Down on the Teaching Farm Teaching Social Studies in the Elementary School



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Down on the Teaching Farm

Teaching Social Studies in the Elementary School

Spring 2009

This unit will create in the learner a knowledge base of Oklahoma farm lands and the goods and services they provide. This knowledge will promote community awareness and the jobs that farms provide. Students will learn how to be an effective citizen by understanding the process that foods and goods they use must undergo.

For this unit, we are working in a first grade classroom. There are twenty-one students, made up of eleven boys and ten girls. Eighteen of the students are Caucasian, there are two Hispanic boys, and one Native American girl. Two of the students are English Language Learners and one student is on an IEP for mental disabilities. There is also one student who has high activity level and needs extra accommodations for the increased activity. Eight of the students are six years old and the remaining fourteen students are seven years old.

The community that the school is located in is considered a mid-level income community. The school does have a high range of qualifying students for free or reduced lunches. There is a total of twenty-four thousand people in the community and as whole education is widely supported throughout the town. The parent involvement for this particular school is high with ninety-five percent of parents attending parent/teacher conferences. The ethnic diversity isn’t real broad with the majority of the minorities being made up Native American and Hispanic ethnicities.

The socio-economic status for the school estimates the average household income to be $46,532. The poverty rate is six percent and the total of students on free/reduced lunches is 44% of the school. Approximately one-fourth of the families in the school are single-parent families with the majority having no more education than high school. This school educates children in Pre-K through 5th grade with a total of 403 students enrolled. There are thirty-seven teachers and three special education teachers.

The intellectual development of these students is relatively consistent. Most of the students in this class are in the concrete stage. They are actively involved in wanting to

ask questions and be involved in explaining what they have learned. The student with the IEP is the exception as she tends to keep to herself and not be involved in the learning. Overall, this class does rather well paying attention, but they are reminded often of what they need to be doing.

For the social development, the students are engaged daily in sharing things that happen in their lives and answering questions from their peers. They also are influencing each other positively and sometimes negatively as well. The class does get along rather well. Again, with the exception of the student with the IEP, she is pulled out of class so many times throughout the day that it seems to set her aside from the rest of her peers. She is not included in a lot of the classroom work, so she tends to sit in the book nook by herself reading while the other students interact with each other. They are paired together in centers daily as well as occasional group projects. There have only been a couple of problems with group work throughout the entire semester.

There are no obvious special exceptions with the physical development of the students in this class. All of the students are able to participate in activities that require physical movements. The student with the high activity level does need extra activity to decrease the activity level and the distractions that his behavior can cause.

There are twelve students who are actively participating at their grade level. They are all able to understand the topic of this unit and are actively engaged in asking questions about the community that we live in. The student on the IEP is three grade levels below average. There are six students who participate in reading class and are below grade level in reading. The students who are ELL are also below grade level in reading.




Contextual Factor:

Instructional Implications:

Gender: 11 boys and 10 girls

Allow students to work in groups that are mixed gender. Provide students with information that pertains to females and males. Incorporate activities that interest boys and girl and refrain from placing gender specific titles on jobs/duties included in this unit.

Language Differences: 2 ELL students who speak Spanish

Provide instructions on recorded tapes. Also, look for any of the books used in this unit written in Spanish. Have key words translated in Spanish so students can learn them in their Native language. Relate material to farms/life in their native country.

Special Needs: 1 student with IEP

Find information about the subject in lower level materials. Adjust activities so student can participate at her instructional level without getting frustrated. Incorporate the Special Ed teacher in the unit so the student can also learn the topic during that guided instruction.

High Activity Level Student

Provide activities that allow student to move out of his seat. Have him sit towards the back of the classroom so his activity won’t distract the other students. Give student extra tasks that require him to get up from his seat, such as returning books to the shelf or getting materials from the cubby.

Reading Level: 6 students below reading level

Use books that are at these students reading level. Provide extra material that will help students learn the topic, but also assist them in their reading. Such as an alphabet book about Farms. Pair students with partners during reading activities.

Developmental Levels

Have activities that students can participate in regardless of their developmental level. Provide a variety of activities that are at different developmental levels rather than having students not participating in class work. Use different instructional methods to reach students who are visual, auditory, or sensory learners.

Farms are extremely important to our world because they produce almost all of the food that we eat. Farms have been a part of our history for hundreds of years. People began to learn more about the land and skill of farming, and have since transformed the work in every way. People began to use science to make the land and the animals more productive. New machinery continues to be invented to save time and energy. Farming today is quite different from the farming people did hundreds of years ago, but these lands continue to provide us with the goods we need to survive.

Crop farms have existed all throughout history. Early settlers knew that if they wanted to survive, they would need to find a way to grow their own food. As they traveled, they would take different seeds with them to plant wherever they moved. A crop farm is a farm that grows food or an item that can be made into something useful. These items can be sold for money, traded for other goods, or kept for the people on the farm. Some example of foods on a crop farm are grains such as wheat, corn, or oats, fruits such as apples, oranges, and peaches, nuts such as peanuts, pecans, and walnuts, and vegetables such as potatoes, lettuce, and broccoli. Some farmers may grow food for their cattle such as hay or alfalfa in an effort to save money, and some may grow items to sell such as cotton or Christmas trees.

Before planting a crop, a farmer must first test the soil and be sure it is compatible for the type of crop they want to plant. They must analyze the availability of water. Crops use a combination of rainfall and irrigation; therefore, a farmer would not want to plant a crop that requires a large amount of water in a place that gets very little rainfall. Irrigation is when there is not enough rainfall, so a farmer must water his crops with huge sprayers on wheels that spray water as they travel.

To plant a crop, you must first begin by preparing the soil and making a place for the seeds or plants to be planted. Plowing is the process of turning over the soil to prepare for the crops. The crop is then planted in rows and watered. A cultivator is a big machine that is used to go down the rows and pull out the weeds that may grow in between the plants. A farmer takes care of the crop by watering and checking for pests such as weeds, diseases, and insects that can contaminate or ruin a plant. Hopefully, after all the hard work, the plant will grow and flourish. The crop is then picked and separated for the parts that are usable. Some farms sell the crop to local supermarkets or they take them to be sold at farmers markets where fresh produce is sold to the public from local farmers. Other farms may store it or make it into food or items for their family.

Livestock farms raise animals for food or to sell. There are many types of animals that can be found on these farms and they are each useful in their own way. A farm may raise cattle to use as a source of meat for their family to eat or sell, or they may raise cattle for milk. The skin and hair of several animals can be used for leather, blankets, clothing, shoes, brushes, and many other items. The hoofs and horns of these animals can be used to make everyday items such as glue, combs, and buttons. Chickens and pigs are raised for their meat and bees are raised for their honey. Other types of animals on a livestock farm could be horses, goats, donkeys, sheep, and rabbits. Often times, the manure from these animals will be used as a fertilizer to help the plants grow.

Farmers feed their livestock by allowing them to graze in the grass and also by giving them feed. A farmer might add protein, vitamins, and minerals to an animals feed if he wants to help them grow larger. For example, if he is raising cattle for meat, he wants his cows to grow as large as possible to create more meat to eat or sell.

Poultry farms are where chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other fowl are raised for eggs or meat. A farmer might hire a breeder to scientifically design a breeding process that would give the farmer the best animal possible. This person might try to breed a chicken that has very little body fat, making them provide quality meat, or they might breed a chicken that lays the most eggs in the least amount of time.

One very important consideration for poultry farmers is the cost of food for the animals. This cost alone accounts for 60% of the budget for raising poultry. These animals are usually fed a combination of rice bran, maize, soy, and cereals. Poultry is mostly used for eggs and meat, but there are many other products that these animals provide. For example, the feathers from geese and ducks are commonly used to fill pillows and insulated clothing. Also, eggs are used in common items such as paint and medical vaccines.

Another type of farm is a dairy farm, where cows are raised for milk. Milk provides us with products such as cheese, ice cream, butter, and whipping cream. The main type of cow for producing milk is called a Holstein, most commonly recognized as the black and white cows. This particular type of cow produced the most milk in the most efficient amount of time. These cows must be milked 2 to 3 times everyday; usually in the morning and the evening. They produce an average of 18-27 pints of milk daily. In order to keep up production, cows can eat up to 150 lbs. of grass everyday. They also eat grain, corn, alfalfa and bales of hay. In an effort to save money, farmers usually grow the crops that feed their animals on the farm. Tall structures that are rounded at the top, called silos, hold the grain or corn that will feed the cows. Farmers try to grow as much of the food as they can because whatever they can grow themselves, they don’t have to buy.

A dairy farmer’s day can begin around 4:00am. They must first clean and sanitize all of the equipment such as hoses, connections and pipes that they use to milk the cows. In the past, cows were milked by hand. Milking machines have revolutionized dairy farming and it is now a much quicker, efficient process. Milking machines are connected to the cow’s teats, and turned on. The hoses pump the milk out of the cow and into a bug milk jar. The jar is then checked to be sure it is good, and if it is, it continues into the bulk tank, where it waits for the tank truck to come haul it away. Before the milk hauler takes it away, a small sample tube is taken so they can test it.

Milk used to be delivered from farms in churns. Now, they are taken in tank trucks that can hold up to 4,400 gallons of milk at regulated, cool temperatures. They deliver the milk to the nearest milk factory, where it is first pasteurized; this is the process by which the milk is heated up to about 72 degrees Celsius for about 15 seconds to destroy any bacteria that might be harmful to the people that drink it. Then, the factory uses a centrifuge system, much like the spin cycle on a washing machine, to separate the milk into two parts: cream and skim milk. The two parts are then put back together in regulated amounts, called standardizing. The last step is when the milk is homogenized; that is broken up into tiny pieces and mixed so the two parts do not separate when they are in a container together.

After exploring this unit, students will understand the difference between the city in which they live and the farm lands that surround us in Oklahoma. Terms such as urban and rural will be used to distinguish between the two. We will explore dairy farms, livestock farms, poultry farms and crop farms. The students will describe features of the two types of areas and identify pictorial examples of each.

We will explore how the foods we eat daily and the goods we use begin on a farm and the processes they go through. Goods are grown or developed on the farm, then, either used for their personal needs or sold/traded for money or other goods. Students will identify the many jobs that farms create for the surrounding community. They will explore the many duties and responsibilities of individuals who work or live on a farm. As a class, we will try to relate to the children who live on a farm. The differences between the jobs of children who live on a farm and children who live in the city will be addressed. Also, we will investigate the ways in which people on farms earn money. This unit explores Social Studies content in a fun, creative way that is appropriate for first graders.

References

Bellville, Cheryl Walsh. Farming Today Yesterday’s Way. Carolrhoda Books, Inc.,

Minneapolis, 1984.

Cato, Suzy (2006). Suzy's World: Cows. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Suzy's Web Site Web site: http://www.suzy.co.nz/suzysworld/Factpage.asp?FactSheet=22.

Gibbons, Gail. Farming. Holiday House, New York, 1988.

Halley, Ned. Farm. Random House Inc., New York, 1996.

Wendell, Joe (2004). The Inside Scoop on Farms. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from Thinkquest Web site: http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312380/index.htm.



3. Standards and Objectives
A.)

PASS- 1st grade

Standard 2: The student will examine neighborhoods/communities from a spatial perspective.

1. Name, identify pictorial examples, and describe distinguishing features of the two basic areas in which people live: cities (urban) and the country (rural).

Standard 5: The student will understand basic economic elements found in

communities.

1. Describe how people get their basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter (e.g., make/grow their own, trade with others for what they need, and earn money to buy the things they need).

2. Identify ways people in the neighborhood / community earn money (e.g., match pictures or simple descriptions of work people do with the names of the jobs).

NCSS- Early Grades

III. People, Places, and Environments:

h. examine the interaction of human beings and their physical environment, the use of the land, building cities, and ecosystem changes in selected locales and regions.

VII. Production, Distribution, and Consumption:

c. identify examples of private and public goods and services.

e. describe how we depend upon workers with specialized jobs and the

ways in which they contribute to the production and exchange of goods and services.
B.)

1. Subject matter knowledge-



  • The student will define words that relate to the farm such as silo, crops, livestock, etc.

  • The student will identify the source from which food in their home comes from.

  • The student will match farm equipment with their uses on the land.

  • The student will sequence the dairy process by putting the steps in the correct order.

2. Skills-

  • The student will construct individual components of a farm and combine them to create a full class farm.

  • The student will survey their classmates and create a bar graph with a group recording class data.

  • The student will imitate farm crops by planting and nurturing their own plant.

  • The student will observe, care for, and illustrate the growth of their plant weekly.

  • The student will perform the events that take place in Dooby Dooby Moo by Doreen Cronin.

  • The student will measure ingredients to make butter using a variety of measuring tools.

  • The student will construct a timeline before and after they plant seeds to record the growth of the plant.

3. Higher-Order Reasoning-



  • The student will compare and contrast farm life in the past to farm life today using a Venn Diagram.

  • The student will determine three jobs he/she would like to do on the farm and three jobs he/she would not like to do.

  • The student will conclude the needs of plants by analyzing their weekly data of plant growth.

  • The student will work cooperatively in a group to analyze the data from their bar graph.

  • The student will create understanding regarding the growth of a plant using a timeline.


4. Design for Instruction
A.) Five first grade students were given a pre-assessment to find out how much they know about the goods that farms provide and where they come from. Twenty pictures were placed in front of the student and they were to match each picture to create ten pairs. There were ten pictures of animals and ten pictures of foods or goods that those animals provide. Four out of five students knew that milk comes from cows and eggs come from a hen. Three out of five students knew that bacon comes from a pig, apples come from trees, and honey comes from bees.

There were ten pictures that were mismatched by the students because they had no prior knowledge about where the items come from. Meat from the Hereford or Black Angus cow was mistaken for the Holstein (Black and White) cow. This was the most common misconception among the students. Holstein cows are milk producing cows. Hereford and Black Angus are used for meat. We felt this was too high of a level for first grade, so we decided to omit it from our lessons. This assessment shows that these students had some prior knowledge about basic items that come from a farm, but were unaware of many of the goods that farms can provide.






Farm Life Activities- 1st Grade











Lesson #1
Title: Where do my goods come from?

Subject Area: Literature/Social Studies

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives: PASS: Standard 5: The student will understand basic economic elements found in communities.
1. Describe how people get their basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter (e.g., make/grow their own, trade with others for what they need, and earn money to buy the things they need).



  • The student will identify the source from which food in their home comes from. (K2)

Time: 30-40 minutes in class after completion of home activity, Additional 15-20 minutes upon completion of Farm Life unit

Materials: Farm Life by Elizabeth Spurr, Paper, Crayons/Markers, Student’s list of items
Plan:

  1. The students will be introduced the unit by being read “Farm Life” by the teacher.

  2. The students will be assigned a home activity, they will go home and record three items they think come from farms and bring the list to class

  3. As a class, we will create a KWL chart depicting the different item they found and what these items tell them about farms.

  4. The students will think of questions they want answered during the unit.

  5. Throughout the unit the students will complete the KWL chart with new information they have learned about farms.

Assessment: The students will be required to hand in their list of items to ensure that they completed the activity. An informal assessment will be a check list of students who participated in the KWL chart

Sources: Spurr, Elizabeth. Bjorkman, Steve. Farm Life. Holiday House; New York, 2003.

Lesson #2
Title: My Own Dirt Baby

Subject Area: Science

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives:

  • The student will imitate farm crops by planting and nurturing their own plant. (S3)

  • The student will observe and illustrate the growth of their plant weekly. (S4)

  • The student will construct a timeline before and after they plant seeds to record the growth of the plant. (K5)

  • The student will create understanding about the needs of plants by analyzing their weekly data of plant growth and using their timeline. (HR5)

Time: 20-30 minutes every day for two weeks

Materials: Grass seeds, plastic cups, dirt, potting soil, water, paper, writing utensil, colored pencils, The Carrot Seed by Ruth Krauss

Plan:

  1. The students will create a timeline of how and when they predict the plant will grow.

  2. The students will be able to choose what they want to do for their plant: plant the seeds in dirt or potting soil, whether or not to water it, whether to put it in sunlight or darkness, etc.

  3. The students will plant their seeds and put the plant where they choose.

  4. The students will observe their plant every day. They will draw a picture of what it looks like and label the day.

  5. At the end of two weeks, the students will create a timeline of the actual growth of their plants and compare it to their prediction timeline.

  6. As a class we will discuss which plants grew the most and what factors affected the growth of the plants.

  7. We will read The Carrot Seed by Ruth Krauss and discuss the needs of plants. We will relate the growth of our plants to the way farmers take care of crops on their farm.

Assessment:

  • At the end of this lesson, the students will complete a worksheet by coloring a picture of a plant and labeling everything a plant needs to grow.

  • Time line will be used to record the growth of the plant

  • Checklist to ensure student follows procedures when creating their own crop

  • Students will create weekly illustrations from their observations of their crops

Modifications: ELL students will be allowed to draw the basic needs rather than writing them out using words.

Sources: The Carrot Seed by Ruth Krauss
Lesson #3
Title: Farm Life Vocabulary

Subject Area: Language Arts/ Social Studies

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives: PASS: Standard 4: Vocabulary-The student will define words that relate to the farm such as silo, crops, livestock, etc.

4.3: Use new vocabulary and language in own speech and writing.





  • The student will define words that relate to the farm such as silo, crops, livestock, etc. (K1)


Time: 30-40 minutes for 4-5 days

Materials: 4 fold chart paper, pencils, dictionary, terms given by guest speaker

Plan:

  1. Have a local farmer come to class as a guest speaker and introduce vocabulary words by demonstration/speech

  2. After guest speaker is finished have students complete 4 fold vocabulary worksheet with ten farm vocabulary words given

  3. Students will then define the vocabulary words using the information from the guest speaker or using a dictionary.

  4. The students will then illustrate the vocabulary words and use the word in their own sentence. After completing the ten vocabulary words given they will fold the paper to create a flip book to be able to use the flip book to review the words throughout the unit to ensure comprehension of terms.

  5. Students will write thank you letters to the guest speaker

Assessment: The pre-assessment for this activity is the student completing the 4-fold vocabulary worksheet. Upon completion of the unit there will be a formal assessment of a vocabulary test to ensure understanding of the terms. An informal assessment would consist of student cooperation during guest speaker visit.

Modifications: ELL students would not be required to use the word in a sentence and the student with the IEP would be required to do five words instead of ten

Sources: Guest speaker and www.proteacher.org

Lesson #4
Title: Dairy Farm Duties

Subject Area: Career Awareness

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives:

  • The student will make sense of the dairy processes and the foods that dairy farms provide. (K4)

  • The student will determine three jobs he/she would like to do on a dairy farm and three jobs he/she would not like to do. (HR2)

Time: 4-5 hours

Materials: Field Trip permission slips, Paper, markers or crayons, cut outs of pictures of the following dairy processes: cleaning/sanitizing, milking machines, milk truck, pasteurization, standardization, homogenization, and packaging.

Plan:

  1. The teacher will read Let’s Visit a Dairy Farm by Alyse Sweeney to the class.

  2. The class will take a field trip to Braum’s dairy farm in Tuttle, Oklahoma where a tour guide will lead us through all the dairy processes. The students will make sense of how milk starts at the farm with cows and ends up in their refrigerator at home after the field trip.

  3. As a class we will discuss the other foods that dairy farms provide and all the different jobs that are required on the farm that we saw during the field trip.

  4. The students will draw a picture of three different jobs he/she would like at the dairy farm and three jobs he/she would not like to do.

Assessment: One at a time, while the other students are drawing their pictures, each student will place the cut outs of the dairy processes in order. The teacher will have a checklist and give the student a check for every process that he/she gets in the correct order.

Sources: www.braums.com

Let’s Visit a Dairy Farm by Alyse Sweeney

Lesson #5
Title: Farm Life, Past vs. Present

Subject Area: Literature/Social Studies

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives: PASS: Standard 7: Literature - The student will read to construct meaning and respond to a wide variety of literary forms.


  • The student will compare and contrast farm life in the past to farm life today using a Venn Diagram. (H-R 1)


Time: 1 hour

Materials: “Living on Farms” by Allan Fowler, “Farm Life from the Past” by W.B. Smith, pencils, paper, markers/crayons

  1. Read the book “Farm Life from the Past” to the class.

  2. Have students summarize key points about farm life from the past after the teacher has finished reading the book.

  3. Read the book, “Living on Farms” to the class.

  4. Have students compare and contrast the differences between farms life from the past and farm life today creating a Venn diagram on the board as a class

  5. Students will individually write a short narrative about what they learned from the two books and what they learned about the major differences between past and present farm lifestyles.

Assessment: Students’ narrative paper about what they have learned will be a written assessment. An informal assessment will be the participation in the class Venn diagram activity.

Sources: Fowler, Allan. Living on Farms. Children’s Press; New York, 2000.

Smith, W.B. Farm Life from the Past. Scholastic; New York, 2001.


Modifications: ELL students will be allowed to make lists of what they have learned

Student(s) working at a lower reading/writing level will be allowed to verbally narrate what they have learned or writing one or two words instead of complete sentences



Lesson #6
Title: Math on the Farm

Subject Area: Mathematics

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives:

  • The students will survey classmates and create a bar graph in a group recording class data. (S2)

  • The student will work cooperatively in a group to analyze the data from their bar graph. (HR5)

Time: 1 hour

Materials: Paper, Markers, large graph paper

Plan:

  1. The students will be separated into groups of 3-4 students.

  2. Each group will decide on a topic to survey the class such as favorite farm animal, favorite food from a farm, etc.

  3. The groups will survey each student in the class and record their data.

  4. Each group will construct a bar graph displaying their information including a title and two subheadings.

  5. The students will be given time to analyze the information on their graph to assess the similarities and differences before they present it to the class.

Assessment: As each group of students presents their bar graph to the class, the teacher will have a checklist with the following information: time on task, group cooperation, accurate graph with title and sub-headings, and clear analysis.

Lesson # 7

Title: Dooby Dooby Moo

Subject Area: Language Arts- Creative Drama/Dramatic Play

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives: The student will perform the events that take place in Dooby Dooby Moo by Doreen Cronin. (S5)

Time: 30 minutes

Materials: Dooby Dooby Moo by Doreen Cronin

Plan:

  1. The teacher will read Dooby Dooby Moo to the class.

  2. The class will provide two volunteers to play Farmer Brown and the duck from the story.

  3. The rest of the students will be split into the following three groups: cows, sheep, and pigs.

  4. The class will perform a reader’s theater of the book.

  5. The teacher will read the book again and each group will act out the appropriate scenes from the book.

Assessment: An informal assessment will be taken by the teacher. He/she will observe that each student is taking an active part in the play and behaving appropriately.

Sources: Dooby Dooby Moo by Doreen Cronin, Dr. Kuzminski’s Children’s Literature class

Lesson #8
Title: Proper Processes

Subject Area: Learning Center/Social Studies

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives: PASS: Standard 5.1: Describe how people get their basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter (e.g., make/grow their own, trade with others for what they need, and earn money to buy the things they need).


  • The student will match farm equipment with their uses on the land. (K3)

  • The student will make sense of the dairy process. (K4)


Time: 20-30 minutes for 3 days

Materials: learning centers with cards identifying farm equipment and their use on the farm, cards depicting the dairy process

Procedures:

  1. The teacher will read Farm Equipment to the class

  2. There will be class discussion about the farm equipment used on farms from the book and the dairy process covered from a previous lesson

  3. Students will be divided into small groups and assigned a learning center (Farm Equipment or Dairy Process)

  4. Students will complete both learning centers on different days

  5. Students will match pictures of farm equipment with their use on the farm

  6. Students will put pictures in order to correctly identify the dairy process

  7. Upon completion of the two centers, students will be asked to demonstrate the two matching activities by completing the process on a student worksheet

Assessment:

The completion of the matching worksheet to measure student’s learning

Informal: Participation during the learning center activities
Sources: Fuller, Deborah. Farm Equipment. Scholastic, New York; 2004.

Modifications: Allow ELL students to work with a partner, Have tape recorded instructions for students working at a lower reading level

Lesson # 9

Title: Butter Bonanza!

Subject Area: Sensory

Grade Level: 1st grade

Objectives: The student will measure ingredients to make butter using a variety of measuring tools. (S6)

Time: 1-1.5 hours

Materials: Glass jars with tight fitting lids, tablespoon, 1 cup, clean marble, heavy whipping cream, water, salt, yellow food coloring, crackers, and paper towels.

Plan:


  1. The teacher will read the book MILK: From Cow to Carton by Aliki and discuss all the foods that can be made from milk, including butter.

  2. The students will be split into groups of four, be required to wash their hands, and provided a table to work at.

  3. Each student will have one jar with a marble inside. The student will measure each of the following items and place them in the glass jar: one cup of heavy whipping cream, one tablespoon salt, one tablespoon of water, and two drops of yellow food coloring.

  4. The student will place the lid on the jar, make sure it is secure, and shake the jar, with the marble inside, vigorously until the cream becomes fluffy.

  5. The student will remove the lid and spread the butter on a cracker to taste.

  6. While the students eat their butter, they will watch a video of Scientist Robert Krampf explaining the process of making butter at http://krampf.com/members/experiment-videos/making-butter.

  7. The student will thoroughly clean area at which they worked.

Assessment: The teacher will complete a checklist with the following categories for each student: followed directions accurately, correctly measured each ingredient, used appropriate measurement tool for each ingredient, behaved properly during activity and thoroughly cleaned area.

Modifications: Placing the student with the IEP with a partner for extra assistance and providing tape recorded directions would be provided as a modification for the ELL students.

Sources: Aliki, MILK: From Cow to Carton, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 1992.

http://krampf.com/members/experiment-videos/making-butter

www.pioneerthinking.com

Lesson #10
Title: Class Farm

Subject Area: Art/Social Studies

Grade Level: 1st

Objectives: PASS: Standard 2: The student will examine neighborhoods/communities from a spatial perspective.

Standard 3.2: Use a variety of subjects, basic media and techniques in making original art including drawing, painting, and sculpture.




  • The student will construct individual components of a farm and combine them to create a full class farm. (S1)


Time: 30 minutes for 3 days

Materials: construction paper, boxes, markers, scissors, glue, yarn, any additional art supplies

Procedures:

1. Each student will be assigned a portion of a farm (animal, structure, equipment, etc.)

2. Students will use books used during the unit to get a detailed understanding of their item

3. Using any of the materials provided, students will work during class time to construct their piece of the farm

4. After completing the farm projects the students will combine all of the individual portions to create a class farm

5. The class farm will be on display for other classes or parents to view



Assessment:

Rubric for art project



Sources: Class books

Modifications: Provide research material in student’s native language for ELL students and have lower level research material for student(s) with IEP and those at lower reading level.

5. Assessment Plan


Learning Objective

Instructional Activities

Assessments

The student will define words that relate to the farm such as silo, crops, livestock, etc. (K1)

Farm Life Vocabulary

4- Fold Vocabulary

Vocabulary Test



The student will identify the source from which food in their home comes from. (K2)

Where do my goods come from?

KWL chart

Student’s list of goods



The student will match farm equipment with their uses on the land. (K3)

Proper Processes

Matching Worksheet

The student will sequence the dairy process by putting the steps in the correct order. (K4)

Proper Processes

Dairy Farm Duties



Matching worksheet

Check List



The student will construct individual components of a farm and combine them to create a full class farm. (S1)

Class Farm

Rubric

The student will survey their classmates and create a bar graph with a group recording class data. (S2)

Math on the Farm

Check list

The student will imitate farm crops by planting, caring for, and nurturing their own plant. (S3)

My Own Dirt Baby

Check list

The student will observe, care for, and illustrate the growth of their plant weekly. (S4)

My Own Dirt Baby

Weekly illustrations

The student will perform the events that take place in Dooby Dooby Moo. (S5)

Dooby Dooby Moo

Participation

The student will measure ingredients to make butter using a variety of measuring tools. (S6)

Butter Bonanza!

Check list

The student will construct a timeline before and after they plant seeds to record the growth of the plant. (S7)

My Own Dirt Baby

Time line

The student will compare and contrast farm life in the past to farm life today using a Venn Diagram. (HR1)

Farm Life, Past vs. Present

Narrative paper

Venn Diagram




The student will determine three jobs he/she would like to do on the farm and three jobs he/ she would not like to do. (HR2)



Dairy Farm Duties



Check list



The student will conclude the needs of plants by analyzing their weekly data of plant growth. (HR 3)

My Own Dirt Baby

Plants and their needs (labeling worksheet)

The student will work cooperatively in a group to analyze the data from their bar graph. (HR 4)

Math on the Farm

Check list


The student will create understanding regarding the needs of a plant using a timeline. (HR 5)

My Own Dirt Baby

Plants and their needs (labeling worksheet)

Name _________________________


What does a plant need to grow?


1.

2.

3.

Name: ______________
4- Fold Vocabulary

In this activity, students fold their papers into rows of 4 sections each. In the first section, the student writes the word. In the second section, the student writes a definition of the word in their own words. In the third section, the student draws a picture or symbol to represent the word. In the fourth section, the student writes a sentence with the word based on their definition.




Word

Definition

Picture

Sentence

Ex: Oven

Kitchen appliance used for baking or roasting



We baked cookies in the oven.
























































































































Adapted from the lesson on www.proteacher.org


Name _____________________


Butter Bonanza!

Category

Grading Mark

Followed directions accurately




Correctly measured each ingredient




Used appropriate measurement tool




Appropriate behavior




Cleaned Area Thoroughly





+ = Satisfactory

\ = Unsatisfactory

0 = Incomplete

Name: _____________________

Date: ___________________




Project Title: _____________________

Teacher(s): ___________________




 

Class Farm - Art Project






Process

Below Avg.

Satisfactory

Excellent

1. Understands individual assignment

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

2. Worked cooperatively with classmates

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

3. Managed time wisely

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

4. Acquired needed knowledge base

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

5. Effectively cleaned up materials/workspace

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9




Product (Project)

Below Avg.

Satisfactory

Excellent

1. Neatness

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

2. Demonstrates knowledge

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

3. Organization and structure

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

4. Creativity

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

7, 8, 9

Total:

























 

Total Score:____________________________



 

Teacher(s) Comments:

 

 




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Narrative:


My Own Dirt Baby: By planting and nurturing their own plants, students will recognize the three basic needs required for plant growth. After observing and illustrating the growth, this assessment will ensure that students are aware of the needs of plants in a format that is appropriate for first grade. A modification for the ELL students is allowing them to draw the basic needs rather than writing them out.

Farm Life Vocabulary: This assessment is appropriate for the learning objective; the student will define words that relate to the farm such as silo, crops, livestock, etc. because it allows the student to see it, say it, read it, and write it. This assessment is a clear representation of the students’ comprehension of the words. A modification for ELL students is not requiring them to use the word in a sentence. The student with the IEP would be required to do five words instead of ten.

Butter Bonanza!: A check list is appropriate for the activity in which students will measure ingredients to make butter using a variety of measuring tools because of the skills involved. The check list will provide an accurate assessment of the skills the student used, the behavior demonstrated and the ability to follow directions. This is appropriate for first grade because these are newly acquired skills and will improve over time. Modification for the student with an IEP would be placing her with a partner. Providing tape recorded directions would be provided as a modification for the ELL students.

Class Farm: After the student constructs their individual component of the class farm, a rubric is an appropriate assessment tool. It is used to evaluate the student’s comprehension of their component and the final result. It is appropriate for first grade because it will accurately assess the entire process of constructing a class farm. Modifications for the ELL students would be to provide them with trade books in their native language so they could research the material. For the student with the IEP a modification would be made for her to work with a partner and also provide material at her own reading level.




6. Anticipatory Planning

Student Questions:

  1. Why cows drink water and calves drink milk?

  2. Why farms are in the country and not in the city?

  3. Where do other foods and goods come from, if they don’t come from a farm?

  4. If it doesn’t rain, how do farmers water their crops?

  5. Why some animals are used on farms and other animals aren’t?

  6. What foods other than butter are made from milk?


Projects/Activities

  1. In small groups, have students use trade books to research the diet of cows and calves

  2. Use maps for learning, show maps of local towns and discuss the attributes of a farm such as size and terrain required for farms. Allow students to explore why farms need land and why cities can’t provide the space required

  3. Individually explore foods and good at their home and search packaging for their origin. Have students make a list of the goods and foods they found and where they came from to share with the class.

  4. Have students draw their own invention and then explain what a sprinkler irrigation system is and show pictures to the students

  5. Divide students into small groups and assign each group an animal. Have students draw or list what they know about the animal’s habitat, diet, and behavior. Then have students list the advantages and disadvantages of having that animal on a farm.

  6. Have a variety of food or food containers in the classroom. Have students sort the food into groups of those they think are made from milk and not made from milk. Then students will check the list of ingredients to verify their answers.


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