Document List & Links – Allied Strategy Photographs



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Document List & Links – Allied Strategy

Photographs:

Images of invasion forces along the French coast taken from an Allied aircraft on June 6, 1944

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/air25-792-i.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/air25-792-ii.jpg



http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/air25-792-iv.jpg

Image of Allied bombing craters and a destroyed bridge - taken from the air on June 8, 1944

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/air25-792-iii.jpg

Image of one of the “mulberry” artificial harbors built off the coast of Normandy to allow large Allied ships to dock and unload supplies and troops

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/d-day/sources/photos/2b/enlarge.htm

Maps:

Detailed map showing the D-Day invasion plan, the disbursed Allied military encampments in Great Britain and the locations of German military divisions and commanders in France

http://ww2db.com/images/battle_normandy226.jpg

Maps of the final Operation Overload plan showing the beaches of Normandy, the Allied forces in Great Britain, drop zones for Allied airborne troops, and Allied glider routes.

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/education/teacher_resources/spy_kit/map4.jpg

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/education/teacher_resources/spy_kit/map5.jpg



Documents:

The Cairo Conference (code name Sextant) and the Tehran Conference (code name Eureka) were meetings between the Allied leaders to discuss their combined strategies in WWII. It was at the Eureka conference that the first Operation Overlord plan was mapped out and discussed. This document provides an overview of the plan and also lists obstacles and challenges.

The Sextant and Eureka Conferences, November-December 1943

This 10 page memo was sent from SHAEF (General Eisenhower’s command office) to the other Allied commanders and includes the minutes from the March 20 meeting of the leaders. It details parts of the invasion plan including air strikes and diversion tactics scheduled in preparation for the initial invasion.

Operation Policy Memoranda, January 29, 1944

Minutes taken from the meeting of the Supreme Command of the Allied Expeditionary Force (American and British military leaders of Operation Overlord) four days before the D-Day invasion. The leaders review the current status of the invasion plan.

Minutes of the SCAEF 21st Meeting, June 2, 1944

Intelligence summary from British troops on D-day describing the battle conditions and enemy opposition.



http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-i.jpg
The following documents come from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library & Museum. The individual links below are slow to load, but you can access all of the documents on the following page:

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/education/teacher_resources/spy_kit/spy_kit_documents.html

Document #5: This document outlines the OVERLORD plan developed in 1943 by COSSAC. Although the plan was revised, it contained basic information on the locations of the landings along with objectives to be attained and indicated a target date of May 1, 1944, or shortly after for the assault

COSSAC (44) 10, January 11, 1944. To Commanding General, First Army group (Omar Bradley), signed “F.E. Morgan,” Chief of Staff to the Supreme Commander (Designate)

Document #9: This document outlines in detail the Allied plan for deceiving the enemy into believing the main assault would come in the Pas De Calais area and thus was intended to divert enemy forces away from the Normandy beaches.

Operation OVERLORD Cover Operation — (Pas De Calais) Appreciation, November 20, 1943



Document List & Links –Allied Cooperation

Photographs:

Photograph taken at the Quebec conference in 1943 showing FDR and Churchill surrounded by Allied military leaders.

http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=15553

Photograph at the Moscow conference in 1942 showing Churchill, Stalin and W. Averrell Harriman (representative for FDR.) To the far right of the image is Vyacheslav Molotov, Stalin’s most important and powerful diplomat.

http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=15578

Winston Churchill speaking at a join session of Congress in May 1943.

http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=15551

Stalin, FDR and Churchill seated on the porch of the USSR Embassy during the Tehran Conference in 1943.

http://ww2db.com/images/battle_tehran2.jpg

Maps:

Interactive world map showing the locations of the various wartime conferences

http://www.pbs.org/behindcloseddoors/in-depth/the-conferences.html

Documents:

Secret dispatch sent from Winston Churchill (through the Air Ministry Special Signals Office) to General Eisenhower (Allied Forces HeadQuarters) sharing the British opinions on when and where an invasion of France should take place.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/cab120-436-i.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/cab120-436-ii.jpg

Summary of the Trident Conference held in Washington, DC in May 1943 between Churchill and Roosevelt

The Trident Conference, May 1943

Minutes form the Eureka Conference held in Tehran between the Big Three – Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt – in December 1943.

Minutes of Plenary Session at Eureka (Tehran) Conference, November 30, 1943

Draft of a telegram from FDR to Stalin in 1942 promising to open a second front as soon as possible.

http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/PSF/BOX5/T62BB01.HTML

Letter from Joseph Stalin to FDR in 1943 expressing his displeasure at the delays in the invasion of France and the opening of a second front in Western Europe.

http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/archives/view-document.html?URI=http%3A%2F%2Fcmeclient%2FCMBGenericWebService%2FCMBGetPIDUrl%3Fpid%3D82+3+ICM6+db28cm5+FDR0259+26+A1001001A11J19B55848B8118618+A11J19B55848B811861+14+1300%26server%3Ddb28cm%26dsType%3DICM

As hundreds of thousands of American soldiers poured into Britain in preparation for the invasion, there were some points of friction between the British and American commands. This document is a minutes report from a meeting of the Anglo-American Relations Committee.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo163-222-ii.jpg

Letter from General Eisenhower’s command office (SHAEF) to the U.S. War Department in January 1944. The report lists the concerns that Eisenhower still has about the then current plan for D-Day.

Message, SHAEF to AGWAR, signed “Eisenhower,” dated January 23, 1944



Document List & Links – Axis Defenses

The documents and images available for this topic are somewhat limited because so many of the primary sources have not been made available by the German archives or have not been translated into English. Students will need to be mindful of the fact that many of the sources about the Axis are from the Allied standpoint.



Photographs:

German General Erwin Rommel inspecting the obstacles along the beaches of Normandy. These devices were designed to inhibit invasion forces.

http://ww2db.com/images/person_rommel36.jpg

Images of a German defensive bunkers along the coast of Northern France. These bunkers were built along the coast as a part of the “Atlantic Wall” defenses. They housed large artillery guns and observation posts set up to protect the beaches from an invasion.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/popup/preparations.htm

http://ww2db.com/images/battle_normandy57.jpg

http://ww2db.com/images/person_rommel54.jpg

http://ww2db.com/images/person_rommel52.jpg

Image of an Allied boat sunk after hitting one of the German “hedgehog” anti-landing craft obstacles. The beaches of Northern France were littered with hedgehogs in order to prevent Allied ships from being able to actually land troops directly on the beaches. The obstacles could rip out the bottom of a boat and sink it (as in this image.)

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/popup/landing.htm

Two Canadian soldiers looking at a model of the German defenses on Juno beach in Normandy

http://ww2db.com/images/battle_normandy160.jpg

Pictures of German Panzer tanks in Normandy. These armored tanks were considered to be some of the most formidable ever built by the Germans.

http://ww2db.com/images/vehicle_panzervi195.jpg

http://ww2db.com/images/vehicle_panzeriv9.jpg

http://ww2db.com/images/vehicle_panzeriv15.jpg

German paratroopers firing an anti-tank gun in Normandy, France.

http://ww2db.com/images/weapon_75cmpak40_21.jpg



Maps:

Map of German defenses along the coast of Normandy

First US Infantry Division assault map dated April 1944, showing obstacles and defenses on OMAHA beach

Panoramic drawing/map of an American sector on Omaha beach.

http://research.archives.gov/description/595492

Documents:

This memorandum to Eisenhower details the situation in Normandy just three days before the invasion. It includes some details about the obstacles and defenses set up by the Germans along the coast of France.

Conditions in Normandy, June 3, 1944

This two-page document is a graphic account from U.S. soldiers on D-Day. It details some of the defenses the soldiers faced when they landed in Normandy. Only one-third of the company survived the invasion and made it safely to the seawall.

http://docsteach.org/documents/596372/detail?menu=closed&mode=search&sortBy=relevance&q=d+day&commit=Go&era%5B%5D=the-great-depression-and-world-war-ii&type%5B%5D=written-document

One of the biggest threats facing the German defense was also completely unknown to them – the British captured a German Enigma decoding machine early in the war and were able to intercept and decode most secret German military information. Those secrets were known as “Ultra” intelligence. In this letter, General Marshall describes the protocols for sharing these secrets with field commanders.

Letter from G.C. Marshall to General Eisenhower, March 15, 1944, plus attachment

Allied report on German military divisions located in Normandy, France. Note the ethnic make-up of many of the troops in each division.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-iv.jpg

Document List & Links – Axis Response

The documents and images available for this topic are somewhat limited because so many of the primary sources have not been made available by the German archives or have not been translated into English. Students will need to be thoughtful about the fact that many of the sources about the Axis are from the Allied standpoint.



Photographs:

This image shows a German shell hitting the water near an American landing craft attempting to reach the shore of France.

http://ww2db.com/images/battle_normandy60.jpg

German prisoners of war being escorted by American soldiers along the cliffs of Point-du-Hoc in Normandy

http://ww2db.com/images/battle_normandy145.jpg

Maps:

Map showing the location of German divisions in Normandy, France.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-ix.jpg

Documents:

Intelligence summary from British troops on D-day describing the battle conditions and enemy opposition.



http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-i.jpg
http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-ii.jpg
A brief summary taken from captured Axis soldiers on D-Day.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/popup/interrogation.htm

British military report on the movement of a German Panzer (armored) division in Normandy. Note the role that the French Resistance fighters played in delaying and harassing the German troops.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/popup/french.htm

Report from an RAF (British Royal Air Force) squadron on D-Day.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/d-day/sources/docs/1/

Multi-page British report on enemy divisions as the D-day invasion is happening.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-v.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-vi.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-vii.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/wo171-336-viii.jpg

Secret “Ultra” reports from D-Day – German military intelligence communications intercepted and decoded by the Allies. Note the German response to the invasion.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/hw1-2895-i.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/hw1-2895-ii.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/hw1-2895-iii.jpg

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/images/education/nations-in-conflict/files/hw1-2895-iv.jpg



Document List & Links – Diversion Tactics

Photographs:

Image of one of the mock airplanes built by the Allies to mislead the German military into expecting a large invasion at Pas de Calais, rather than Normandy. The Allies created entire fake camps in order to mislead the German military command

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/popup/deception.htm

This image shows British soldiers disguising a tank to look like a truck. The Allies used various tactics like this to hide as much of the real invasion force from Axis reconnaissance aircraft.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/deception/sources/photos/2/enlarge.htm

Image of an inflatable tank used in one of the mock camps set up by the Allies in Britain.

http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=455

Maps:

A diagram showing radar counter measures and diversion tactics used to distract and divert the Germans. These tactics included dropping tin foil strips known as “chaff” to fool the Germans into thinking the invasion force was headed towards Pas de Calais.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/d-day/sources/docs/5/



Documents:

Copy of an intercepted German intelligence report.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/popup/topsecret.htm

This 10 page memo was sent from SHAEF (General Eisenhower’s command office) to the other Allied commanders and includes the minutes from the March 20 meeting of the leaders. It details parts of the invasion plan including air strikes and diversion tactics scheduled in preparation for the initial invasion.

Operation Policy Memoranda, January 29, 1944

The following documents come from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library & Museum. The individual links below are slow to load, but you can access all of the documents on the following page:

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/education/teacher_resources/spy_kit/spy_kit_documents.html

Document #8: This memorandum outlined Operation Bodyguard which became a portion of Operation Fortitude, the overall deception plan used against Germany in conjunction with Operation Overlord.

Memorandum, Robert E. Baker for Chief of Staff (General Walter Bedell Smith was Chief of General Eisenhower’s staff at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force), February 3, 1944

Document #9: This document outlines in detail the Allied plan for deceiving the enemy into believing the main assault would come in the Pas De Calais area and thus was intended to divert enemy forces away from the Normandy beaches.



Operation OVERLORD Cover Operation — (Pas De Calais) Appreciation, November 20, 1943



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