to obtain accurate knowledge of the United States, its peoples, institutions, and culture.Ó (Duggan 1920, p 1) He then explained that the overall mission of the Institute was Òto develop international good will by means of educational agencies, and for its specific purpose to act as a clearing house of information and advice for Americans concerning things educational in foreign countries and for foreigners concerning things educational in the United States.Ó (p. 2)
The first annual conference of the International Federation of University Women was held in London in July of 1920. It is of interest to the growing interest in international education at the time that the aim of the federation was Òto promote understanding and fellowship between educated women of different nations, and to unite them into a league to further their common interests and to strengthen the foundations of international sympathy which must form the basis of the League of Nations.Ó (Cattell 1920a, p 88)
The early discussions during the formation of the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations in 1921 exposes a discourse which was typical of the fear of encroaching upon educational matters due to education being considered by the politician of the Western powers as the province of national sovereignty. The delegate from Haiti, M. Bellegarde, was a lone voice in support of ensuring that education remained a central consideration of the work on the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. Bellegarde spoke to the Assembly in support of international educational pursuits: [English translation - French original] ÒI note the Committee has been careful to avoid the reproach of intervening in the domestic affairs of nations with regard to education.... Our object is to collect for the information of all countries the results achieved by the human intellect. Now, if it is desired to co-ordinate the achievements of the human mind, how can we afford to neglect the formation of the human mind?.... It is obvious that methods of education must vary in different States, because all nations are anxious to develop along the lines of their national traditions; but it is none the less true that the human soul is one, and that methods of education which aim at the development of all our faculties may be applied to all men irrespective of nationality.Ó (cited in Scanlon 1960, pp 70-71) Ò...je constate que cette Commission a eu le souci de ne pas mŽriter le reproche de sÕimmiscer dans les affaires intŽrieures des nations au point de vue de lÕenseignement..... Nous voulons rŽunir et porter a la connaissance de tous les pays les rŽsultats acquis, comment voulez-vous, comment pouvez-vous vous dŽsintŽresser de la formation mme de lÕesprit humain?.... Il est certain que les mŽthodes dÕŽducation peuvent changer selon les Etats, parce que toutes les nations ont le souci de se dŽvelopper dans le sens de leurs traditions nationalites; mais il nÕen reste pas moins vrai que lÕ‰me humaine est une et que les mŽthodes dÕŽducation qui ont pour but de dŽvelopper toutes les facultŽs de notre ‰me peuvent sÕappliquer ‡ tous les hommes - ˆ quelque nation quÕils appartiennent....Ó (League of Nations 1921, pp 311-312)
The Association of School Reformers in Germany publish a study entitled ÒDer Unterricht im Geiste der VolkerversohnungÓ which urges that reconciliation between the peoples of the world be made Ôone of the main concerns of teaching (cited in Scanlon 1960, p 22)
Rabindranath TagoreÕs international school named Santinikentan (Visva-Bharati - which means world university) is formally established in India as one of the first modern international schools in the world with a visiting professor from Sorbonne Universities in the first year( Brickman 1950, Scanlon 1960, pp 99-118 and the dissertation by Periaswamy 1976) Kenworthy (1951) indicates that the international school Òhas grown in size and purpose until it has become a center of world culture, including a university, a teacher education institute, a crafts division, and a rural reconstruction department ... Its library is one of the finest in the Asiatic world, with outstanding collections on Islam, Chinese culture, and the fine arts.Ó (p 226) At the inauguration ceremonies Tagore noted; ÒLet me state clearly that I have no distrust of any culture because of its foreign character. On the contrary, I believe that the shock of outside forces is necessary for maintaining the vitality of our intellect... European culture has come to us not only with its knowledge but with its speed. Even when our assimilation is imperfect and aberrations follow, it is rousing our intellectual life from the inertia of formal habits. The contradiction it offers to our traditions make our consciousness glow... What I object to is the artificial arrangement by which this foreign education tends to occupy all the space of our national mind and thus kills, or hampers, the great opportunity for the creation of new thought by a new combination of truths. It is this which makes me urge that all the elements in our own culture have to be strengthened; not to resist the culture of the West, but to accept and assimilate it. It must become for us nourishment and not a burden. We must gain mastery over it and not live on sufferance as hewers of texts and drawers of book-learning.Ó (Dutta and Robinson 1996, pp 221-222)
International Folk (Peoples) High School in Elsinore, Denmark is established with the help of Danish, English and American contributions (Brickman 1950, Carr 1945, Stoker 1933, Kenworthy 1951, p 224) and modified over the next thirty years to meet the needs of a student body from over forty nations with both summer and winter courses (Kenworthy 1951, p 225) Brickman (1962) credits Peter Manniche, a Dutch educator as founding this school with over 5,000 students attending regular courses and over 10,000 attending short courses. (p 231) The aims of the school included the promotion of Òpersonal development in the students and to further international understanding and co-operationÓ (p 232) Kenworthy (1951) noted that over 12,000 students had attended the summer and winter courses representing over forty nations. The staff was composed of Danes, Swedes German and English personnel. The typical courses relate to International Relations, language instruction, Social Psychology and International Order. (pp 224-225)
Original Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations (12 members) meets under the chairmanship of Henri Bergson and the membership of Eve Curie, Gilbert Murray, Albert Einstein and Jagadis Bose but with a budget of only five thousand pounds (Scanlon 1960, p 15) Stoker has noted that in its first meeting, the Committee received communications from 48 recognised national and international organisations in support of its work (Stoker 1933, pp 32-33, Lengyel (1951) indicates that during the years before the formation of the Committee that the Òproject traveled around the halls of the League and when it emerged into the open the word ÒeducationÓ had been deleted. Nor had there been much enthusiasm for intellectual cooperation.Ó Lengyel further observed that ÒThe League could not overlook the problem of internationalism in education... The League attempted to have history textbooks revised, so that they should show more understanding for other people and display less jingoistic spirit. It also launched a study of the remarkable new media of mass communication, which reached millions and could be turned to constructive use. Walls dividing the worldÕs intellectual forces were to topple as universities, teachers, scholars, librarians, and researchers were to meet periodically under the auspices of the League.Ó (p 598)
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