Disasters by Discipline 1 : necessary dialogue for emergency management education



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Table 5. Definitions of comprehensive emergency management and the four phases, as found in the initial pages of the first chapters to address the concept within each resource.








National Governor’s Association

FEMA IS-1 Emergency Program Manager Course

ICMA Green Book

Waugh

Haddow and Bullock

Comprehensive Emergency Management

“Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) is a new term. It refers to a state’s responsibility and capability for managing all types of emergencies and disasters by coordinating the actions of numerous agencies. The “comprehensive” aspect of CEM includes all four phases of disaster or emergency activity: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. It applies to all risks: attack, man-made, and natural, in a federal-state-local partnership” (p. 11).

“was institutionalized with the creation of FEMA in 1979…reflects a switch in orientation from preparation for a single hazard or narrowly defined categories of hazards toward an all-hazards approach…implies partnership…and an occurrence cycle” (p. 8).

“calls for an integrated approach to the management of emergency programs and activities: each element of CEM relates to every other element…a way of fitting together the many elements of EM into an inclusive framework that encompasses all hazards and all levels of government” (p. xx).

References National Governor’s Association.

Not found. A series of chapters on the phases are referred to as “The Disciplines of Emergency Management” and include mitigation, response, recovery, preparedness, and communications.

Mitigation

“Includes any activities that actually eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence of a disaster..arms build-up, land-use management, establishing CEM programs, building safety codes” (p. 13).

“any activities which atually eliminate or reduce the occurrence of a disaster. It also includes long-term activities which reduce the effects of unavoidable disasters” (Toolkit)

References FEMA definition, “acting before a disaster strikes to prevent permanently the occurrence of a disaster or to reduce the effects of the disaster when it occurs” (p. 132).

“those activities designed to prevent or reduce losses from disaster” (p. 49).

“a sustained action to reduce or eliminate risk to people and property from hazards and their effects” (p. 37).

Preparedness

Activities are necessary to the extent that mitigation measures have not, or cannot, prevent disasters…develop plans, mounting training exercises, installing warning systems, stockpiling food and medical supplies, mobilizing emergency personnel” (p. 13).

“preparedness activities are necessary to the extent that mitigation measures have not, or cannot, prevent disasters….develop plans to save lives and minimize disaster damage…seek to enhance disaster response operations” (Toolkit).

Kreps’ chapter includes “is a continuous process, reduces unknowns during an emergency, is an educational activity, is based on knowledge, evokes appropriate action, resistance is a given, modest planning is a reasonable goal” (p. 35-36).

“Planning how to respond in an emergency or a disaster and developing capabilities for a more effective response” (p. 49).

“Can best be defined as a state of readiness to respond to a disaster, crisis, or any type of emergency situation” (p. 115).

Response

“Activities follow an emergency or disaster. Generally, they are designed to provide emergency assistance for casualties…seek to reduce the probability of secondary damage…and to speed recovery operations” (pp. 13-14).

“activities follow any emergency or disaster…designed to provide emergency assistance for casualties. They also seek to reduce the probability of secondary damage and to speed recovery operations” (Toolkit).

Includes sections on planning, organizations, EOCs, behavior, and six generic functions: warning, evacuation, sheltering/welfare, medical care/morgues, search and rescue, security and protection of property (chapter 8 by Perry).

“is the immediate reaction to disaster…examples include mass evacuation, sandbagging…food and water…emergency medical services, etc.” (p. 49).

Implicitly defined through examples, which include activities ranging from first responders through the Federal Response Plan as well as job descriptions of emergency management coordinators. In the chapter on recovery, “the response function is classified as the immediate actions to save lives, protect property and meet basic human needs” (p. 95).

Recovery

“activities continue until all systems return to normal or better..short-term recovery activities return vital life-support systems to minimum operating standards. Long-term recovery activities….return life to normal or improved levels” (p. 14).

“continues until all systems return to normal or better. Short term recovery returns vital life support systems to minimum operating standards. Long term recovery may continue for a number of years after a disaster. Their purpose is to return life to normal, or improved levels” (Toolkit).

“In short, recovery involves the restoration—and, in some cases, the improvement—of community life” (Chapter 9 by Rubin).

“those activities that continue beyond the emergency period to restore lifelines” (p. 49)

“is not so easily classified” (p. 95)…includes time frame issues, typical decisions, return to normalcy, and reducing future vulnerability.

Figure 6. Comparison of Textbooks and Materials on the History/Evolution of “Emergency Management.”

Yellow shadow highlights topics mentioned by 3 or more sources.


Topic

ICMa8/

Drabek

(1991)9

haddow and bullock10 (2003)

waugh11 (2000)

FEMA IS 1: Emergency Manager12

Volunteer fire brigades







Y




1803 New Hampshire Congressional Act/fire assistance; first piece of “national disaster legislation”

Y

Y




Y

1871 Great Chicago Fire







Y

Y

1889 Johnstown Flood

Y










1906 San Francisco Earthquake







Y




1916 US Army Appropriation Act/Council of National Defense

Y










1933 Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Y

Y







1933 Tennessee Valley Authority




Y

Y




1934 Bureau of Public Roads/repair highways and bridges

Y

Y







1936 Flood Control Act

Y




Y




1939 Roosevelt establishes Office of Emergency Management

Y










1941 Roosevelt established Office of Civil Defense

Y










1945-50 US Strategic Bombing Survey

Y










1949 Truman/National Security Resources Board & Federal Civil Defense Administration

Y










1950 Federal Disaster Act13

Y




Y




1950s FCDA, Office of Defense Mobilization/DOD




Y







1950s Hazel, Diane, Audrey




Y







1950s Civil Defense Days

Y

Y

Y

Y

1958 Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization




Y







1960-61 Donna, Carla




Y







1960s Hebgen Lake Earthquake




Y







1961 Office of Civil Defense/Dept of Defense

Y










1960s Betsy, Camille, Agnes14

Y

Y

Y




1960s Kennedy/Office of Emergency Preparedness




Y







1960s Kennedy era/civil conflict







Y




1962 Ash Wednesday Storm




Y







1964 Alaskan Earthquake15

Y

Y

Y




1968 National Flood Insurance Act




Y







1969-7016 Disaster Relief Act

Y




Y




1971 San Fernando EQ

Y

Y







1972 OCD renamed Defense Civil Preparedness Agency

Y










1972 Flood Insurance Act




Y







1973 OEP abolished; Federal Preparedness Agency and Federal Disaster Assistance Administration created

Y










1974 Disaster Relief Act




Y

Y




1970s Crisis Relocation Planning

Y










1977-8 National Governor’s Association Report

Y

Y

Y




1979 Carter/FEMA

Y

Y

Y




Describes 1970s reorganization of multiple agencies under FEMA; Reorganization Plan Number 3 (3 CFR 1978; 5 U.S. Code 903) and Executive Order 12127 followed by Executive Order 12148




Y







Louis Giuffrida appointed to direct FEMA

Y

Y







Reagan appoints General Julius Becton to direct FEMA




Y







1980s Al Gore hearings on FEMA 1980s













1970s Love Canal, TMI

Y (both)

Y (TMI)







1980s FEMA’s “problems”

Y

Y

Y




1980s NEHRP legislation/lays foundation for FRP




Y







1980s Al Gore/Congressional hearings




Y







1989 Hugo and Loma Prieta




Y

Y




1989-1992 FEMA in trouble/GAO investigation




Y







Stafford Act17




Y

Y




1992 Andrew and Iniki




Y







1992 First WTC attack




Y

Y




1993 Clinton/appoints James Lee Witt/later elevated to cabinet level18




Y

Y




1993-2001 The “Witt Revolution”




Y







1993 NAPA Report “Coping with Disaster”







Y




No date given, Exxon Valdez







Y




1993 Midwest Floods




Y







1994 Northridge EQ




Y







1995 Oklahoma City




Y

Y




1995-96 Nunn-Lugar Legislation19




Y

Y




1997 FEMA Strategic Plan




Y







1990s Mitigation/Project Impact




Y







1998 Terms WMD and crisis management appear (linked to FBI)







Y




1999 Oklahoma tornadoes







Y




2000 Y2K




Y







2001 Bush appoints Joe Allbaugh




Y







2001 Nisqually EQ




Y







200? Office of National Preparedness recreated by Allbaugh




Y







September 11, 2001




Y







No date, Department of Homeland Security established




Y







American Red Cross

Y




Y




SBA







Y




U.S. Army Corps/floodplain management/National Flood Program20







Y




Includes content outside of U.S.

Minimal

No

N/A

N/A

Contributions of behavioral sciences

Y




Y




US Fire Academy







Y




NETC/EMI







Y




IAEM/NEMA/TIEMS21




Y

Y





1 Title based on book by Dennis Mileti and offered with respect to the author.

2 Taken directly from links embedded in the FEMA Higher Education Project web site, http://www.fema.gov.

3 Same as Table 1. Includes master’s level programs and related degree listings.

4 L. Falkiner. 2003. Inventory of Disaster Management Education in Major Canadian Universities. Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction.


5 L. Falkiner. 2003. Inventory of Disaster Management Education in Major Canadian Universities. Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction.

6 Terms and dates were drawn from the texts.

7 For example, MCEER, PEER, and MAE can be viewed or linked from http://peer.berkeley.edu.

8 Drabek, Thomas E. and Gerard J. Hoetmer, editors. 1991. “”The evolution of emergency management.” By Drabek, pp. 3-29 in Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington DC: International City Management Association.

9 Also includes a detailed Figure on the development of federal organizations with emergency management responsibilities

10 Haddow, George D. and Jane A. Bullock. 2003. Introduction to Emergency Management. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. Consulted chapter 1, “The historical context of emergency management.”

11 Waugh, William L. Jr. 2000. Living with Hazards, Dealing with Disasters: an introduction to emergency management. Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe. Consulted chapters 1 and 2 for this table.

12 Accessed September 2, 2003, http://www.fema.gov. Independent Study Course 1: Emergency Manager: An orientation to the position.

13 Also referred to as the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 (Waugh 2000)

14 2-3 of these were mentioned in each text.

15 Haddow and Bullock mention the west coast tsunami.

16 1969 in ICMA; 1970 in Waugh.

17 No date given in Haddow and Bullock.

18 Cabinet position mentioned in Haddow and Bullock, no date given.

19 Dates vary between Haddow and Bullock (1995) and Waugh (1996).

20 Efforts referred to as National Flood Program by Waugh include the 1936 Flood Control Act, the Disaster Relief Act of 1950, as well as US Army Corps of Engineer and TVA efforts.

21 One or more are mentioned.



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