Do Now Directions: Answer the question in a complete sentence. Then please read silently



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Date:


Humanities

Homeroom:


Egypt: Middle Kingdom
Do Now Directions: Answer the question in a complete sentence. Then please read silently.


  1. What advice would you give a friend who was trying to find the best evidence?


  1. What were some accomplishments of the Old Kingdom?


  1. What were some of hardships of the Old Kingdom?


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Focus: Middle Kingdom

By 2130 B.C., Egyptians kings began to lose their power to local rulers of the provinces. For about 500 more years, the king held Egypt together, but with a much weaker central government. This period of Egyptian history is called the Middle Kingdom.









http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/mentuhotep_seated.jpg

Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II
Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II

Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II was the first pharaoh under the Middle Kingdom, where he reigned for 51 years. Mentuhotep II's first fourteen years of reign seem to have been peaceful in the Theban region as there are no surviving traces of conflict during that period.


In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred in the north. This uprising is most probably connected with the ongoing conflict between Mentuhotep II and his rival, Herakleopolis . Herakleopolis was the leader of the Hyksos. The Hyksos, who originated in West Asia, had superior weaponry making their efforts to capture Egypt easier. Additionally, the Egyptians proved inferior not only for their poor supplies, but also for being too ill at the time. Egypt had experienced a famine and plague that debilitated, or weakened its citizens.
Near Mentuhotep II’s temple at Thebes, American archaeologist Herbert Winlock found a mass tomb in the 1920s with the bodies of 60 of his soldiers who were slaughtered in battle. Their place of burial near the King suggests that the battle they fought was an important one, but sources disagree on where they might have fought. In the tomb of a local prince or general named Mesehti at Asyut, we also find models of marching Egyptian soldiers and even in the tombs of common people, we find an increase in the inclusion of weapons among average graves.



Once in control, the Hyksos proved advantageous to the Egyptians. They introduced the horse and chariot, the compound bow, improved battle axes, and advanced fortification techniques into Egypt. At Avaris (modern Tall al-Dabʿa) in the northeastern delta, they built their capital with a fortified camp over the remains of a Middle Kingdom town.





  1. Read this sentence from the passage.

Egypt failed to overcome obstacles during the reign of Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?


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https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-zmmy2rdo1sk/tyszx6csali/aaaaaaaaagi/r_dzixpx_6c/s1600/amun.jpg

Amun
Amun

After years of fighting, a god name Amun (also known as Amun-Re) took control over the Middle Kingdom. He originally reigned over the air and was nicknamed “the invisible one.” Once in control of Thebes, he was known as the “King of Gods” or father of all the pharaohs. It was said that he could take on any form that he wished as he was the creator of the universe.


Amun grew so important spiritually and politically by the time of the New Kingdom that Egypt became something of a Theocracy (a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god). It was the first time in history that Egyptian religion approached monotheism. The other gods became nearly insignificant.
The temple of Karnak was known as Ipet-isut (Most select of places) by the ancient Egyptians. It is a city of temples built over 2000 years and dedicated to Amun. This rundown place is still capable of overshadowing many of the wonders of the modern world and in its day must have been awe inspiring.
For the largely uneducated ancient Egyptian population this could only have been the place of the gods. It is the greatest of all religious buildings, the largest ever made and a place of pilgrimage for nearly 4,000 years. Although todays pilgrims are mainly tourists. It covers about 200 acres. The Hypostyle hall at 54,000 square feet with its 134 columns, is still the largest room of any religious building in the world. In addition to the main sanctuary there are several smaller temples and a vast sacred lake.




  1. In paragraph 2, what is a Theocracy?



  1. Based on your prior knowledge of polytheism, what is most likely the best definition of monotheism?




  1. Read this sentence from the passage.

Amun transformed religion during the Middle Kingdom.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?



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Osiris http://www.greatdreams.com/osiris3.jpg
Osiris, Death and Religion
In the Middle Kingdom, Osiris became the god of the necropolises, more commonly known as the god of the dead. He is often depicted as a mummified man wearing a white cone-like headdress with feathers. He went about the job of civilizing his people. He taught them agriculture and how to domesticate animals. He gave them a code of laws to live by and showed them the proper ways in which to worship the gods. Egypt became a mighty land under his kind and gentle rule. His subjects gladly worshiped the ground on which he walked. When Egypt was civilized, Osiris left to bring his teachings to other lands. While Osiris was away, he left his wife, Isis, in charge. She ruled the country in the same fashion. But Osiris had an enemy, his bitter and jealous brother Seth.
Seth began scheming against the great king. He aligned himself with Aso, the queen of Ethiopia, and 72 other conspirators. But nothing could be done while Isis ruled the country, Her authority was unquestionable. Upon Osiris' return, an evil plot was put into motion. Seth secretly learned the measurements of Osiris and began having a wonderfully decorated box built to fit those measurements. When the box was finished, Seth had a great feast to which he invited Osiris and the 72 conspirators. Having absolutely no evil in him, Osiris suspected nothing. When the feasting was done, Seth had the box brought out. He offered it as a gift to anyone whom the box fit. One at a time they tried to fit into the box until it was Osiris' turn. He laid in the box suspecting nothing. The conspirators slammed the lid, nailed it closed, and poured molten lead in the seam to seal his fate. They threw the great chest into the Nile River. Osiris was never seen again, walking in the land of the living.



  1. According to paragraph one, what did Osiris teach the Egyptians?



  1. Read this sentence from the passage.




Seth can best be characterized as devious.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?


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  1. Read this sentence from the passage.




Osiris’ role was protector of the Egyptians.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?




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Isis grieves for Osiris

This news reached Isis and she was grief stricken. She put on her dress of mourning and set about trying to find the body of her husband. She knew well, the dead could not rest until they have had a proper funeral. Isis searched long, but found nothing. She asked every man and every woman if they had seen the giant box that contained her husband, but no one had. Finally, Isis asked some children who were playing by the Nile.


The children told her where Seth and the conspirators had thrown the chest into the river. After further investigation, and consultation with some demons, Isis learns that the chest had floated out to sea, to the land of Byblos and become lodged in a tamarisk bush. As if by magic the bush shot up and became a magnificent tree. The towering tree enclosed the ornate box within its huge trunk. The king of Byblos admired the great tree so much that he had it cut down and made into a giant pillar to support the roof of his palace.



  1. Read this sentence from the passage.




Isis was willing to do whatever it took to find her husband.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?




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Name:


Date:

Humanities

Homeroom:
Homework: Egypt – Middle Kingdom
Directions: Read the following using your strategies.


Isis Returns to Egypt

Remember, Isis learns that the chest had floated out to sea, to the land of Byblos and become lodged in a tamarisk bush. As if by magic the bush shot up and became a magnificent tree. The towering tree enclosed the ornate box within its huge trunk. The king of Byblos admired the great tree so much that he had it cut down and made into a giant pillar to support the roof of his palace.

The pillar was taken down, cut open, and the great box was revealed. Isis took the chest and returned to Egypt but the mighty pillar remained in Byblos and was worshiped from that day forward. When she arrived, she opened the box and wept over her dead husband. She was joined by her sister, Nephthys in her sorrow. The sisters turn into Kites and circle the chest screeching in mournful tones. But Isis' thoughts soon turned to her infant son, Harpocrates, Horus the younger. She had left him in Buto and now had to retrieve him. She hid the box in a secret place, and went after her son.

1)Read this sentence from the passage.




Isis was heartbroken.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?




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Their Son, Horus

Her son had grown into a man. Osiris has been resurrected as the king of the dead in the underworld. One day, Osiris appears to Horus in the land of the living. He convinces Horus to avenge the wrongs that have been committed by Seth. So, Horus tracks down Seth and a huge battle begins. Who will win isn’t clear and the battle turns first to one side, then to the other. It is said that this battle of good versus evil still rages, but some day, Horus will be victorious and on that day, Osiris will return to rule the world.


2) Read this sentence from the passage.




Horus is a committed son.

Which passage from the detail BEST supports this claim?




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