Different Approaches to Studying Non-Dominant Cultural Groups Cultural Equivalent Approach



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Different Approaches to Studying Non-Dominant Cultural Groups

  • Cultural Equivalent Approach

  • Visible minority groups no different from mainstream majority. “We are all the same.”

  • Difficulties with this approach

Different Approaches to Studying Non-Dominant Cultural Groups

  • Cultural Deviant Approach

  • Compares minority groups to mainstream

  • Minority groups are distinct

  • However, mainstream (Anglo) values/norms ideal

  • Departures from norm or “ideal family” dysfunctional

  • Assimilation desirable

Different Approaches to Studying Non-Dominant Cultural Groups

  • Cultural variant approach

  • Minority groups distinct but departures from mainstream norm are not necessarily signs of dysfunction

  • Views minority groups on their own terms--variations within group emphasized

  • Sources of differences:

  • Differences passed down from culture of origin

  • Differences in experience within America

  • ***Differences in subordination to majority group; differences in SES

  • Different emphases of Cultural Variant and Cultural Deviant/Deficit approaches: situational and internal factors (e.g., family values)

African American Families

History

  • Slave Families

  • Conflicting opinions about family life, but some agreement

  • Sex roles

  • Exceptions to slavery. Indentured servants, also freed by owners

  •  After Emancipation–1863-mid 1900s

  • Toward mid 1900s, family structure became "centered around female“ (note stereotype)

Modern African American Families

  • Cultural Deficit versus Cultural variant approaches to poverty

  • Poverty rates and single female families

  • Qualifications

  • Changes over time

  • Family composition and poverty not equivalent

  • Religion, extended family important sources of support

  • An emphasis on poverty ignores successes

Modern African American Families – Relationships and Family Roles

  • Families above differ regarding gender roles, family history (intact vs. non-intact), childrearing practices, role of extended family, education, area of residence

  • Wilkinson: In common--# parents, customs promoting cohesion, paternal employment, educational achievement, numbers of children, maternal attitude toward childrearing

Cultural Deficit Approach to Single Female African American Families

Moynihan

  • Slavery gender roles & "family values" marital instability family structure poverty

  • Intergenerational transmission of gender roles - role models of boys and girls

  • Problems with the cultural deficit approach

  • Problems with the slavery gender roles marital instability family structure argument

  • Factors ignored

Cultural Variant Approach to Single Female African American Families

Stack

  • Racism/unequal opportunities higher poverty marital instability family structure (& extended kin network)

  • Single female structure with extended kin network an adaptive response

Cultural Variant Approach to Single Female African American Families

Stack

  • Evidence in support of the argument

  • Racism and employment

  • Poverty and marital stability

  • Welfare policies stress relationships

  • Kin network, pressure on relationships

  • Welfare policies influence financial behavior

Cultural Variant Approach to Single Female African American Families

  • Single parenthood, communal sharing & extended kin network as an adaptive response--research

  • May influence norms

  • Allen: "adaptive response" may minimize influence of racism

Implicit Racism & Expectations

  • Fazio et al. (1995) - Implicit (automatic) Racism

Modern African American Family - Values

  • Collectivism, extended family

  • But collectivism not the same as in Asia

  • Religion

  • Gender roles

  • Matriarchal versus egalitarian (Staples, 1994)

Modern African American Family - Values

  • Child rearing

  • The issue of strict parenting

  • Kelly, Power & Wimbush (1992)

  • Brody & Flor (1998)

  • Deater-Deckard et. al (1996)

Child-Rearing & Confronting Discrimination (Garcia-Coll)

  • Cultural Diversity

  • Family support, collectivism/individualism

  • Egalitarianism, Flexibility

  • Religion

Child-Rearing & Confronting Discrimination (Garcia-Coll)

  • Achievement

  • Business

  • Education

  • Politics

  • The Arts/Entertainment

  • Civil Rights



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