CLASS ORIGINALLY ASSIGNED TO 319 COOPER STREET, ROOM 110
OFFICE: 429 COOPER STREET, ROOM 201
PHONE: (856) 225-6220
OFFICE HOURS: M,W 2:30 PM-4:00 PM NOTICE: This is not a contract. It is a roadmap. It is my syllabus.
I made it. I can change it. COURSE DESCRIPTION This is an introductory survey course on African-American history up to the Civil War. This course does not pre-suppose any background in history. This course is interdisciplinary, and includes elements of archaeology, art, biology, religion, and sociology and psychology as well as history. The course is intended for a general audience and not for history majors only. This course begins with the ancestral history of black people in Africa. The history of black people is a part of world history, not only US history. The Africans who came to America as slaves already had a history that went back thousands of years before they ever arrived here. Inasmuch as this course involves both world history and US history it may be thought of as a hybrid course. This course examines slavery in the ancient world, and the enslavement of white people in Europe in ancient and medieval times; and then proceeds to the rise of the Atlantic slave trade, European and Anglo-American racism, and New World slavery. Whereas religion played a key role in who could be enslaved in medieval Europe and the “Middle East” (a Christian should not enslave a fellow Christian, a Moslem should not enslave a fellow Moslem) increasingly after 1400 AD sub-Saharan Africans were singled out for servitude on the basis of supposed “heathen” religion and color.
One of the fundamental issues in this course is to address the question “where did racism (white supremacy) come from?” How was the idea of race constructed in Europe, especially in England and the English colonies in North America and the Caribbean? We focus on England because it was the mother country of what is now the United States. We will look at the role of cultural, religious, ideological, economic and disease factors (epidemiology and resistance to disease). We will also explore the impact of New World slavery on the gender roles and identities of black men and women, and on the slave family. We will also look at questions of resistance, the attempted slave revolts, and the slave narratives. We will discuss the relationship of racism to slavery and the relationship between racism and capitalism in the colonial and antebellum periods. In colonial America slavery emerged out of the terribly exploitative system of white indentured servitude, as colonial Virginia and Maryland moved from white-on-white brutality and exploitation to white-on-black brutality and super-exploitation. We will also look at how the English banished and enslaved the Irish, and this served as a stepping stone to the use of Africans as slaves in the English colonies. Students will learn how indentured servitude and slavery were similar, and how they were different.
Furthermore, we will explore the contradiction of slavery in a free, democratic republic, where the rights of “all men” were denied to those defined as “not men.” We will compare slavery in the US with slavery in the Caribbean and Latin America. And we will explore the meaning of the ideas of America, in relationship with the wider world, in view of the contradiction of slavery in a nation that claimed to cherish freedom and equality. The course will focus on the period up to the Civil War.
The lectures will be supplemented with video material.
REQUIRED READINGS Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans: A Concise History, Volume I or African American Odyssey, Volume I . You may use either the 4th or 5th edition.
Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
Catherine Clinton, Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom
Wayne Glasker, Black Students in the Ivory Tower
A handout on Slavery and the Law (class handout, forthcoming at appropriate time)
There will be articles in sakai and on electronic reserve at the library as well. Ordinarily, to access sakai, type sakai.rutgers.edu and then enter your username and password. We will use sakai extensively.
ALSO RECOMMENDED Winthrop Jordan, The White Man’s Burden
Sean O’Callaghan, To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland
Don Jordan and Michael Walsh, White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain’s White Slaves in America.
Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Walter Johnson, Soul By Soul
Vincent Harding, There Is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America
EXAMS AND PAPERS There will be at least four in-class exams, and the Final Exam (but more if I determine that more are needed). The Multiple Choice section of the Final Exam will be cumulative. All dates are tentative and subject to change. The exams (including the Final Exam) will count as 50% of the course grade. Class attendance will count as 5% of the course grade, and class participation will count for at least 10%. There will be four papers (book reports in which you respond todirected questions on (Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman and Black Students in the IvoryTower), which are to be eight to ten pages in length. Together the papers will count for 25% of the grade. That means that each paper individually counts as about 6 points). There will be a writing assignment using ProQuest, an online resource at the Library. All college students should know how to use ProQuest; it is a basic skill. And there will be brief reaction papers, in which you respond to a reading or video.
COMPONENTS OF THE GRADE Exams 50%
Papers (book reports) 25%
ProQuest Assignment, Reaction Papers, Homework 5%
Class Attendance 5%
Community Service/Civic Engagement 5%
To do well in this course it will not be enough to perform well on the in-class exams. Ordinarily, all exams will include essay questions. In addition you will have to write. There will be four papers (book reports). And in these papers you will learn how to use page citation to document sources. Attendance will be taken at every class using a sign-in sheet. If you do not attend regularly you will be penalized for poor attendance. No more than three absences are expected. After the third absence you will lose points for each additional absence. Class participation will be ten percent of the grade. This means, at the very least, that when I call on you and ask you a question you have a reply, or you raise your hand to volunteer to give an answer, or to ask an original question of your own or offer an interpretation. Deportment will be part of and included in the participation grade. This means that you are paying attention and you are taking the course seriously. Poor deportment occurs when you can’t answer a question or don’t know where we are in a reading or in the lecture because you were busy playing a video game on your cell phone, or busy texting, or busy laughing, joking and/or chatting with a classmate, or otherwise distracted. Disruptive or combative behavior, including “word-for-word,” is also poor deportment.
If you are here, you will know exactly when the exams will be given. If you are absent it is your responsibility to get notes from a classmate. Every student should have a partner in the class (a teammate) so that you can get notes. You should check your email before class for announcements in Sakai. EVENTUALLY most of the reserve readings can be accessed through sakai; click on Library e-Reserves in the left hand column in sakai.
THE GRADING SCALE In general, an average of 00-59 = F Failing
60-69 = D Poor
70-74 = C Satisfactory (average)
75-79 = C+ A bit more than Satisfactory
80-84 = B Good
85-89 = B+ Very Good
90-100 = A Excellent/Outstanding
PLAGIARISM AND ACADEMIC INTEGRITY The papers are not collaborative exercises. Each person should do his or her own independent, individual work. The papers will be submitted with BOTH a paper hard copy and you will upload it to sakai, where it will be filtered through TURNITIN, which detects Internet copy-and-paste plagiarism. If you copy and paste someone else’s work and do not cite the source this is plagiarism. It might be as small as a sentence or two, but if you do not use quotation marks and cite the source it is still plagiarism. “I didn’t know” and “I forgot” are not acceptable excuses. If two or more people turn in papers that are entirely or substantially identical, this suggests cheating or collusion. The person who shared the file or notes with the person who turned in someone else’s work as his or her own is equally guilty of violating the Code of Academic Integrity. The consequences can be severe.* Obviously students should not cheat on exams or attempt to use notes stored on cellphones or other devices during an exam. The Code of Academic Integrity can be found at http://academicintegrity.rutgers.edu/integrity.shtml#I
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES STATEMENT The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides civil rights protections for persons with disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Office of Disability Services. The Office of Disability Services (ODS) provides students with confidential advising and accommodation services in order to allow students with documented physical, mental, and learning disabilities to successfully complete their course of study at Rutgers University – Camden. The ODS provides for the confidential documentation and verification of student accommodations, and communicates with faculty regarding disabilities and accommodations. The ODS provides accommodation services, which can include readers, interpreters, alternate text, special equipment, and note takers. The ODS acts as a signatory for special waivers. The ODS also works with students, faculty, staff and administrators to enforce the American with Disabilities Act of 1990.
Coordinator of Disability Services, Rutgers-Camden (all schools excluding law)
Timothy S. Pure
Rutgers-Camden Learning Center
Armitage Hall, Room 240
NORMS OF BEHAVIOR Late exams are entirely at the discretion of the professor. I am NOT obligated to allow a late exam. I will consider a late exam if there is a credible doctor's note documenting illness, accident or hospitalization; or an auto repair receipt documenting that "my car broke down"; or an obituary documenting that "my grandmother died again." Some students, without fail, get sick on the day of the exam, every exam, every semester; or suffer the loss of a family member (at every exam) or sustain some injury (at every exam). If you are enrolled in this class, we expect you to be here. If you are not going to attend, you should not be enrolled. This is not an online course, nor is it an absentee course.
PROLONGED ABSENCE Sometimes events occur that require prolonged absence from class. If, for example, you are in a car accident and are hospitalized and are going to be absent for weeks at a time, contact the Student Advising Office (856-225-6043). That office will then send a notice to all of your professors, making them aware of your situation. The same procedure should be followed if any type of illness (such as mono or strep throat) or emergency occurs that will cause you to be absent for an extended period of time. In this class, if you are absent for weeks at a time without explanation, you will be referred to the Student Advising Office, and you will not be allowed to take exams* until the Student Advising Office provides a satisfactory explanation and documentation.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED All of the rights, privileges and immunities of the tenured faculty are reserved.
OVER-ARCHING LEARNING GOALS Rutgers seeks to prepare students for 21st century challenges by providing information about certain foundations, and skills for lifelong learning. Students should have knowledge of human cultures and the physical and natural worlds. They should have intellectual and practical skills, such as inquiry and analysis, critical and creative thinking, written and oral communication, quantitative literacy, information literacy and problem solving. Students should also have civic knowledge and engagement; intercultural knowledge and competence; and awareness of ethical reasoning and action; and awareness of academic integrity and social responsibility. This course will focus on intercultural knowledge and competence (diversity) and knowledge of human cultures (America in the world). DIVERSITY This course satisfies the requirement for a course in American Diversity. Under the General Education requirements, “Diversity refers to multicultural differences within the United States, including race, gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, and social class” among other things. Courses in diversity seek to give attention to groups, experiences and perspectives that often have often been neglected or ignored in the past (such as the perspectives of women, minorities, LGBT people, etc). In a pluralistic society, the more that we understand about one another the better we can all get along and respect each other in our multiracial democracy. This course contributes to intercultural knowledge and competence.
LEARNING GOALS FOR DIVERSITY
1a.In this course students will obtain knowledge of the history and culture of people of African descent or background
in Africa (a sampling of the African ancestral history)
in the Western Hemisphere (including the Caribbean) as part of the African diaspora
and in the United States up to the Civil War.
The course is diasporic and trans-Atlantic in scope.
1b.Students will obtain knowledge about the role of slavery in world history, including the ancient Mediterranean world, and in medieval Europe, Africa and southwest Asia. Black people were not the only people to be enslaved. In ancient and medieval Europe white people were enslaved too.
2.Students will obtain knowledge of differences and inequities in US society in the colonial and antebellum periods along the lines of race, color and gender.
3.Students will obtain knowledge about the efforts of abolitionists, both black and white, to end slavery and push the US in the direction of intergroup cooperation and mutual understanding in a pluralistic society (“a universal nation”) rather than an ethnocentric society (“a white man’s country”), up to the Civil War. Further, we will see how the abolitionists struggled to create a more just and egalitarian society.
4.Students will obtain knowledge of the contributions that people of African ancestry have made to the US and its colonial antecedents, up to the Civil War.
5.This course will explain the processes and the history that failed to create a just and egalitarian society for black people in the US, in the period up to the Civil War.
6.This course will describe the social processes by which a physical, biological characteristic or difference (in this case color) was constructed as “race.” In other words, this course will examine theories about the social construction of race. It will also include discussion of the construction of gender, and stereotypes about men and women, both black and white. The discussion of the social construction of race will include the work of theorists such as Erving Goffman (the concept of stigma), Nina Jablonski (curse of Ham) and Herbert Blumer (“Race as a Sense of Group Position”).
7.Students will gain a comprehensive knowledge of the major events of African American history and major figures (persons) involved, including knowledge of slavery and the efforts to abolish it, up to the Civil War.
8.Students will obtain knowledge about African American culture (music, literature, art, dance, folklore, foodways), especially under the regime of slavery and up to the Civil War.
9. Students will obtain knowledge that shows that black people were not merely passive objects or victims who were simply acted upon, but rather they resisted oppression and sought agency;and sought control over their lives, circumstances and destiny (self-determination). 10.Students will gain knowledge as to what primary sources are, and how to use them. Students will gain knowledge as to what secondary sources are, and how to read them in a critical manner. Students will gain knowledge about cause and effect and how to write an explanatory essay.
AMERICA IN THE WIDER WORLD Within the domain of General Education requirements there are several “Themes and Approaches.” Students must take a course in one of them. This course also explores the “United States in the Wider World,” with emphasis on the colonial and antebellum period, under the Themes and Approaches sector of the General Education requirements.
LEARNING GOALS FOR AMERICA IN THE WIDER WORLD 1.This course will provide knowledge about the political, diplomatic, social, economic and cultural interactions between the United States (the British colonies in North America and the US in the antebellum period) and the wider world with respect to the European conquest of the New World, the Atlantic slave trade, and the economy of sugar, tobacco and cotton. The course will compare and contrast slavery in the US with slavery in the Caribbean and Latin America, and in the Old World.
2.This course will identify major practices, institutions and ideas of the US and how those constructions were applied and contested, with emphasis on the contradictions between notions of freedom, liberty, equality and democracy on the one hand, and racism and the institution of slavery on the other hand.
3.In this course students will obtain knowledge about the political, economic and cultural history of the US, especially with regard to race and the institution of slavery.
4.This course will offer a “nuanced” understanding of the role of “America” in the world by describing how Americans down to the Civil War cherished ideals of liberty, equality and opportunity but wrestled with their consciences as they struggled with the contradiction of racialized slavery in a free democratic republic. Ultimately the “original sin” of slavery (James Madison’s term) was abolished, as the forces of freedom and democracy prevailed. America was not perfect, but the abolition of slavery was a step in the arduous process of improving American democracy and pushing the nation to live up to its ideals. Steps such as these have helped to make America “the light of the world” in the eyes of many people, especially those subject to dictatorial regimes, rigid social classes, and feudal hierarchy. The American experience shows that freedom cannot be taken for granted, and is not easy, but must be contended for in each generation. It is an ongoing struggle and an open-ended, unfinished process.
ADDITIONAL COURSE LEARNING GOALS 7. Students will gain a comprehensive knowledge of the major events of African American history and major figures (persons) involved, from the Civil War to 1968 and beyond.
8. Students will obtain knowledge about African American culture (music, literature, art, dance, folklore, foodways).
9. Students will obtain knowledge that shows that black people were not merely passive objects or victims who were simply acted upon, but rather they resisted persecution and oppression and sought agency; and sought control over their lives, circumstances and destiny (self-determination). 10. Students will gain knowledge as to what primary sources are, and how to use them. Students will gain knowledge as to what secondary sources are, and how to read them in a critical manner. Students will gain knowledge about cause and effect, and how to write an explanatory essay.
11.Students will learn the concept of civic responsibility. We are not helpless victims or powerless spectators. America is a participatory democracy. The people need to be educated and trained for active participation in a democratic society (John Dewey, education for democracy). We are responsible for our society and we can change conditions through intelligent action.
ADDITIONAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT ASPIRATIONAL COURSE OBJECTIVES 1.As in all history courses, students will learn how to use primary sources.
2. Students will learn how to read secondary sources in a critical manner.
3. Students will learn how to cite sources.
4 .Students will learn to write to the expectations of the discipline of history.
5. Students will learn how to construct an historical argument (including issues of interpretation and cause and effect)
6. Students will learn how to evaluate the integrity, reliability and usefulness of disparate sources.
7. Students will learn how to use Pro-Quest to find a newspaper article.
SPECIAL EVENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF RUTGERS Up until the early 1960s Rutgers-Camden was all white. The first African American students were admitted in the mid-1960s. They found the campus hostile. In 1969 there were only 17 or 18 black students, and they were so aggrieved that they held a sit-in. This fall, in November, Rutgers-Camden will hold a symposium on the integration of this campus and alumni from the 1960s will speak about their experiences. You are all invited to attend. Along with this event there will be a panel discussion comparing the integration of Rutgers and the University of Pennsylvania. I will participate on the panel, and discuss Black Students in the Ivory Tower. African American Student Activism at the University of Pennsylvania, 1967-1990. YOU will read the book and prepare a paper on it (responding to directed questions).
COMMUNITY SERVICE-CIVIC ENGAGEMENT Part of what we study in the course is the emergence and persistence of racism (prejudice and discrimination). In the present, racism and poverty, unequal schooling, ghettoization, homelessness and inequality persist in contemporary American society. While we study it, read about it, and theorize about it, rarely do we DO anything about it. In the spirit of promoting civic engagement (or engaged civic learning and responsibility) and taking action to ameliorate social conditions, this course will include a service/civic engagement component. While the details remain to be worked out, we will most likely participate in a food drive to support the Food Bank of South Jersey. Two or three times this semester each person will be asked to donate a canned or boxed food item from an approved list. The Food Bank then distributes items to local food pantries and kitchens in four surrounding counties.
SCHEDULE OF READINGS:
All dates are tentative and subject to change.
W Sept. 2 Introduction
Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans: A Concise History, Chapter One (on
Read the sections entitled The Ancestral Homeland, A Huge and Diverse Land,
The Birthplace of Humanity, Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments, and
In sakai, go to Resources Homework assignment one. Due Monday, Sept. 7. In sakai, under resources, PRINT the Narmer Palette. Read “Narmer’s Palette 2” and “Hieroglyphics,” especially the section that talks about Scorpion and Narmer. See also “Ani, Judgment of the Soul.” In one page, DESCRIBE what is depicted on BOTH sides of the Palette. Attach the photo of the Palette to your written page. Homework assignment two. Due Monday, Sept. 7. In sakai, under resources, print Nubians and write your name on it, to be turned in during class next week. In a paragraph, what does the “painting” show? What color are the Nubians?
M Sept. 7 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter One, the sections entitled “Kush,
Meroe and Axum, West Africa, Ancient Ghana, The Empire of Mali, Al Bakri
Describes Kumbi, and the Empire of Songhai, and the West African Forest
In sakai, see the resources entitled Nok sculpture 1, Nok sculpture 2, Nok
sculpture 3, Igbo Art 1, Igbo Trays, Igbo-Ukwu Art, Yoruba Art, Crowned head
of an Oni, and Benin bronze warrior.
Also in sakai, under Resources, see “Ancient African languages,” and
“Genetic Origins” T Sept. 8 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter One, the sections entitled Kongo
On electronic reserve, Sean O’ Callaghan, To Hell or Barbados, Chaps. 6-9
M Oct. 5 Lecture on Don Jordan and Michael Walsh, White Cargo, Chaps. 5-9
On electronic reserve, Sean O’ Callaghan, To Hell or Barbados, Chaps. 12-13
Expect class handouts on Edmund Morgan, American Slavery, American
Freedom, soon(the brutal mistreatment of the European indentured servants)
On electronic reserve, “Percy,” “Indentured servants” and
“Virginia discriminates in the punishment of runaways”
W Oct 7 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter Three
Lecture on Jordan and Walsh, White Cargo, Chaps. 10-13
M Oct. 12 Lecture on Jordan and Walsh, White Cargo, Chaps. 14-19
Expect class handouts on Slavery in the Law soon (such as the runaway cases of
1640 and Elizabeth Key)
On electronic reserve, “Selected laws on slavery”
“Slavery becomes a fact in Virginia”
“Maryland establishes slavery for life”
“Casual killing of slaves”
“Between two worlds”
In sakai, under resources, if the link works, read Manumission Papers, Abigal
Otherwise class handout
W Oct. 14 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter Four (Revolutionary Era)
On reserve, Herbert Blumer, “Race as a Sense of Group Position”
M Oct. 19 William Freehling, “The Founding Fathers and Slavery” (on reserve)
David Brion Davis, “The Constitution and the Slave Trade,” (reserve)
W Oct. 21 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter Five (up to 1815)
M Oct. 26 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter Six (details of slave life) and
Chapters Seven (free AAs) and Eight (opposition to slavery)
On reserve, “On the legal foundations of slavery” by Cobb
“Rose describes being forced to live with Rufus”
“Mary Estes Peters”
“Photograph of freed slave badge”
W Oct. 28 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter 9
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Chaps. 1-9
M Nov. 2 Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Chaps. 10-end
On electronic reserve or sakai, Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave,
W Nov. 4 Tentatively, paper due on Frederick Douglass
M Nov 9 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter 10 (1850s)
On electronic reserve, “Arson by a Virginia house servant”
Glasker, Black Students in the Ivory Tower, Chaps. 1-6
W Nov. 11 Glasker, Black Students in the Ivory Tower, Chaps. 7-end
M Nov. 16 Tentatively, paper due on Black Students in the Ivory Tower
Catherine Clinton, Harriet Tubman, Chaps.1-4
W Nov. 18 Catherine Clinton, Harriet Tubman, Chaps. 5-8
M Nov. 23 Tentatively, first paper due on Harriet Tubman
W Nov. 25 No class for us, (Friday schedule), read Catherine Clinton, Harriet Tubman,
M Nov 30 On reserve, “Brer Rabbit plays tricks”
“NJ apologizes for slavery”
Distribute ProQuest assignment, due December 7
W Dec. 2 Second Harriet Tubman paper due
M Dec. 7 Darlene Clark Hine, African Americans, Chapter 11 (Civil War &Emancipation)
W Dec. 9 Last class
LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES, AFAM HISTORY I, FALL 2015
The focus of this course is knowledge and comprehension about African American history from African origins to the Civil War; and the acquisition of skills, including the ability to use and evaluate primary documents.
By the end of this course students will be able to:
Identify relevant historic events and people
Use historical data as evidence
Use historical evidence to explain and interpret cause and effect
Explain the place of African people in world history
Locate Egypt and Africa on a map
Identify and discuss Narmer’s Palette
Identify and explain the significance of the Nok terra cotta sculptures
List and identify three written African languages from ancient civilizations
Identify and explain the significance of Mansa Musa
Identify and explain the significance of Rex Melli in the Angelino Dulcetti atlas, and
the Catalan atlas of 1375
Explain the significance of the Sankore mosque and university in medieval Timbuktu
List and identify at least four ancient African civilizations
List and identify at least four medieval African civilizations
Identity Tarik Ibn Ziyad
Explain who were the Moors
Explain the trans-Saharan trade
Explain Animism, monotheism and polytheism
Explain monogamy and polygamy
Describe the role of slavery in world history from ancient times to the 19th century
Identify and explain the significance of Pedro Nino Alonzo, Diego “el Negro” Mendez,
Juan Garrido, Nuflo de Olano, Estevanico, Matt Henson and George Gibbs
Explain Nina Jablonski’s theory that the differences in skin color result
from adaptation to warm or cold climate
Explain the Francis Black theory of genetic polymorphism and why Africans were
believed to be more resistant to Old World diseases than Native Americans
Describe the conquest of the New World
Identify and explain the theories of Winthrop Jordan, David Eltis and Eric Williams
concerning the relationship between racism and New World slavery
Identify the number of Africans brought out of Africa in the transatlantic slave trade
Identify the number of Africans who arrived at their intended destination in the
transatlantic slave trade
Identify the number of Africans who died on the way and never arrived at their intended
destination in the transatlantic slave trade
Explain and describe Middle Passage
Explain and describe the mutinies on the slave ships