|Defining International Education
A History of Attempts in the 20th Century
(draft of 23 November, 2001)
John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) a Moravian bishop who is sometimes called the Ôteacher of nationsÕ proposed the establishment of a ÔPansophic CollegeÕ where learned men from the nations of the world would collect and unify existing knowledge toward Ôinternational understandingÕ (Brickman 1950, p 618, Carr 1945, Scanlon 1960) CompayrŽ (1903) credits Comenius with writing twenty books and teaching in twenty cities and compares his work favorably with that of Galileo and Bacon in terms of his historical standing in the field of education (p 122) ÒJust as the whole world is a school for the whole of the human race, from the beginning of time until the very end, so the whole of his life is a school for every man, from the cradle to the grave.Ó (Jan Amos Comenius: 1592-1670 in Selections, p. 145) Scanlon (1957) notes that it was in the publication of Panorthosia that Comenius urged the establishment of a College of Light that would provide the function of an international office of education and a Ôuniversal academyÕ. (p 33) Hans (1964) cites ComeniusÕ recently discovered Pampaedia where the 17th Century scholar insisted that Òall men without exception should be educated for humanityÓ (p 24)
Jeremy Bentham coins the term ÒinternationalÓ to describe the branch of law which commonly was termed Ôthe law of nationsÕ in his work entitled ÒPrinciples of Morals and LegislationÓ As Kuehl (19690 noted: Ò The proposals for a congress and court plus the agitation for a wider use of arbitration made men realize that formal statutes on both procedure and fact would be needed. As legal scholars began to search for a practical way to approach their problem, they accepted the word ÒinternationalÓ which [Jeremy] Bentham had coined in 1770. It was
calculated to express, in a more significant way, the branch of law which goes commonly under the name of the law of nations: an appellation so uncharacteristic, that, were it not for the force of custom, it would seem rather to refer to internal jurisprudence. The chancellor DÕAuguesseau has already made, I find, a similar remark: he says, that what is commonly called droit des gens ought rather be termed droit entre les gens.
There remain, then, the mutual transactions between sovereigns as such, for the subject of that branch of jurisprudence which may be properly and exclusively termed international. (Bentham cited in Kuehl 1969, p 29)
A third factor also encouraged the awakening interest in a law of nations. The proposals for a congress and court plus the agitation for a wider use of arbitration made men realize that formal statutes on both procedure and fact would be needed. As legal scholars began to search for a practical way to approach their problem, they accepted the word ÒinternationalÓ which [Jeremy] Bentham had coined in 1770. It was; Òcalculated to express, in a more significant way, the branch of law which goes commonly under the name of the law of nations: an appellation so uncharacteristic, that, were it not for the force of custom, it would seem rather to refer to internal jurisprudence. The chancellor DÕAuguesseau has already made, I find, a similar remark: he says, that what is commonly called droit des gens ought rather be termed droit entre les gens.Ó There remain, then, the mutual transactions between sovereigns as such, for the subject of that branch of jurisprudence which may be properly and exclusively termed international. (Bentham cited in Kuehl 1969, p 29)
Marc-Antoine Jullien (1775-1848) proposes the establishment of a Òcommission speciale dÕeducationÓ collect information on educational activities throughout Europe in a publication entitled Esquisse et vues preliminaires dÕun ouvrage sur lÕeducation comparee (ÒA Preliminary Outline of a Study in Comparative Education) in Paris (Brickman 1950, p 619, Carr 1945) JullienÕs pamphlet was saved for historians by Kemeny (Scanlon 1960) Good (1964) credits Jullien with the first use of the term Ôcomparative educationÕ
Large portions of JullienÕs 1817 pamphlet, Esquisse et vues preliminaires dÕun ouvrage sur lÕeducation comparee (ÒA Preliminary Outline of a Study in Comparative Education) is published in the first volume of the earliest American professional journal, The American Journal of Education (Vol 1, July 1926 from Kandel in Carr 1944, p 43) JullienÕs pamphlet is reprinted, in part in ScanlonÕs (1960) Documentary History of International Education where Jullien is cited as calling for an international movement to study education. - ÒThe attention of the sovereigns of Europe is invited to the formation of a special Commission of Education, to be composed of a few individuals, who might chuse corresponding members at a distance, and proceed to the great work of compiling an account of the state of educationÓ (Scanlon, 1960, p 54)
The interest in international education within the context of Europe in 1871 could be observed in the numerous advertisements for schooling, schools or tutoring and for the beginnings of specialized consulting services for the parents of students with an interest in schools abroad which is widespread today in the Western world. One such advertisement read, ÒEDUCATION, 1858 to 1871 (sent gratis). - The anxiety in deciding upon a suitable school for sons and daughters can be entirely removed by direct application to Mr. F.S. de CATERET BISSON, F.R.G.S., M.S.A., Editor of Our Schools and Colleges, &c and Mr. G.F. RADFORD, M.A. Trin. Coll., Cambridge, who give gratuitous advice (founded upon many yearsÕ personal knowledge), and recommend (without charge) the best schools in England and on the continent - Berners-chambers, 70, Berners-street, W.Ó (Times of London, 10 June, 1871, p 3)
Wilson (1994) suggests that JapanÕs Prince Tomoni Iwakura should be considered as a pioneer of international education in special respect to his leading a mission to study American and European education in 1872 a mere four years following the Meiji Restoration. (p. 455) Wilson also suggests considering Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner and Friedrich Froebel as equal co-pioneers with Prince Iwakura.
Joshua Chamberlain, the president of Bowdoin College from 1871-1883 and one of the United States commissioners to the Paris Exposition of 1878 provides in his official report a glimpse into the importance attached to the educational benefits of the rising tide of international expositions that arose from the first one in London in 1851. In his official report which was reproduced by Fraser and Brickman (1968) Chamberlain provides a strong recommendation for further support of participation in international educational conferences and exchanges: ÒOur final thought naturally turns to the educating influence of these international exhibitions. As children learn by example and observation, so do men, and so do nations. A principle of natural selection on a grand scale works here. Each people shows its best, and every other admires and learns; and where, in any point, one surpasses all, the most able may make this excellence their point of departure, and the very least may take it as their goal. Thus one learns its best hold and line of work; the sharpness of competition is softened by the interchange of human sympathies and quickening ideas, and the excellences of each become the common wealth of all.Ó (p 223)
La Revue Internationale de lÕEnseignement, a monthly educational journal, published in Paris by the Society of Superior Instruction in order to play the part of a Ôpermanent congressÕ (NEA 1894, p 846) In presentations made to the international congress in Chicago in 1893 the journal was noted in a way that ÒIt affords an opportunity to follow the pedagogical movement in various countries, and to make very interesting and instructive comparison. Thus the International Review play the part of a sort of permanent congress where questions of highest import for the advancement of education and instruction are discussed
Molkenboer begins to publish a periodical entitled ÒJournal of Correspondence on the Foundation of a Permanent and International Council on EducationÓ in Westphalen which becomes a vehicle for the promotion of an international council on education and world peace (Scanlon 1960, p 6)
Molkenboer presents his proposals for an international council on education in a pamphlet entitled ÒDie Internationale Erziehungs-Arbeit, Einstzung des Blesibenden Internationalen Erziehungs-RatesÓ in Flensburg, Germany (Scanlon 1960, p 6)
Universal Exhibition (Columbian Exposition) in Chicago (Potter 1948, NEA 1894)
Internationale Correspondenz - Association (Scott 1912)
International Educational Congresses of the Columbian Exposition in Chicago hosted by the Educational Committee of the World Congress Auxiliary - 91 sessions (July 17-26) and by the National Education Association (US) - 50 sessions (July 25-28) with 27 countries represented - one departmental congress, Higher Education had 326 vice-presidents in attendance(Compayre 1893, NEA 1894) many observers considered that Ômost of the countries of the world were represented (Stoker 1933, xviii, Monroe 1911, Gregory 1938, p 94)
William T. Harris, in his Preface to the published proceedings (NEA 1894) indicates that the congress was the largest ever held in terms of attendance and international participation. He noted that the object of the several congresses held during the Columbian Exposition (being the four hundredth anniversary of the ÔdiscoveryÕ of America by Columbus) was Òto provide for the proper presentation of the intellectual and moral progress of the world by a series of international conferences of the leaders in all the chief departments of human achievements. Harris indicated, as well, that the educational congress was second in rank of importance to the Parliament of Religions held later in that same year. (iii-v)
The published proceedings of the Congress (NEA 1894) indicate that there were at least 58 documents presented by non-US participants in the form of addresses, papers or appendices. In total they constituted a significant portion of the material of the congress
WatermanÕs report (1893) indicates that the purpose of the congress was Òof bringing together representatives of all nations, and obtaining the results of their thought and experience in some great field of human activity. (p 159) Waterman further indicates that ÒThere was a strong sense of unity and fellowship underlying the proceedings that gave to them a far greater influence than is usually exerted by such gatherings. Eminent men and women had come from all parts of the world to meet on common ground, discuss common interests, and contribute their best to the common fund of experience which will shape the future of education. (p 158) Waterman also highlights the leading role that female educators played in the conference. He observed ÒWomen helped to organize the meetings, they presided at the meetings, and introduced the men; they made addresses and took part in discussions; they constituted a majority in the audiences and in many ways they demonstrated that not sex, but the ability to think and to do, should determine who should be chosen as leaders. (p 165)
Gabriel CompayrŽÕs report of the Congress (1893) highlighted his perceptions as the delegate form the government of the French Republic. He noted that, in fact, there were two congresses; the first (July 17-26) sponsored by the Chicago local committee and the second (July 25-28) which was sponsored by the National Education Association. The French delegate was impressed with the openness of the discussion in comparison with the Paris meeting of 1889. He noted that there was no limitation to the subjects to be considered and that the range of the discussion resulted in the record of the Congress being Òa veritable encyclopŽdie pŽdagogique. (p 260) CompayrŽ, like Waterman, also highlighted the leading role of women in the Congress. He listed the countries participating as; England, Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, France, Japan, Australia, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the host, the United States.
In his address of welcome to the delegates of the Congress, Charles Bonney (1894) characterized their deliberations in the following manner; ÒWhile the learned world ponders the new educational problems and seeks a means of their solution, a new and tremendous influence enters the field and asks attention. It is the spirit of the new age, demanding international fraternity and cooperation in every department of civilized life. The institutions of learning have more than willingly responded to this call, and have manifested a desire to accede to it so far as sound reason may lead the way. A true and enduring educational system must have its national and international as well as its local relations. (p. 18) Bonney further described the new vision of education in the world; ÒThe new education, extended as it will be throughout the world, will do as much as, if not more than, any other agency to promote the unity and peace of mankind. For by education we mean not merely the training of the intellect; we mean also the culture of the heart and the hand. The golden circle of education embraces not only literature, science, and art, but is includes as well the whole broad domain of virtue, morals, and religion. (p 20)
In his welcoming address to the Congress, the Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows (1894) who was chairman of the General Committee on Educational Congresses described it as a Ògathering, which represents the very culmination of all the educational gatherings of the world.Ó
The chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, William Harris (1894), reflected in his welcoming comments the scope of the preparations for the congress; ÒIn preparation for the discussions to take place this week, the committee has endeavored to select questions of international interest - questions that affect the management of schools in all our countries, wherever they are. And the renewed and increasing interest in school education in all civilized countries at this time is occasion for congratulation among all friends of human progress. (p 26) In his critical review of the published proceedings, Wyer (1894) praised the addresses of Dr. Harris and Dr. Angell (p 179)
In his welcoming comments to the Congress, the delegate from Russia, Prince Serge Wolkonsky breathed explicit life into the field of international education when he observed; ÒInternational, Educational. May these two words be written in fiery letters on the dark sky of this summer night, so as to shine for every one who will attend the sessions of this congress. The he who will treat an educational question will remember that, even in the case when it has arisen from purely national considerations, it must have in its results a value from the ÒinternationalÓ point of view; for education, if not aiming to inspire humanitarian feelings of international brotherhood, is but a dead letter. And he who will preach theories of ÒinternationalÓ equality of men will remember that this equality should be obtained by way of ÒeducationÓ - that is, by way of arising, of building up;; by way of noble emulation in improving, in learning, in accepting and assimilating things that others have discovered; in one word, international equality should be obtained by way of acquiring and not by way of restricting; for tendencies of equality, if not inspired by motives of education, must bring humanity back to the animal equality of the beasts. And so the union of these two words, ÒinternationalÓ and ÒeducationalÓ - may it be blessed; may it resound in the hearts of all who will be present here; may it inspire the words and acts of the congress with great ideas of universal impartiality; may it loudly proclaim that every one of us belongs, first, to humanity, and, secondly, to one or another nation; may it teach that there is more honour for any one of us in being a man than in being an American, or a Russian, or a German, or an Italian, or a Greek, or a Japanese, or whatever else it may be.
In his closing remarks of the congress, James Angell the Permanent Chairman (1894) commented on the unique character of the closing ceremony; ÒI venture to believe that no such scene has ever been witnessed before at any educational congress in this country, where the stage has been occupied almost wholly by representatives from foreign lands...Ó (p 65) In his critical review of the published proceedings, Wyer (1894) praised the addresses of Dr. Harris and Dr. Angell (p 179)
In his report of the Pan-African Conference held in July in London, W.E.B. Du Bois makes famous the observation that ÒThe problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the colour line, the question as to how far differences of race, which show themselves chiefly in the colour of the skin and texture of the hair, are going to be made, hereafter, the basis of denying half over half the world the right of sharing to their utmost ability the opportunities and privileges of modern civilization. (cited in Aptheker 1982, p 110)
A co-educational school called Beadles is established with the aim that ÒInternational goodwill is to be encouraged in every possible wayÓ (Meyer 1949, p 137) Stewart (1972) notes that the New Schools, Abbotsholme and Bedales (Beadles?) all Òhad international reputations by 1900, especially on the continent of Europe, and served as a pattern for a number of schools in Germany, Switzerland, France, Belgium and Holland. He also notes that Quaker and Theosophical Schools of the time also had international reputations.
Franz Kemeny publishes ÒEntwurf einer Internationalen Gesammt-Akademie: WeltakademieÓ in Budapest, Hungary calling for a world educational organization(weltakamemie) (Scott 1912, Scanlon 1960, pp 10-11) The pamphlet in Budapest supported six areas in which international education could be developed; 1) studies of educational systems in various countries, 2) international conferences for teachers, 3) international codes for the organization and structure of education, 4) the teaching of human rights based on Western democratic principles, 5) countering xenophobia and extreme nationalism, especially in textbooks and 6) the need to eradicate racial prejudice (Scanlon 1959, p 217)
Andrew Carnegie established in the city of Washington, D.C. the Carnegie Institution, which, according to the Trust established by Carnegie, would Òwith the cooperation of institutions, now or hereafter established, there [Washington] or elsewhere, shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation, research and discovery - show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind......Ó(Trust Deed, xiii,) This deed still guide the work of the institution today but it is noteworthy to observe that although the scope of the mandate was not only global but also intended to Ôserve mankindÕ, Carnegie also made clear that the underlying purpose of the establishment of the institution was a projection of national influence worldwide. He states, in closing the deed, Òthe chief purpose of the Founder being to secure if possible for the United States of America leadership in the domain of discovery and the utilization of new forces for the benefit of man.Ó (Trust Deed, xiv)
A professor at Columbia University, Dr. Ernst Richard, spoke to the Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the issue of education of international arbitration and the growing sense of international solidarity; Ò...teach them that the grandest things of earth - that true religion, art and science - know of no nationality in the hostile sense; that there is only one science, as there is one truth; teach them that Goethe, Schiller, Shakespeare, Dante, Raphael, Rembrandt, Corneille, Emerson, Beethoven, and I don not know how many more names more I might mention, have accomplished their masterpieces, not for their own countrymen, - not for Americans, Frenchmen, Englishmen, Italians, Germans, - but for mankindÕ teach them that the two great documents which have ushered in our modern times have not proclaimed the rights of Americans or the rights of Frenchmen, but the rights of men; - in short, emphasize every thing that tends to unite, and make light of everything that separates; teach them less of the fiends of humanity, but more, a great deal more, about its benefactors.Ó (Richard, p. 125)
Second Conference on Art held at Berne with an international exhibition of student art (Dutton 1906) In speaking of the value of international educational conferences, Dutton notes: ÒNot only do international conferences bring scholars and scientific workers of different countries into friendly and sympathetic co-operation, and tend to disseminate the fruits of painstaking research for the use of all mankind, but they are an important factor in bringing the leaders of thought of every nation together, thus sowing the seeds of international fraternity and good will...Ó (p 307) He goes on to note that: ÒInternational conferences would tend to dispose of old rudimentary forms and to introduce everywhere a spirit that is at once modern and human. The educational experience and knowledge of the best minds in every nation would be short-circuited and placed at the disposal of the world.Ó (p 309)
University Cosmopolitan Clubs (La Fontaine 1911 and Lochner 1911, 1912) is founded with a membership of over two thousand and representatives from sixty countries.(Lochner 1911, p 410) Cosmopolitan Club at Oxford University forms a Central Committee for the Promotion of the Cosmopolitan Clubs which emerged from discussions held at the First Universal Race Congress in London in 1911 (Lochner 1912, p 6)
The United States Commissioner of Education, Elmer Ellsworth presents excerpts from his first annual report as commissioner to the Mohonk Peace Conference of 1907; ÒA public sentiment calling for such a peace will be stable only when it rests upon an appreciative understanding of other nations. In this there is great work for education the world over, that it help the nations understand one another. Whatever the schools may do to this great end will count for real education. Can any form of learning, in fact, be more liberalizing, more expanding, more tonic, than the insight gained through knowledge of other peoples, our contemporaries, who with us are the makers of modern history?........ This view calls for a more thorough teaching of geography and history in the elementary schools, that the first notions formed by the children in those schools, or our relations with other lands and peoples, may be true and temperate; it calls for a better teaching of modern languages and literatures in our secondary schools and colleges; and in the more highly specialized studies of commercial and technical schools, it calls for more thorough and accurate instruction in all subjects having to do with the relations of our home land with foreign lands..... This is not a foreign view of American education, but rather an American view; for it is already clear that American institutions can reach their full development only by finding their rightful place in the current of the worldÕs history, and that only by so doing can they become fully American.Ó (pp 60-61)
F F Andrews published extended essay calling upon teachers to be involved in training of world citizens (Andrews 1908) In this essay she indicates that ÒThe supreme aim of education is to develop men and women who can carry on effectively and nobly the work of the world.Ó (p 279) Ò...at no time has it been more necessary for the teacher to have a full appreciation and properly conceived notion of the forces making for development than the present age, permeated as it is by the new spirit of internationalism. The phenomenal growth of a world consciousness is the distinctive feature of the twentieth century; and contributing to this development is the whole category of human activity. In the advancement of industry, education, religion, science, literature, art, philanthropy and government, the inhabitants of the world, regardless of national boundaries, have intermingled their interests in the pursuit of great achievements.Ó (p 279) While calling on teachers to respond to the needs of world unity, Andrews fully outlined her expectations of a teacher who is involved in international education; Andrews further outlined the philosophical framework of a teacher involved in such an international educational process ÒThe teacher of the twentieth century is an international figure, and he can never perform his highest function until he is imbued with this international consciousness. He should stand shoulder to shoulder with his fellow teachers in the world for the achievement of a higher civilization. One generation of teaching the principles of justice, peace and international unity would revolutionize the world; these sentiments can be taught in literature, geography, history, and, in fact, in every exercise connected with the school... To what nobler work can the teacher consecrate himself than to build up a new people whose country is the world, whose countrymen are all mankind!Ó (p 289)
Dr. Henry White in an address to the 1908 Lake Mohonk Conference spoke to the issue of the promotion of international arbitration in the college campuses; ÒThe question before us, therefore, is - in what manner may the agencies for intellectual and moral training employed by the college be legitimately and most effectively utilized to increase intelligence in the matter of international relationships.Ó (White 1908, p 136)