Developmental psychology introduction



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UNIT 9: DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY


INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE 1: State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify three major issues in developmental psychology.

  1. Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life cycle are called _____DEVELOPMENTAL____ ____PSYCHOLOGISTS___.

  2. One of the major issues in developmental psychology concerns the relative importance of genes and experience in determining behavior; this is called the ______NATURE______/______NURTURE____ issue.

  3. A second developmental issue, _____CONTINUITY______/_____STAGES_____, concerns whether developmental changes are gradual or abrupt.

  4. A third controversial issue concerns the tendency of personality and whether development is characterized by more ____STAGES_______ over time or by change.


PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE NEWBORN

OBJECTIVE 2: Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception.

  1. Conception begins when a woman’s ____OVARY________ releases a mature________EGG__________.

  2. The few ______SPERM__________ from the man that reach the egg release digestive ____ENZYMES__________ that eat away at the egg’s protective covering. As soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg’s surface ______BLOCKS_________ all other sperm.

  3. The egg and sperm _____NUCLEI________ fuse and become one.


OBJECTIVE 3: Define zygote, embryo and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development.

  1. Fertilized human eggs are called ____ZYGOTES_________. During the first week, the cells in this cluster begin to specialize in structure and function, that is, they begin to _____DIFFERENTIATE______. The outer part of the fertilized egg attaches to the _____UTERINE_______ wall, forming the ___PLACENTA__________.

  2. From about 2 until 8 weeks of age, the developing human, formed from the inner cells of the fertilized egg, is called a(n) ____EMBRYO________. During the final stage of prenatal development, the developing human is called a(n) ______FETUS_______.

  3. Along with nutrients, a range of harmful substances known as ___TERATOGENS____ can pass through the placenta.


  1. Moderate consumption of alcohol during pregnancy ____CAN AFFECT______ (usually does not affect/can affect) the fetal brain. If a mother drinks heavily, her baby is at risk for the birth defects and mental retardation that accompany ______FETAL_____ ___ALCOHOL______ ____SYNDROME___.

OBJECTIVE 4: Describe some abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to assess infant sensory and cognitive abilities.

  1. When an infant’s cheek is touched, it will vigorously search for a nipple, a response known as the ____ROOTING_______ _______REFLEX_______.

  2. American psychologist __WILLIAM JAMES___ believed that the newborn experiences a “blooming, buzzing confusion.” This belief is _____INCORRECT____ (correct/incorrect).

Give some evidence supporting the claim that a newborn’s sensory equipment is biologically prewired to facilitate social responsiveness.



NEWBORNS REFLEXIVELY TURN THEIR HEADS IN THE DIRECTION OF HUMAN VOICES. THEY GAZE LONGER AT A DRAWING OF A HUMAN FACE THAN AT A BULL’S-EYE PATTERN. THEY FOCUS BEST ON OBJECTS ABOUT 8 TO 12 INCHES AWAY, WHICH IS ABOUT THE DISTANCE BETWEEN A NURSING INFANT’S EYES AND THE MOTHER’S. WITHIN DAYS, THEY RECOGNIZE THEIR MOTHER’S SMELL AND VOICE.


  1. To study infants’ thinking, developmental researchers have focused on a simple form of learning called ____HABITUATION_____, which involves a ______DECREASE________ in responding with repeated stimulation. Using this procedure, researchers have found that infants can discriminate ____COLORS____, _____SHAPES_______, and ___SOUNDS_______; they also understand some basic concepts of ___NUMBERS_____ and ____PHYSICS_____.


INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD

OBJECTIVE 5: Describe some developmental changes in a child’s brain, and explain why maturation accounts for many of our similarities.

  1. The developing brain ______OVER_________ (over/under) produces neurons, with the number peaking at ____28 WEEKS_____ (what age?). At birth the human nervous system ______IS NOT_________(is/is not) fully mature.

  2. Between 3 and 6 years of age, the brain is developing most rapidly in the ____FRONTAL_________ lobes, which enable __RATIONAL_____ ___PLANNING___.

  3. After puberty, a process of ____PRUNING_________ shuts down some neural connections and strengthens others.

  4. Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior are called ___MATURATION____.


OBJECTIVE 6: Outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.

  1. Infants pass the milestones of ______MOTOR_______ development at different rates, but the basic ___SEQUENCE_______of stages is fixed. They sit before they ______CRAWL________ and walk before they ________RUN_________.

  2. Genes play a _______MAJOR________ (major/minor) role in motor development.

  3. Until the necessary muscular and neural maturation is complete, including the rapid development of the brain’s _____CEREBELLUM______, experience has a _______SMALL________ (large/small) effect on behavior.


OBJECTIVE 7: Explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life.

  1. Our earliest memories generally do not occur before age _________3 - 3.5___________.

  2. This phenomenon has been called “____INFANTILE______ ____AMNESIA____.”

  3. Memories of the preschool years are very few because infants’ _____PREVERBAL________ memories do not easily translate into their later ______LANGUAGE____.


OBJECTIVE 8: State Piaget’s understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimilation and accommodation in this process.

  1. The first researcher to show that the thought processes of adults and children are very different was ____PIAGET________.

  2. To organize and interpret his or her experiences, the developing child constructs cognitive concepts called ______SCHEMAS________.

  3. The interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing ideas is called ____ASSIMILATION_______. The adaptation of existing ideas to fit new experiences is called ____ACCOMMODATION_____.


OBJECTIVE 9: Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how children’s thinking changes during these four stages.

  1. The term for all the mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, communicating, and knowing is ___COGNITION_______.

  2. In Piaget’s first stage of development, the __SENSIORMOTOR_______ stage, children experience the world through their motor and sensory interactions with objects. This stage occurs between infancy and nearly age _________2_________.

  3. The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are removed from view is called ____OBJECT_______ ___PERMANENCE__. This awareness begins to develop at about ________8__________ months of age.

  4. Developmental researchers have found that Piaget and his followers ___UNDERESTIMATED______ (overestimated/underestimated) young children’s competence. For instance, babies have an understanding of ____NUMBERS________, as Karen Wynn demonstrated.

  5. According to Piaget, during the preschool years and up to age ______6 OR 7_________, children are in the ____PREOPERATIONAL____ stage.

  6. The principle that the quantity of a substance remains the same even when the shape of its container changes is called ___CONSERVATION_______. Piaget believed that preschoolers _____HAVE NOT_______ (have/have not) developed this concept.

  7. Preschoolers have difficulty perceiving things from another person’s point of view. This inability is called ____EGOCENTRISM_______.

  8. The child’s growing ability to take another’s perspective is evidence that the child is acquiring a ___THEORY_____ ___OF____ _____MIND_____. Between 3 ½ and 4, children come to realize that others may hold _____FALSE____ ___BELIEFS______. Between 5 and 8, they learn that self-produced thoughts can create _____FEELINGS_______.

  9. The disorder characterized by deficient ___COMMUNICATION____ and ____SOCIAL________ interaction and an impaired ___THEORY____ ___OF___ ___MIND____ is ____AUTISM_______. This disorder is related to malfunctions of brain areas that enable ____ATTENDING_______ to others. The”high functioning” form of this disorder is called ___ASPERGER__ __SYNDROME_____.

  10. A new theory proposes that autism represents an “extreme ______MALE_______ brain.” According to this theory, girls tend to be ______EMPATHIZERS_____, who are better than boys at reading facial expressions and gestures. Boys tend to be ___SYSTEMIZERS_______, who understand things in terms of rules or laws.

  11. In contrast to Piaget’s findings, researchers have more recently discovered that the ability to perform mental __OPERATIONS_____, to think ___SYMBOLICALLY___, and to take another’s _____PERSPECTIVE______ develops ____GRADUALLY______(abruptly/gradually) during the preschool years.

  12. Russian psychologist _____LEV______ ____VYGOTSKY________ noted that by age ____7_____ children stop thinking aloud and instead rely on ___INNER_____ ___SPEECH_____. When parents give children words, they provide, according to this theorist, a _____SCAFFOLD_____ upon which the child can build higher-level thinking.

  13. Piaget believed that children acquire the mental abilities needed to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation by about ____6 OR 7____ years of age. At this time, they enter the ___CONCRETE_____ ___OPERATIONAL_____ stage.

  14. In Piaget’s final stage, the ____FORMAL______ ____OPERATIONAL______ stage, reasoning expands from the purely concrete to encompass ____ABSTRACT______ thinking. Piaget believed most children begin to enter this stage by age ________12__________.


OBJECTIVE 10: Discuss psychologists’ current views on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

Explain briefly how contemporary researchers view Piaget’s theory.



CONTEMPORARY RESEARCHERS SEE DEVELOPMENT AS MORE CONTINUOUS THAN DID PIAGET. BY DETECTING THE BEGINNINGS OF EACH TYPE OF THINKING AT EARLIER AGES, THEY HAVE REVEALED CONCEPTUAL ABILITIES THAT PIAGET MISSED. THEY ALSO SEE FORMAL LOGIC AS A SMALLER PART OF COGNITION THAN PIAGET DID. DESPITE THESE REVISIONS TO PIAGET’S THEORY, STUDEIS SUPPORT THE BASIC IDEAL THAT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT UNFOLDS AS A SEQUENCE OF DISTINCT STAGES.
OBJECTIVE 11: Define stranger anxiety.

  1. Soon after ____OBJECT___ ____PERMANENCE____ emerges and children become mobile, a new fear, called ___STRANGER_____ ___ANXIETY______, emerges.

  2. This fear emerges at age _______8 MONTHS_______.


OBJECTIVE 12: Discuss the effects of nourishment, body contact, and familiarity on infant social attachment.

  1. The development of a strong emotional bond between infant and parent is called _____ATTACHMENT____.

  2. Harlow’s studies of monkeys have shown that mother-infant attachment does not depend on the mother providing nourishment as much as it does on her providing the comfort of _____BODY_____ _____CONTACT________. Another key to attachment is ____FAMILIARITY_______.

  3. Human attachment involves one person providing another with a ______SAFE_____ _____HAVEN_________ when distressed and a _____SECURE________ ______BASE______ from which to explore.

  4. In some animals, attachment will occur only during a restricted time called a ____CRITICAL_______ _____PERIOD________. Konrad Lorenz discovered that young birds would follow almost any object if it were the first moving thing they observed. This phenomenon is called _____IMPRINTING_____.

  5. Human infants _____DO NOT_______ (do/do not) have a precise critical period for becoming attached.

OBJECTIVE 13: Contrast secure and insecure attachment, and discuss the roles of parents and infants in the development of attachment and an infant’s feelings of basic trust.

  1. Placed in a research setting called the ____STRANGE____ ___SITUATION___, children show one of two patterns of attachment:

_______SECURE_______ attachment or _____INSECURE_________ attachment.
Contrast the responses of securely and insecurely attached infants to strange situations.

PLACED IN A STRANGE SITUATION, SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS PLAY COMFORTABLY, HAPPILY EXPLORING THEIR NEW ENVIRONMENT. IN CONTRAST, INSECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS ARE LESS LIKELY TO EXPLORE THEIR SURROUDNINGS AND MAY CLING TO THEIR MOTHERS. WHEN SEPARATED FROM THEIR MOTHERS, INSECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS ARE MUCH MORE DISTRESSED THAN SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS. WHEN REUNITED WITH THEIR MOTHERS, INSECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS MAY BE INDIFFERENT.
Discuss the impact of responsive parenting on infant attachment.

RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED BY MARY AINSWORTH HAVE REVEALED THAT SENSITIVE, RESPONSIVE MOTHERS TEND TO HAVE SECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS, WHEREAS INSENSITIVE, UNRESPONSIVE MOTHERS OFTEN HAVE INSECURELY ATTACHED INFANTS. OTHER STUDIES HAVE FOUND THAT TEMPERAMENTALLY DIFFICULT INFANTS WHOSE MOTHERS RECEIVE TRAINING IN RESPONSIVE PARENTING ARE MORE LIKELY TO BECOME SECURELY ATTACHED THAN ARE CONTROL INFANTS. THIS POINTS TO THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSIDERING THE INFANT’S TEMPERAMENT IN STUDYING ATTACHMENT.


  1. A father’s love and acceptance for his children are ___COMPARABLE TO ___ (comparable to/less important than) a mother’s love in predicting their children’s health and well-being.

  2. Separation anxiety peaks in infants around _______13___________ months, then __GRADUALLY DECLINES____ (gradually declines/remains constant for about a year). This is true of children in __THROUGHOUT THE WORLD__ (North America/throughout the world).

  3. According to Erikson, securely attached infants approach life with a sense of ____BASIC___ ____TRUST_____.


OBJECTIVE 14: Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment patterns and development.

  1. Harlow found that when monkeys reared in social isolation are placed with other monkeys, they reacted with either fear or ___AGGRESSION____.

  2. Most abused children _____ DO NOT________ (do/do not) later become abusive parents.

  3. Although most children who grow up under adversity are_____RESILIENT________ and become normal adults, early abuse and excessive exposure to ____STRESS______ ____HORMONES_____ may alter the development of the brain chemical ___SEROTONIN________.

  4. When placed in a more positive and stable environment, most infants _____RECOVER____ (recover/do not recover) from disruptions in attachment.

  5. Experts agree that child care per se ____DOES NOT________ (does/does not) constitute a risk factor in children’s development. High-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in an environment that is ______SAFE_________, _____HEALTHY________, and _____STIMULATING______. More important than time spend in day care influencing a child’s development are __THE MOTHER’S SENSITIVITY, THE CHILD’S TEMPERAMENT, AND THE FAMILY’S ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL LEVEL_____.


OBJECTIVE 15: Trace the onset and development of children’s self-concept.

  1. The primary social achievement of childhood is the development of a _____SELF-CONCEPT____, which occurs in most children by age _______12__________.

  2. A child’s self-image generally becomes stable between the ages of ______8____________ and ________10_________, when children begin to describe themselves in terms of gender, group memberships, and psychological ________TRAITS______.

Identify several characteristics of children who have formed a positive self-image.



CHILDREN WHO HAVE FORMED A POSITIVE SELF-CONCEPT TEND TO BE MORE CONFIDENT, INDEPENDENT, OPTIMISTIC, ASSERTIVE AND SOCIABLE.
OBJECTIVE 16: Describe three parenting styles, and offer three potential explanations for the link between authoritative parenting and social competence.

  1. Parents who impose rules and expect obedience are exhibiting a(n) ______AUTHORITARIAN___ style of parenting.

  2. Parents who make few demands of their children and tend to submit to their children’s desires are identified as _____PERMISSIVE_____ parents.

  3. Setting and enforcing standards after discussion with their children is the approach taken by ____AUTHORITATIVE____ parents.

  4. Studies have shown that there tends to be a correlation between high self-esteem on the part of the child and the ______AUTHORITATIVE______ style of parenting. This may be because this parenting style gives children the greatest sense of ______CONTROL_____ over their lives.

Explain why the correlation between authoritative parenting and social competence does not necessarily reveal cause and effect.



THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS FOR THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN CHILDREN. (1) PARENTING MAY FOSTER CHILDREN’S COMPETENCE. (2) CHILDREN’S COMPETENCE MAY PROMOTE AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING. (3) A THIRD FACTOR, SUCH AS HEREDITY OR PARENTAL EDUCATION OR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, MAY FOSTER BOTH AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING AND CHILD COMPETENCE.
ADOLESCENCE

OBJECTIVE 17: Define adolescence.

  1. Adolescence is defined as the transition period between ___CHILDHOOD___ and _____ADULTHOOD___.

  2. The “storm and stress” view of adolescence is credited to _G. STANLEY HALL____, one of the first American psychologists to describe adolescence.


OBJECTIVE 18: Identify the major physical changes during adolescence.

  1. Adolescence begins with the time of developing sexual maturity known as _____PUBERTY____. A two-year period of rapid physical development begins in girls at about the age of _______11__________ and in boys at about the age of _______13____________. This growth spurt is marked by the development of the reproductive organs and external genitalia, or ____PRIMARY_____ _____SEX_______ characteristics, as well as by the development of traits such as pubic hair and enlarged breasts in females and facial hair in males. These nonreproductive traits are known as __SECONDARY____ _____SEX_______ characteristics.

  2. The first menstrual period is called ____MENARCHE______. In boys, the first ejaculation is called ____SPERMARCHE_______.

  3. The _____SEQUENCE______ (timing/sequence) of pubertal changes is more predictable than their _____TIMING________ (timing/sequence).

  4. Boys who mature _______EARLY_______ (early/late) tend to be more popular, self-assured, and independent; they are also at increased risk for ___ALCOHOL USE AND PREMATURE SEXUAL ACTIVITY_____. For girls, ______EARLY________ (early/late) maturation can be stressful, especially when their bodies are out of sync with their ____EMOTIONAL_____ ____MATURITY___. This reminds us that _____HEREDITY________ and ___ENVIRONMENT____ interact.

  5. The adolescent brain undergoes a selective _____PRUNING______ of unused connections. Also, teens’ occasional impulsiveness and risky behaviors may be due, in part, to the fact that development in the brain’s _____FRONTAL____ _____LOBE_____ lags behind that of the ___LIMBIC_______ ____SYSTEM______.


OBJECTIVE 19: Describe the changes in reasoning abilities that Piaget called formal operations.

  1. Adolescents’ developing ability to reason gives them a new level of _____SOCIAL______ awareness and ____MORAL________ judgment.

  2. During the early teen years, reasoning is often __SELF-FOCUSED___, as adolescents often feel their experiences are unique.

  3. Piaget’s final stage of cognitive development is the stage of ___FORMAL____ ___OPERATIONS__. The adolescent in this stage is capable of thinking logically about ____ABSTRACT_______ as well as concrete propositions. This enables them to detect ___INCONSISTENCIES___ in others’ reasoning and to spot hypocrisy.


OBJECTIVE 20: Discuss moral development from the perspectives of moral thinking, moral feeling, and moral action.

  1. The theorist who proposed that moral thought progresses through stages is ____KOHLBERG____. These stages are divided into three basic levels: __PRECONVENTIONAL____, ___CONVENTIONAL_, and _POST-CONVENTIONAL__.

  2. In the preconventional stages of morality, characteristic of children, the emphasis is on obeying rules in order to avoid ___PUNISHMENT____ or gain ____REWARDS___.

  3. Conventional morality usually emerges by early ___ADOLESCENCE_____. The emphasis is on gaining social ___APPROVAL___ or upholding the social ____ORDER_______.

  4. Individuals who base moral judgments on their own perceptions of basic ethical principles are said by Kohlberg to employ ___POSTCONVENTIONAL__ morality.

Summarize the criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.



CRITICS OF KOHLBERG’S THEOR ARGUE THAT THE PERCEPTION OF POSTCONVENTIONAL MORAL REASONIGN AS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT REFLECTS A WESTERN MIDDLE-CLASS BIAS. OTHERS HAVE ARGUED THAT FOR WOMEN, MORALITY IS LESS A MATTER OF ABSTRACT, IMPERSONAL JUSTICE AND MORE AN ETHIC OF CARING RELATIONSHIPS.


  1. The idea that moral feelings precede moral reasoning is expressed in the ___SOCIAL____ ___INTUITIONIST__ explanation of morality. Research studies using ___MORAL____ __PARADOXES___ support the idea that moral judgment involves more than merely thinking; it is also gut-level feeling.

  2. Morality involves doing the right thing, and what we do depends on _____SOCIAL_______ influences. Today’s __CHARACTER___ __EDUCATION__ __PROGRAMS__ focus on moral issues and doing the right thing.

  3. Children who learn to delay ___GRATIFICATION___ become more socially responsible, often engaging in responsible action through ____SERVICE____ learning. They also become more ____ACADEMICALLY____ successful and productive.

  4. More ideas grow ____STRONGER_____ (stronger/weaker) when acted on.


OBJECTIVE 21: Identify Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development and their accompanying issues.
Complete the missing information in the following table of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.

Group Age Psychosocial Stage

Infancy TRUST VS MISTRUST



TODDLERHOOD Autonomy vs. shame/doubt

Preschooler INITIATIVE VS GUILT



ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Competence vs inferiority

Adolescence IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION

YOUNG ADULTHOOD Intimacy vs isolation

Middle adulthood GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION



LATE ADULTHOOD Integrity vs despair
OBJECTIVE 22: Explain how the search for identity affects us during adolescence, and discuss how forming an identity prepares us for intimacy.

  1. To refine their sense of identity, adolescents in Western cultures experiment with different ______SELVES__ in different situations. The result may be role ___CONFUSION_____, which is resolved by forming a self-definition, or _____IDENTITY____.

  2. Cultures that place less value on _INDIVIDUALISM__ inform adolescents about who they are, rather than letting them decide on their own. Some adolescents may form a ____NEGATIVE______ identity in opposition to parents and society.

  3. During the early to mid-teen years, self-esteem generally _____FALLS________(rises/falls/remains stable). During the late teens and twenties, self-esteem generally _______RISES______ (rises/falls/remains stable) and identity becomes more ___PERSONALIZED___.

  4. Erikson saw the formation of identity as a prerequisite for the development of ___INTIMACY___ in young adulthood.

OBJECTIVE 23: Contrast parental and peer influences during adolescence.

  1. Adolescence is typically a time of increasing influence from one’s _____PEERS______ and decreasing influence from ____PARENTS______.

  2. Most adolescents report that they _______DO________ (do/do not) get along with their parents.

  3. When rejected adolescents withdraw, they are vulnerable to ___LONELINESS_____, low ____SELF-ESTEEM______ and ____DEPRESSION___.


OBJECTIVE 24: Discuss the characteristics of emerging adulthood.

  1. As a result of increased ____BODY____ ____FAT______ and weakened ____PARENT___-____CHILD___ bonds, sexual maturity is beginning ___EARLIER___ (earlier/later) than in the past.

  2. Because the time from 18 to the mid-twenties is increasingly a not-yet-settled phase of life, some psychologists refer to this period as a time of __EMERGING___ __ADULTHOOD__.


ADULTHOOD

  1. During adulthood, age _____IS NOT___ (is/is not) a very good predictor of people’s traits.

  2. The mid-twenties are the peak years for ___MUSCULAR____ _____STRENGTH_____, ___REACTION_______ _____TIME______, ___SENSORY______ _____KEENNESS___, and _____CARDIAC_______ ___OUTPUT______. Because they mature earlier, ___WOMEN________ (women/men) also peak earlier.


OBJECTIVE 25: Identify the major physical changes that occur in middle adulthood.

  1. During early and middle adulthood, physical vigor has less to do with ______AGE_______ than with a person’s ____HEALTH_______ and ______EXERCISE_____ habits.

  2. The cessation of the menstrual cycle, known as ____MENOPAUSE______, occurs within a few years of _______50_________. This biological change results from lowered levels of the hormone ____ESTROGEN______. A woman’s experience during this time depends largely on her ____EXPECTATIONS___ and ___ATTITUDE______.

  3. Although men experience no equivalent to menopause, they do experience a more gradual decline in ____SPERM______ count, level of the hormone __TESTOSTERONE______, and speed of erection and ejaculation during later life.

  4. Worldwide, life expectancy at birth increased from 49 years in 1950 to ________75_______ years and beyond in 2004 in some developed countries. Women outlive men by nearly _______4_________ years worldwide and by _______5 TO 6______ years in Canada, the United States, and Australia.

  5. According to one evolutionary theory, our bodies age and wear out because once we’ve completed our ____GENE_______ - ___REPRODUCING__ task by raising our young, there are no ___NATURAL____ ___SELECTION____ pressures against genes that cause degeneration in later life.

  6. With age, the eye’s pupil _____SHRINKS_______ (shrinks/enlarges) and its lens becomes ____LESS________ (more/less) transparent. As a result, the amount of light that reaches the retina is _____REDUCED_______ (increased/reduced).

  7. Although older adults are ____MORE_________ (more/less) susceptible to life-threatening ailments, they suffer from short-term ailments such as flu _____LESS________ (more/less) often than younger adults.

  8. Aging _____SLOWS______ (slows/speeds/has no effect on) neural processing and causes a gradual loss of __BRAIN_____ ____CELLS_____.

  9. Physical exercise stimulates _____BRAIN____ ___CELL_____ development, thanks to increased ____OXYGEN_______ and nutrient flow.

  10. The mental erosion that results from progressive damage to the brain is called ____DEMENTIA_____.

  11. The irreversible disorder that causes progressive brain deterioration is ____ALZHEIMER’S_____ disease. This disease has been linked to a deterioration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter ___ACETYLCHOLINE_.


OBJECTIVE 27: Assess the impact of aging on recall and recognition in adulthood.

  1. Studies of developmental changes in learning and memory show that during adulthood there is a decline in the ability to _____RECALL_______ (recall/recognize) new information but not in the ability to _____RECOGNIZE_____ (recall/recognize) such information. One factor that influences memory in the elderly is the ___MEANINGFULNESS___ of material.

  2. Adults’ ___PROSPECTIVE______ memory remains strong when events help trigger recall.

  3. Cognitive abilities among 70-year-olds are _____MORE________ (less/more) varied than among 20-year-olds.


OBJECTIVE 28: Summarize the contributions of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to our understanding of the normal effects of aging on adult intelligence.

  1. A research study in which people of various ages are compared with one another is called a ____CROSS_____ - ___SECTIONAL____ study. This kind of study found evidence of intellectual ___DECLINE______ during adulthood.

  2. A research study in which the same people are retested over a period of years is called a __LONGITUDINAL____ study. This kind of study found evidence of intellectual ____STABILITY_____ during adulthood.

Explain why studies of intellectual decline and aging yielded conflicting results.



BECAUSE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES COMPARE PEOPLE NOT ONLY OF DIFFERENT AGES BUT ALSO OF DIFFERENT ERAS, EDUCATION LEVELS, FAMILY SIZE, AND AFFLUENCE, IT IS NOT SUPRISING THAT SUCH STUDIES REVEAL COGNITIVE DECLINE WITH AGE. IN CONTRAST, LONGITUDINAL STUDIES TEST ONE GROUP OVER A SPAN OF YEARS. HOWEVER, BECAUSE THOSE WHO SURVIVE TO THE END OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES MAY BE THE BRIGHTEST AND HEALTHIEST, THESE STUDIES MAY UNDERESTIMATE THE AVERAGE DECLINE IN INTELLIGENCE. RESEARCH IS ALSO COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT CERTAIN TESTS MEASURE ONLY ONE TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE. TESTS THAT MEASURE FLUID INTELLIGENCE REVEAL DECLINE WITH AGE; TESTS THAT MEASURE CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE REVEAL JUST THE OPPOSITE.


  1. The accumulation of stored information that comes with education and experience is called ____CRYSTALIZED_____ intelligence, which tends to ____INCREASE____ with age.

  2. The ability to reason abstractly is referred to as _____FLUID_______ intelligence, which tends to ______DECREASE_____ with age.


OBJECTIVE 29: Explain why the path of adult development need not be tightly linked to one’s chronological age.

  1. Contrary to popular opinion, job and marital dissatisfaction do not surge during the forties, thus suggesting that a midlife __TRANSITION (CRISIS)____ need not occur.

  2. The term used to refer to the culturally preferred timing for leaving home, getting a job, marrying, and so on is the ____SOCIAL______ ____CLOCK____.

  3. Today, the timing of such life events is becoming ____LESS________ (more/less) predictable. More important than age are ___LIFE______ ___EVENTS____ and chance encounters.


OBJECTIVE 30: Discuss the importance of love, marriage, and children in adulthood, and comment on the contribution of one’s work to feelings of self-satisfaction.

  1. According to Erikson, the two basic tasks of adulthood are achieving __INTIMACY_______ and ___GENERATIVITY____. According to Freud, the healthy adult is one who can ___LOVE_______ and ______WORK_____.

  2. Human societies have nearly always included a relatively ___MONOGAMOUS_____ bond. Marriage bonds are usually lasting when couples marry after age _______20________ and are _____WELL_______ ____EDUCATED____.

  3. Marriages today are __TWICE________ (half/twice) as likely to end in divorce as they were in the 1960s. couples who live together before marrying have a ___HIGHER______ (higher/lower) divorce rate than those who do not.

  4. Of those who divorce, _____75_______ percent eventually remarry. Marriage is a predictor of ___HAPPINESS___, ____SEXUAL_____ __SATISFACTION____, ____HEALTH_______, and ____INCOME_____. Lesbian couples report ___GREATER_______ (greater/less) well-being than those who are alone.

  5. As children begin to absorb time and energy, satisfaction with the marriage itself ___DECREASES_____ (increases/decreases). This is particularly true among ___EMPLOYED_____ women, who shoulder most of the burden.

  6. For most couples, the children’s leaving home produces a(n) ___INCREASE___ (increase/decrease) in marital satisfaction.

  7. Research studies of women who are or are not employed have found that a woman’s satisfaction in life depends on the ____QUALITY______ of her experience in her life’s role.


OBJECTIVE 31: Describe trends in people’s life satisfaction across the life span.

  1. From early adulthood to midlife, people typically experience a strengthening sense of ____IDENTITY______, __CONFIDENCE___, and __SELF-ESTEEM__.

  2. According to studies, older people _______DO_______ (do/do not) report as much happiness and satisfaction with life as younger people do. In addition, their feelings _______DO________ (do/do not) mellow.

  3. As we age, the brain area called the ____AMYGDALA_____ shows _____DECREASED___ (increased/decreased) activity in response to negative events.


OBJECTIVE 32: Describe the range of reactions to the death of a loved one.

  1. Grief over a loved one’s death is especially severe when it comes __SUDDENLY AND BEFORE ITS EXPECTED TIME ON THE SOCIAL CLOCK____.

  2. Reactions to a loved one’s death ______DO_______ (do/do not) vary according to cultural norms. Those who express the strongest grief immediately ______DO NOT______ (do/do not) purge their grief more quickly.

  3. Terminally ill and bereaved people ____DO NOT_____ (do/do not) go through predictable stages.

  4. According to Erikson, the final task of adulthood is to achieve a sense of ___INTEGRITY__.


REFLECTIONS ON TWO MAJOR DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES

OBJECTIVE 33: Summarize current views on continuity versus stages and stability versus change in lifelong development.

  1. Stage theories that have been considered include the theory of cognitive development proposed by ____PIAGET____, the theory of moral development proposed by ____KOHLBERG____, and the theory of psychosocial development proposed by ____ERIKSON______.

  2. Although research casts doubt on the idea that life proceeds through age-linked ___STAGES________, there are spurts of ____BRAIN______ growth during childhood and puberty that correspond roughly to the stages proposed by ____PIAGET________.

  3. The first two years of life ____DO NOT______ (do/do not) provide a good basis for predicting a person’s eventual traits.

  4. Research on the consistency of personality shows that some traits, such as those related to ___TEMPERAMENT___, are more stable than others, such as social attitudes.


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