DLenm project glad colonial Regions and the Thirteen Colonies Austin Independent School District, 8th grade idea pages



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Difficulties

Many people living in the Middle Colonies were indentured servants or slaves. Indentured

servants worked to pay off the money that was spent by their owners to bring them to the area, and

feed and clothe them. Once their debt to their owners was paid off, they would be free. On the other

hand, slaves were purchased and sold. They belonged to their owners and worked without pay. Life for

hese people was very difficult and caused many problems with the owners.



E

vents and Documents

The arrival of the Dutch, Swedes, French and Germans was part of the Great Migration, the

exodus of Europeans to North America in search of religious freedom. The Dutch, in particular, were

very prosperous. They had many trade routes, and were planning to expand their settlements. In 1664,

the English king decided that he needed to claim the area for England. He named it the New York

Colony.

The Southern Colonies Name: _______________________

Description

The Southern Colonies include the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and

Georgia Colonies. It is a region with very mild winters and a very long growing season. The summers are

warm and humid and the soil is very fertile.

Maryland Colony was established in 1632 as a colony for Roman Catholics fleeing persecution in

England. The leaders of the colony promised religious freedom for all religions. Georgia was established

as a buffer for the English colonies and the Spanish and French colonies to the south. In order to attract

more settlers, the leaders offered freedom to people jailed for not paying back a debt. Their debt was

forgiven if they agreed to move to the Georgia Colony.

E

conomy

The Southern Colonies based its economy on tobacco, rice, indigo and cotton. These crops can be

grown on large tracts of land called plantations. Planting and harvesting these crops is difficult back

breaking work. The settlers of this region encouraged the use African and Native American slaves to do

this work.

Rivers crisscrossed the Southern Colonies and provided a way for products to be moved from one

area to another. These waterways allowed for trade between colonies and brought the goods to the

ships that would make the long voyage to Europe.


People

Lord Baltimore established the Maryland Colony for Catholics fleeing persecution in England.

James Oglethorpe established the Georgia Colony as a refuge for debtors. Other important people in

these colonies were the wealthy plantation owners. They created and expanded the plantation system.

They bought and sold slaves to clear the land, plant and harvest the crops and other hard work.

D

ifficulties

The cruel treatment of slaves caused many of the difficulties in the Southern Colonies. Other

difficulties included battles between the colonists of the Southern Colonies and leaders of the Spanish

and French colonies in Florida and Louisiana. These other European countries tried many ways to take

over the English colonies, but were not successful.



Events and Documents

In 1649, Maryland Colony passed the Act of Toleration to establish religious freedom for

Catholics. This Act also allowed other religious groups to settle in the Colony.

Process Grid



Colony

Description

Economy

People

Difficulties

Events/Documents

Jamestown

  • Founded in 1607 – inland on the James River, forests

  • Close to Chesapeake Bay

  • Warm and humid summers

  • Economic reasons – to look for gold

  • After many years of starvation and disease - Tobacco farming

  • European settlers

    • All men

    • Gentry

    • Skilled craftsmen and artisans

    • John Smith – captain

  • Powhatan Indians

    • Chief Wahunsenacawh

    • Daughter - Pocahontas

  • Settlers must work to survive

  • Indians – tired of pleas for help; angry that settlement was built on tribal hunting grounds

  • Salt water contaminated river water

  • Mosquitos carried disease

  • The Starving Time

    • Poor survival skills and crops, disease caused many deaths

  • Things improved when John Rolfe, tobacco farmer, married Pocahontas

  • Establishment of The House of Burgesses elected representatives of colonists who met once a year in assembly – allowed for more local control

Plymouth

  • Pilgrims sailed on the Mayflower

  • Arrived in 1620 – eastern coast of North America

  • Religious freedom

  • Hilly land, fresh water rivers, deep forests

  • Rope making, shipbuilding

  • Trade in fish and furs

  • Not economically prosperous




  • Pilgrims – Separatists wanting to separate from the Church of England

  • Native Americans

    • Wampanoag – Samoset, Chief Massasoit

    • Pawtuxet - Squanto

  • Difficulty farming due to long winters and rocky soil

  • Learned farming skills from Indians




  • Mayflower Compact – created and signed on board the ship

    • Agreement for self governing

  • First Thanksgiving - 1621

New England (Northern) Colonies

  • Founded in 1630 by Puritans

  • Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire

  • commonwealth

  • Cold, long winters, short growing season, dense forests to the west, Atlantic to the east

  • Founded with religious and social expectations

  • Whaling

  • Ship building

  • Fishing

  • trade

  • Puritans – stern people

  • Only males could vote

  • John Winthrop – 1st governor

  • Duty, godliness, hard work and honesty, taking native land

  • Ann Hutchinson –

  • Roger Williams –Rhode Island Colony

  • The Great Migration

  • The Navigation Acts – 1651 – regulates colonial trade – allows England to collect taxes on trade

  • The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut = 1638 – 1st constitution – non-church members can vote, limited power for governor, representative government

The Middle Colonies

  • Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

  • mild winters, longer growing season, fertile soil. Ore mining

  • Founded for religious freedom

  • Agriculture

    • Grains – making it the breadbasket of the colonies

  • Mining

    • Iron ore - Served as the iron works region – nails, tools, wheels

  • Trade

  • Wealthiest colonies

  • Most ethnically diverse – Dutch, Swedes, French and German

  • Many indentured servants and slaves

  • Tension was high

  • 1630 – 1640 The Great Migration – Thousands of English arrive in the colonies

  • Establish New York Colony as an English colony




The Southern Colonies

  • Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

  • Mild winters, long growing season

  • Maryland – founded as a haven for Catholics

  • Georgia – founded as a barrier to Spanish colonies, populated by jailed debtors from other colonies

  • Agriculture

    • Large scale farming – tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo

  • Many waterways to move produce to other colonies

  • Wealthy plantation owners

    • Lord Baltimore of Maryland

  • People freed from debtors jail

    • James Oglethorpe – founder of Georgia

  • Many African slaves brought in to work the plantations

  • Cruel treatment of slaves

  • Battles with Spanish and French colonies

  • Maryland’s Act of Toleration – 1649 – establishes religious freedom

  • Act of Toleration is part of colonial legacy culminating in the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights

Name: ________________________ MIND MAP

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ACTION PLAN


Performance Indicator: Create an action plan for responding to the conflict between the gentry and the skilled craftsmen in Jamestown regarding the balance of work for survival. Compare your plan to the actual actions of the settlers.

Below is a way to scaffold this performance indicator for language learners who may need more support to be successful with this task.


  1. Graphic Organizer: Comparative Input Chart: Proposed action plan vs actual actions



  1. Brainstorm arguments for ways to talk to the gentry about their responsibilities for survival of the settlement.



  1. Small group practice:



    1. As a team, decide which tasks should be the responsibility of the groups of settlers. Create a presentation (ppt, report, letter, play, poem?) for the way in which you will address these issues with the settlers



    1. Present your action plan to the class.



    1. Revise and edit presentation based on class input.


*Assessment: Teacher should provide students with a rubric for Action Plan including grade level standards and school and/or classroom goals. (21st Centruy Goals) This could be created with student input.


Graffiti Wall Questions

MULTIPLE CHOICE

The Puritans arrived in Plymouth …

  1. to find a water route to the Orient.

  2. to settle in a place where they could worship as they wished.

  3. to find gold.




TRUE/FALSE

The Northern Colonies had the perfect climate to establish cotton and tobacco plantations.


SHORT ANSWER

What were some of the difficulties experienced between the Colonists and the Native People?

FILL IN THE BLANK

The Middle Colonies are made up of the following : the _______________, Colony, the _______________ Colony, the ______________ Colony and the __________ Colony.


OPEN ENDED

Why did the plantation owners bring slaves in to the Southern Colonies?


Writing Prompt

The Jamestown and Plymouth Settlements were established for very different social, political and economic reasons. Think about what you have learned in this unit. Refer to articles such as this one to deepen your understanding of the settlements:



  • http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/jamestown-and-plymouth-compare-and-contrast.htm

DIRECTIONS

Write a 5-paragraph essay addressing the following question: What were the social, political and economic reasons for the establishment of Jamestown and Plymouth

This essay has six assignments due when submitting your final draft:


  1. Prewriting Activities ________ 4. Conclusion ________

  2. Thesis Statement________ 5. Rough Draft ________

  3. Outline ________ 6. Final Draft ________


Writing Rubric

Multi-Paragraph Essay Grading Rubric

Grading Scale

4 Exceeds Standards

3 Meets Standards

2 Approaching Standards

1 Below Standards

0 Nonexistent

Yes/No


  1. Thesis Statement:

Does it persuasively answer the question?

Score ________




  1. Evidence Used:

Are three or more relevant reasons shared that support the thesis?

Score ________




  1. Evidence Explained:

Is the evidence explained correctly and persuasively?

Score ________



  1. Use of phrases, clauses and transitions:

Is there a link of ideas through the use of specific phrases?

Score ________



  1. Conclusion:

Does the evidence strengthen the topic sentence?

Score ________



  1. Prewriting Activities:

Are all prewriting activities included and attached to the final?

Score ________

Total Addition of Scores = X 5

Score =

Spelling or Grammatical Errors – ________
Final Score =




Colonial Settlements and the Thirteen Colonies (8th) Austin ISD

Ruth Kriteman and Erin Mayer – Dual Language Education of New Mexico (September 2014)



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