Document-based questions



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ASSESSMENT (Major Grade)
All students will complete Part A (Document-Based Questions)

Students will then choose to complete Part B (Essay) or Part C (Diary Entries) as directed by their teacher.
DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTIONS
You will be asked to answer the question below based on the accompanying documents (1-7). The question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.

Historical Context:

Throughout American history there has been a struggle among certain groups to gain equal access and opportunity to the American Dream. African-Americans have struggled for legal, political, and social equality since early colonial times. After the Civil War, blacks were granted freedom, but were continually denied equal access and opportunity through legalized segregation. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Supreme Court legalized the separation of blacks and whites in a variety of ways – in train cars, later interpreted to public places including schools. This ruling limited opportunities for African- Americans in education as did Jim Crow laws in employment and representation. In 1954 the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education overturned legalized segregation in public schools. With the 1954 decision the Civil Rights Movement gained the legal foundation it needed to protest segregation in all areas of life in the United States.


Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of United States history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to answer:


To what extent did the principles of democracy expand or contract during the Civil Rights Movement?



Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the space provided.
Document 1




Earl Warren: quote on equality in education




"Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. . . . In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity . . . is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms."

(Brown v. Board of Education, 1954)










1 Why is it important that state and local governments provide public schools?





2 Why would Earl Warren think it was difficult for a child to succeed if he/she cannot get an education?



Document 2




Lunch counter sit-in, Arlington, 1960 Courtesy Richmond Times-Dispatch
1

Why weren’t these four college students served at the lunch counter?





2 What is the advantage of protesting nonviolently rather than by using force?


Document 3


School Integration in the American South, 1960




 

State

Total Black
Enrollment

Integrated
with "Whites"

Alabama

267,259

0

Arkansas

104,205

98

Delaware

14,063

6,196

District of Columbia

89,451

73,290

Florida

201,091

512

Georgia

306,158

0

Kentucky

42,778

12,000

Louisiana

261,491

0

Maryland

130,076

28,072

Mississippi

271,761

0

Missouri

82,000

35,000

North Carolina

302,060

34

Oklahoma

39,405

10,246

South Carolina

255,616

0

Tennessee

146,700

169

Texas

279,374

3,300

Virginia

203,229

103

West Virginia

24,010

12,000

Total

3,020,727

181,020

[Source: Current, Richard D., Harry Williams, and Frank Freidel, American History: A Survey, 1961.]








1 Which states seemed to be more successful in integrating black and white students?



2 Why would some states be unwilling to integrate their schools?



Document 4

Through it all, the most intolerable thing has been the campaign of ostracizing me (leaving a person out of all activities). It does not harm me directly. If anyone doesn’t want to associate with me, I’m sure that the feeling is at least mutual. I don’t think anyone should be forced to enter association with anyone else unless they so desire. However, the ostracizers not only don’t associate with me, but assume the right to see that no one else associates with me.

If a white student sits down and drinks a cup of coffee with me, or walks with me across the campus, he is subjected to unhampered intimidation and harassment. I have been denied my privileges all along, but these whites have not been. Now they have lost a simple freedom. This sets back the Negro, because anytime you move backward, the person already down suffers more. This campaign, which apparently has been permitted to go on, really results in a reduction of everybody’s rights.

James Meredith, First Negro admitted to University of Mississippi, 1963

I Can’t Fight Alone, James Meredith




1 Why would it be difficult to be the first African-American in an all white university?




  1. How can white people be affected by the racism directed toward African Americans?




Document 5



Firefighters turn their hoses full force on civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama on July 15, 1963 during protests that became a focal point of the desegregation movement.



The Defenders Online ( NAACP publication)




1 What is one role that firefighters played during the Civil Rights movement?




  1. How would people watching this action on television feel about non-violent protestors being treated this way?





Document 6


(1) All citizens of the United States who are otherwise qualified by law to vote at any election by the people in any State, Territory, district, county, city, parish, township, school district, municipality, or other territorial subdivision, shall be entitled and allowed to vote at all such elections, without distinction of race, color, or previous condition of servitude; any constitution, law, custom, usage, or regulation of any State or Territory, or by or under its authority, to the contrary notwithstanding.

Voting Rights Act (1965)



1 Why would someone want to deny African Americans the right to vote?


2 What would African Americans do once they could vote?



Document 7






Stokely Carmichael: quote on Black Power




"Black power . . . is a call for black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, to build a sense of community."

(Black Power, 1967)










1 What is the meaning of the term Black Power?


2 Why might some African-American people not be aware of their heritage?



Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, three or more paragraphs, and a conclusion that answers the TASK question below. Use evidence from at least 5 documents in the body of the essay. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information, as well as your notes from previous lessons.
Historical Context:


Throughout American history there has been a struggle among certain groups to gain equal access and opportunity to the American Dream. African-Americans have struggled for legal, political, and social equality since early colonial times. After the Civil War, blacks were granted freedom, but were continually denied equal access and opportunity through legalized segregation. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Supreme Court legalized the separation of blacks and whites in a variety of ways – in train cars, later interpreted to public places including schools. This ruling limited opportunities for African- Americans in education as did Jim Crow laws in employment and representation. In 1954 the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education overturned legalized segregation in public schools. With the 1954 decision the Civil Rights Movement gained the legal foundation it needed to protest segregation in all areas of life in the United States.




Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of United States history, write an essay that answers the following question. Your answers to the questions in Part A will help you write the essay in which you will be asked to answer:

To what extent did the principles of democracy expand or contract during the Civil Rights Movement?




Guidelines:
In your essay, be sure to:


  • Address all aspects of the Task by accurately analyzing and interpreting at least 5 documents

  • Incorporate information from the documents, and information gathered during the last five days in the body of the essay

  • Incorporate relevant outside information

  • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details

  • Use a clear plan of organization

  • Introduce the theme by establishing a framework that is beyond a simple restatement of the Task or Historical Context and conclude with a summarization of the theme


Part C


Directions:


Imagine that you have just arrived in the United States for the first time in 1960. Several times throughout the years you are a witness to actions taken during the civil rights movement. Select at least 5 documents and write diary entries as though you have just witnessed the activities described in the documents.



Historical Context:

Throughout American history there has been a struggle among certain groups to gain equal access and opportunity to the American Dream. African-Americans have struggled for legal, political, and social equality since early colonial times. After the Civil War, blacks were granted freedom, but were continually denied equal access and opportunity through legalized segregation. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Supreme Court legalized the separation of blacks and whites in a variety of ways – in train cars, later interpreted to public places including schools. This ruling limited opportunities for African- Americans in education as did Jim Crow laws in employment and representation. In 1954 the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education overturned legalized segregation in public schools. With the 1954 decision the Civil Rights Movement gained the legal foundation it needed to protest segregation in all areas of life in the United States.



Task: Using information from the documents in Part A and your knowledge of United States history, write 5 diary entries based on 5 of the documents. Your answers to the questions will help you complete the product described in Part C in which you will be asked:


To what extent did the principles of democracy expand or contract during the Civil Rights Movement?




Guidelines:
In your product, be sure to:


  • Address all aspects of the Task by accurately analyzing and interpreting at least 5 documents

  • Incorporate information from the documents in the product

  • Incorporate relevant outside information

  • Support your position with relevant facts, examples, and details

  • Use a clear plan of organization

WORKS CITED

Carmichael, Stokely and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. New York: Vantage Books, 1967. Print.

Current, Richard D. and Frank Fridel. "American History: A Survey." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1961. Print.


"Hosing Down Progress." The Defenders (Online). November 19, 2008. NAACP. 2 Jul 2009

.
Meredith, James. "I Can't Fight Alone." Look Magazine 1963: 70-78. Online. 2 July 2009.

.
"Lunch Counter Sit-In, Arlington, 1960." Online Image. The Civil Rights Movement in Virginia.

Virginia Historical Society. 2 Jul 2009 .


Supreme Court of the United States. "Brown v Board of Education." Brown v. Board of Education, 347

U.S. 483 (1954) (USSC+). 05/12/2000. National Parks Service. 2 Jul 2009

.
"Voting Rights Act 1965." 2 Jul 2009 .


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