Document D: Civil War in Rwanda Rwanda Genocide: a short History of the Rwanda Genocide



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Document D: Civil War in Rwanda

Rwanda Genocide: A Short History of the Rwanda Genocide

By Jennifer Rosenberg

http://history1900s.about.com/od/rwandangenocide/a/Rwanda-Genocide.htm

Beginning on April 6, 1994, Hutus began slaughtering the Tutsis in the African country of Rwanda. As the brutal killings continued, the world stood idly by and just watched the slaughter. Lasting 100 days, the Rwanda genocide left approximately 800,000 Tutsis and Hutu sympathizers dead.



Who Are the Hutu and Tutsi?

The Hutu and Tutsi are two peoples who share a common past. When Rwanda was first settled, the people who lived there raised cattle. Soon, the people who owned the most cattle were called "Tutsi" and everyone else was called "Hutu." At this time, a person could easily change categories through marriage or cattle acquisition.

It wasn't until Europeans came to colonize the area that the terms "Tutsi" and "Hutu" took on a racial role. The Germans were the first to colonize Rwanda in 1894. They looked at the Rwandan people and thought the Tutsi had more European characteristics, such as lighter skin and a taller build. Thus they put Tutsis in roles of responsibility.

When the Germans lost their colonies following World War I, the Belgians took control over Rwanda. In 1933, the Belgians solidified the categories of "Tutsi" and "Hutu" by mandating that every person was to have an identity card that labeled them either Tutsi, Hutu, or Twa. (Twa are a very small group of hunter-gatherers who also live in Rwanda.)

Although the Tutsi constituted only about ten percent of Rwanda's population and the Hutu nearly 90 percent, the Belgians gave the Tutsi all the leadership positions. This upset the Hutu.

When Rwanda struggled for independence from Belgium, the Belgians switched the status of the two groups. Facing a revolution instigated by the Hutu, the Belgians let the Hutus, who constituted the majority of Rwanda's population, be in charge of the new government. This upset the Tutsi. The animosity between the two groups continued for decades.



The Event That Sparked the Genocide

At 8:30 p.m. on April 6, 1994, President Juvénal Habyarimana of Rwanda was returning from a summit in Tanzania when a surface-to-air missile shot his plane out of the sky over Rwanda's capital city of Kigali. All on board were killed in the crash.

Since 1973, President Habyarimana, a Hutu, had run a totalitarian regime in Rwanda, which had excluded all Tutsis from participating. That changed on August 3, 1993 when Habyarimana signed the Arusha Accords, which weakened the Hutu hold on Rwanda and allowed Tutsis to participate in the government. This greatly upset Hutu extremists.

Although it has never been determined who was truly responsible for the assassination, Hutu extremists profited the most from Habyarimana's death. Within 24 hours after the crash, Hutu extremists had taken over the government, blamed the Tutsis for the assassination, and begun the slaughter.



Document D: Civil War in Sudan

Civil War in Sudan

http://www.jewishworldwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/brief_history_Grade4-9.pdf
Northern Sudan was populated by people who practiced Islam, while Southern Sudan became rich in African culture and Christianity. In 1947, however, the British decided that

Northern and Southern Sudan should unite to become one country. The British decision to make Sudan one country was a terrible mistake because the Northern and Southern people were so different, especially religiously, which led to the first civil war in Sudan in 1955.


The first civil war in Sudan was a struggle to free Southern Sudan from the Islamic North part and lasted from 1955-1972. Between 750,000 and 1,500,000 Southern Sudanese died in this war. Finally, a peace agreement called the Addis Ababa Agreement was signed.
Peace lasted for about ten years, but when the Southern Sudanese realized they would never gain true independence, they began to rebel. Sudan's second civil war started on May 16th,

1983. This civil war was largely about the desire on the part of the northern Sudanese to impose

Islamic (Sharia) law on the entire country. Even though most of the people in the northern part of

Sudan are Arab Muslims, Arab Muslims make up only around 33% of the total population of



Sudan. In the civil war more than 2 million Sudanese Christians who lived in the south of Sudan were killed. The war was largely a religious war between Muslims and Christians.
This war continued until an interim peace agreement was negotiated in 2005. The interim peace agreement will expire in 2010, at which time the Southern Sudanese are supposed to be able to vote about whether they want to be part of a unified Sudan, or whether they would rather form their own independent country.

Using Document D, answer these questions on your own sheet of paper.

  1. Read the article on the civil war in Sudan. Who was the civil war between? Why did it occur? What was the outcome?




  1. Read the article on the civil war in Rwanda. Who was the civil war between? Why did it occur? What was the outcome?




  1. Write a 4 paragraph essay answering this question:

Could the civil wars in Rwanda and Sudan be linked to European partitioning and colonization?

Paragraph 1: Introduction about European partitioning.

Paragraph 2: Was the Sudan conflict caused by European partitioning? Use the primary documents to support your claim.

Paragraph 3: Was the Rwanda conflict caused by European partitioning? Use the primary documents to support your claim.

Paragraph 4: Conclusion summarizing how European partitioning of Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries. Use examples from Rwanda and Sudan to support this conclusion.

Using Document D, answer these questions on your own sheet of paper.

  1. Read the article on the civil war in Sudan. Who was the civil war between? Why did it occur? What was the outcome?




  1. Read the article on the civil war in Rwanda. Who was the civil war between? Why did it occur? What was the outcome?




  1. Write a 4 paragraph essay answering this question:

Could the civil wars in Rwanda and Sudan be linked to European partitioning and colonization?

Paragraph 1: Introduction about European partitioning.

Paragraph 2: Was the Sudan conflict caused by European partitioning? Use the primary documents to support your claim.

Paragraph 3: Was the Rwanda conflict caused by European partitioning? Use the primary documents to support your claim.

Paragraph 4: Conclusion summarizing how European partitioning of Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries. Use examples from Rwanda and Sudan to support this conclusion.


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