DLenm project glad colonial Regions and the Thirteen Colonies Austin Independent School District, 8th grade idea pages



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Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.


(1) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:

  • use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

  • monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

  • (C) use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

  • (D) speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

  • (E) internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

  • (F) use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

  • (G) demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

  • (H) develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.

(2) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/listening. The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:

  • (A) distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

  • (B) recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

  • (C) learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

  • (D) monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

  • (E) use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

  • (F) listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

  • (G) understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

  • (H) understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

  • (I) demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.

(3) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/speaking. The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:

  • (A) practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

  • (B) expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

  • (C) speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

  • (D) speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

  • (E) share information in cooperative learning interactions;

  • (F) ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

  • (G) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

  • (H) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

  • (I) adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes; and

  • (J) respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.

(4) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/reading. The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:

  • (A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

  • (B) recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

  • (C) develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

  • (D) use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

  • (E) read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

  • (F) use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

  • (G) demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

  • (H) read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods;

  • demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

  • (J) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs; and

  • (K) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.

(5) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/writing. The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:

  • (A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

  • (B) write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

  • (C) spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

  • (D) edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

  • (E) employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:

(i) using correct verbs, tenses, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii) using possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly; and

(iii) using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F) write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired; and



(G) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.

  1. Vocabulary (bolded words are particularly good choices for CCD and word study)



Tier II

Tier III

journey

voyage

colonize (ists)

site

access

found (ed)

tribe (al)

tobacco

indentured servant

crops

opportunity

Pilgrims

establish

politics (al)

Puritans

blubber

adopt

Quakers

tolerance

coast

Catholics

social

colony

representative government

Perspective

leader

charter

economic

document

settle (ers) (ment)

majority

represent

Native Americans (people)

region

seaboard

gentry

religion (ous)

survive

Separatists

trade

weapons

craftsment

worship

government (or)

self-governing

freedom

slave

commonwealth

plantation

soil

growing season

fertile

explore

Act

regulate

tax (es) (ed)

congregation

Tier 1: Basic words that commonly appear in spoken language.  Because they are heard frequently in numerous contexts and with nonverbal communication, Tier 1 words rarely require explicit instruction. Examples of Tier 1 words are clock, baby, happy and walk.

Tier 2: High frequency words used by mature language users across several content areas.  Because of their lack of redundancy in oral language, Tier 2 words present challenges to students who primarily meet them in print.  Examples of Tier 2 words are obvious, complex, establish and verify.

Tier 3: Words that are not frequently used except in specific content areas or domains.  Tier 3 words are central to building knowledge and conceptual understanding within the various academic domains and should be integral to instruction of content.  Medical, legal, biology and mathematics terms are all examples of these words.

Bringing Words To Life, Beck, Isabel L., McKeown, Margaret G., Kucan, Linda. The Gilford Press, 2002.

  1. RESOURCES AND MATERIALS

  • Non-fiction

  • We Were There, Too: Young People in US History New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001.

  • Our Thirteen Colonies (series) Mankato, MN: The Child’s World, 2004

  • Freedom Seeker: A Story About William Penn by Gwnyth Swain

  • Your Travel Guide to Colonial America by Nancy Day

  • Journeys in Time: A New Atlas of American History by Susan Buckley

  • If you lived in Colonial Times by: Ann McGovern

  • Fact Finder Series of the Colonies Capstone Press 2006

  • Life in the American Colonies: Daily Lifestyles of the Early Settlers Edited by: Jeanne Munn Bracken

  • The Many Lives of Ben Franklin by: Mary Pope Osborne

  • What’s the Big Idea, Ben Franklin? By: Jean Fritz

  • Inventive Americans by: Patricia West

  • Fiction

  • I am Regina by Sally Keehn

  • Now Let Me Fly, The Story of a Slave Family by: Dolores Johnson

  • How Many Days to America, A Thanksgiving Story by: Eve Bunting

  • Historical Fiction

  • Roanoke, The Lost Colony by: Jane Yolen

  • Dear America The Diary of Remember Patience Whipple by: Kathryn Lasky

  • Tisquantum and the Pilgrims by: Polly Peterson

  • The Mayflower Surprise by: Polly Peterson

  • The Belonging Place by Jean Little

  • Across the Wide Dark Sea by: Jean Van Leeuwen

  • Blood on the River, by Elisa Carbone

  • Pocahontas by Joseph Bruchac

  • Dear America: Standing in the Light, The Captive Diary of Catharine Carey Logan

  • Dear America: I Walk in Dread, The Diary of Deliverance, Witness to the Salem Witch Trials

  • Weetamoo: Heart of the Pocassets, 1653; The Royal Diaries

  • The Mayflower and the Pilgrim’s New World by Nathaniel Philbrick

  • John Winthrop, Oliver Cromwell and the Land of Promise by Marc Aronson

  • 1607: A New Look at Jamestown by Karen Lange

  • Written in Bone: Buried Lives of Jamestown and Colonial Maryland by Sally M. Walker

  • Teacher Resources

  • History Alive! The United States through Industrialization, TCI

  • Harcourt Trophies, Theme 6

  • Creating America: A History of the United States, McDougal Littell, Chapters

  • Geography Handbook, McDougal Littell

  • U.S. Desk Atlas, Nystrom

  • Technology

  • America’s Story from America’s Library

    • http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_subj.html

  • Social Studies for Kids

    • http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/subjects/colonialtimes.htm

  • Interactive Trade Route Map

    • http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g5s_u3/index.html#top

  • How Washington’s Slaves slipped away to freedom.

    • http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-222392099.html

  • Explore historical concepts, issues and events.

    • www.nationalgeographic.com/kids

  • Articles available to print in English and Spanish

    • www.timeforkids.com/TFK

  • www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/.../51/ils_gr5b_u3_c06_l2.pdf

  • www.ushistory.org/us/4.asp

  • ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/Archives/ED101sp06/areuter/page3.htm

  • http://www.ushistory.org/us/5a.asp



PLANNING PAGES

  1. FOCUS/MOTIVATION

    • Zero Noise Signal

    • Three Personal Standards

    • Literacy Awards: Super Geographer Award, Golden Pen Award, Postcards

    • Prediction-Reaction Guide

    • Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word

    • Big Book: “Colonial Settlements and the Thirteen Colonies”

    • Observation Charts

    • Inquiry Chart



  1. INPUT

    • Graphic Organizer: Map of the United States – including the 13 Colonies

    • Pictorial Input: Jamestown

    • Comparative Input

    • Narrative Input: “Blood on the River, James Town 1607”

    • 10/2 Lecture with Primary Language



  1. GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

    • Personal Interactions (10/2)

    • T-Graph for Social Skills, Team Points, Oral Processing, and Written Evaluation

    • Cooperative Groups – Team Tasks – Numbered Heads

    • Picture File Cards – free exploration, open & closed sorts, classifying/categorizing

    • Poetry – Chanting, Modeling, Highlighting

    • Sentence Patterning Chart

    • Mind Map

    • Expert Groups

    • Process Grid

    • Exploration Report – sorting, grouping, labeling

      • List, group, label



  2. READING/WRITING ACTIVITIES

  1. Whole Class Modeling

    • Cooperative Strip Paragraph

    • Sentence Patterning Chart

    • Poetry Frame

    • SPC - Flip Chant, Reading & Trading Game

    • Listen & Sketch

    • Story Map/Plot

    • Found Poetry



  1. Small/Flexible Group Practice

    • Focused Reading

    • Expert Group

    • Team Tasks

    • Group CCD

    • Ear-to-Ear Reading

    • Flexible Reading Groups: ELD Group Frame, Clunkers & Links, SQ3R, DRTA

    • Cooperative Strip Paragraph (emergent/struggling readers)

    • Mind Map

    • Flip Chants



  1. Individual Activities - Portfolios

    • Learning Logs

    • Interactive Journals

    • Focused Reading w/Personal CCD

    • Poetry Book

    • Personal Explorations

    • Individual Writing (Expository, Narrative, Poetry)



  1. Writer’s Workshop

    • Mini-Lesson

    • Write

    • Author’s Chair (questioning/listening)

    • Conferencing

    • Publish



  1. EXTENDED ACTIVITIES FOR INTEGRATION

    • Reader’s Theater

    • Electronic Power-point or Prezi

    • Travel itinerary with budget for travel to the colonies

    • Fieldtrip to museum exhibits



  1. CLOSURE

    • Processing of All Charts

    • Learning Log

    • Home/School Connections

    • Portfolios

    • Individual Tasks

    • Team Presentations

    • Graffiti Wall

    • Jeopardy Game

    • Teacher-Student Made Tests

    • Teacher-made Test

    • Prediction-Reaction Guide (post)

    • Action Plan

    • Writing and Portfolio Rubrics
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