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5. Case for Discussion: Electronic Hallway: Division of Water Resources, http://hallway.evans.washington.edu/cases/division-water-resources. What was the evaluation process before the new director arrived? What were the problems with the process? Why did the new director separate the performance evaluations from the salary evaluations? What made her confident enough to open up the discussion of evaluation standards to the staff? Was it a good choice? What long term results can be lined to this decision?

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LESSON 10 TOPIC: LEADERSHIP RESEARCH AND THEORY


1. Learning Goals/Objectives: Provide an overview of current theories of effective leadership in public sector settings. Learners will:

• Investigate alternative theories of effective organizational leadership and their implications for public organization behavior.

• Identify the particular management tasks that arise in public organizations.

• Consider how effective leadership differs at the supervisory and executive levels.

• Discuss the coaching and training aspects of supervisory leadership.

• Think about the role of transactional, transformational, and entrepreneurial leadership styles in public organizations.


2. Discussion Questions:

• How would you characterize the differences between a directive and a coaching or supportive style? What constitutes coaching according to Redmon?

• How would you exercise a participative style? What kinds of participation might be possible in your agency?

• How would you identify the level of group maturity to look for when using the life cycle theory of leadership style? What would you look for?

• How does effective leadership differ at the supervisory and executive levels? What examples of effective leadership at each level have you seen in your experience?

• What are the skills of transactional leaders? Where do you see this kind of leadership exercised?

• What is the role of transformational and entrepreneurial leadership styles in public organizations? When are these appropriate? When are they inappropriate and unhelpful? What is the difference between transformation and charismatic leadership?
3. Required Reading:
Hal Rainey, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, Chapter 11: Leadership and

Managerial Roles, pp. 314-353.


Terry Newell, Grant Reeher, and Terry Ronayne, Introduction: The Context for Leading Democracy, and Ron Redmon, Chapter 3: Coaching: A Leadership Imperative for the 21st Century, in The Trusted Leader: Building the Relationships that Make Government Work, (Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 2008).
4. Case for Discussion: William L. Waugh Jr. and Gregory Streib, “Collaboration and Leadership for Effective Emergency Management,” Public Administration Review, 66, (December 2006,), 131-40, http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/rdenever/NatlSecurity2008_docs/Waugh_CollaborationLeadership.pdf.

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This article illustrates what are seen as faulty leadership approaches in coping with networks in emergency management settings. Contrast the actions of the leaders in this report with those recommended in this week’s readings and the readings on network management and communication. What might the actors have done to more effectively lead in this setting? What do the authors suggest? Do you agree?

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LESSON 11 TOPIC: LEADERSHIP POWER AND POLITICS
1. Learning Goals/Objectives: Consider the strategic and political aspects of public sector leadership at executive levels and develop the skills and understanding needed to be effective in achieving public objectives, especially in emergency management settings and critical infrastructure programs. Learners will:

• Identify the political and strategic dimensions of government leadership at the executive levels.

• Consider the particular challenges attendant on leadership in the complex, multi-agency and unstable crisis situations.

• Examine the backgrounds of and the particular skills used by successful public sector leaders.

• Recognize some of the tactics often used to avoid responsibility for leadership in times of disaster and the consequences of these actions.
2. Discussion Questions:
• What are the political and strategic dimensions of government leadership at the executive levels? Where is transactional and transformational leadership exercised at this level?

• What examples of transactional leadership do you see in the Hutchins example? What elements of transformational leadership does he exhibit?

• Where have you learned the leadership skills you possess? How did you develop them?

Given the examples in the readings, how might one develop such skills? How are they learned and practiced?

• What are some of the particular challenges attendant on supervisory leadership in the complex, multi-agency and unstable crisis situations? Executive level leadership?

• What are some of the tactics used to avoid responsibility for leadership in times of disaster?

How can this be overcome?
3. Required Reading:
Norma Riccucci, Unsung Heroes: Federal Executives Making a Difference, Chapter 1: Execucrats, Politics and Policy; and Chapter 6: Dr. Vince Hutchins: A Voice for Mothers and Children, (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1995).
Richard Stuart Olson, “Toward a Politics of Disaster: Losses, Values, Agendas, and Blame,”

International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 18(2), (2000), 265–287.
Arjen Boin and Paul ’t Hart, “Public Leadership in Times of Crisis: Mission Impossible,” Public Administration Review 63(5), (2003), 544–553, http://spartan.ac.brocku.ca/~bwright/4P68/Boin_Hart.pdf.

http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/LeadershipToolkitPAECrisis.pdf.


Alice MacGillivray, “Leadership in a Network of Communities: A Phenomenographic Study,”

The Learning Organization, 17(1), (2010), 24-40.

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4. Case for Discussion: David Weidner, “For BP, the Crisis Has Become One of Leadership: Tony Hayward and BP Have Been Reacting To Government Pressure, Now They Need To Start Acting On Their Own,” Wall Street Journal online, WRITING ON THE WALL, June 17, 2010,

7:38 A.M. ET. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704198004575311223956039514.html.
Weidner offers some very specific steps for leaders to take in crisis situations. Do you think his advice is sound? What would comparable advice be in a public sector setting? Compare this advice with ideas from the readings. Based on the readings, can you come up with better advice?

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LESSON 12 TOPIC: ORGANIZATION CULTURE AND IDENTITY


1. Learning Goals/Objectives: Learn to recognize evidence of the culture of an organization and see its impact on other aspects of organizational processes and capacities. Learners will:
• Identify the different forms that organizational culture can take and some of the effects of cultural values on learning, motivation, leadership, cohesion, communication, and decision- making.

• Discuss the ways that cultures form and the ways that organizational history and personalities shape cultures, in particular the role of leaders in influencing cultural values.

• Discuss the various ways that cultural symbols and values influence preparedness capacity and competence in crisis response.

• Learn to recognize the various subcultures within organizations, the bases on which subcultures form, and the uses of these subcultures.


2. Discussion Questions:
• What are some of the artifacts and symbols of culture in your organization? What do they express about important beliefs about the mission of the organization? The nature of good professional work? The relationships among the members?

• What are some of the effects of cultural values generally on motivation or sense of cohesion?

• How might communication, information collection, and decision-making be affected by culture? For example, what sources of information are privileged? What sources are ignored?

• What are some of the ways that cultures form? In what ways does organizational history and personalities shape cultures? What part in particular do leaders play in influencing cultural values?

• What are the various ways that cultural symbols and values influence preparedness capacity and competence in crisis response? What examples are there of this?
3. Required Reading:
Edgar Schein, The Corporate Culture Survival Guide, Chapters 1-4.
Charles T. Goodsell, Mission Mystique: Belief Systems in Public Agencies, Chapter 1: Mission Mystique and a Belief System Template; and Chapter 6: Virginia State Police: The Commonwealth’s Finest, (Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 2010); and one other example of your choice.

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LESSON 13 TOPIC: CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT


1. Learning Goals/Objectives: Provide an introduction to the techniques for investigating organizational cultures and the uses to which managers might put information about cultural values. Learners will:
• Learn to identify the artifacts and symbols of culture in an organization and how they might be used to uncover the unexpressed assumptions about the organization, its members, its publics, and its work.

• Consider the managerial uses of cultural information from culture change to adapting processes to take advantage of existing cultural commitments.

• Recognize the role of leaders in shaping and changing cultural assumptions, and the difficulty and limitations of culture change projects.

• Consider the ethnographic and questionnaire-based approaches to the study of organization culture and the advantages and limitations of each.

• Discuss again the various ways that cultural symbols and values influence preparedness capacity and competence in crisis response.
2. Discussion Questions:
• When would the ethnographic as opposed to a questionnaire-based approach for investigating culture be useful? How does Schein’s suggested approach get around some of the problems with each? What are its limitations?

• What are the sources of some of the beliefs in your organization? What is the role of leaders in shaping and changing cultural beliefs in your organization?

• What can managers do with cultural knowledge? What are some alternative uses to this knowledge besides culture change? What are some of the difficulties and limitations of culture change projects?
3. Required Reading:
Edgar Schein, The Corporate Culture Survival Guide, Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 10.
Doris Graber, The Power of Communication: Managing Information in Public Organizations, Chapter 5: Designing Climates and Accommodating Cultures, (2003).
4. Case for Discussion: Edward Deverell and Eva-karin Karin Olsson, “Organizational Culture Effects on Strategy and Adaptability in Crisis Management,” Risk Management, 12(2), (April 2010), 116-134. The authors examine three cases of crisis response to: reporting on 9-11, widespread loss of electric power, and anthrax attacks in Sweden. “…We argue that crises have the capacity to challenge organizations’ everyday life and the internal logic between strategy and operational components. This means that a ‘perfect’ organizational culture for day-to-day strategies and stakeholder relations might be a burden when sudden changes occur.” (118). What cultural values do they see as key in responding to the crises? Why are some organizations more successful than others in responding? What other cultural capacities do you see as important to successful response? What kinds of organizational assumptions might underlie these capacities?
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How common are these assumptions and capacities? What might be done to foster them in the organizations with which you are associated?
5. Alternate Case for Discussion: Lydia Segal, “Roadblocks in Reforming Corrupt Agencies: The Case of the New York City School Custodians,” Public Administration Review, 62(4), (July – August 2002), 445-460. Discuss the robustness of the corruption seen in this case despite multiple changes in policy and organizational structure. What accounts for this persistently corrupt behavior? What role does culture seem to play? What might be the unspoken cultural assumptions underlying this behavior? Why do these assumptions not change? What are the prospects for improvement?

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LESSON 14 TOPIC: REMAKING, RENEWING, AND REFORMING AGENCIES


1. Learning Goals Objectives: Recognize the variety of approaches to planned organizational change, including those based on administration reform policies at all levels of government and those based on Human Relations theories of organizational and personal change. Learners will:
• Review from past weeks readings the transformations organizations experience as a result of changes in communication technologies, environmental threats and opportunities, and policy and program changes.

• Identify the requirements for successful organizational transformations across the examples and settings in the readings.

• Consider the needs and prospects for organizational transformation in the U.S. Department of

Homeland Security or the agency with which you are associated.

• Compare the management reform approaches from the private and public sector to identify the common directions behind these reforms.

• Consider the ways in which the bureaucratic form or organization, here and in other nations, is evolving.


2. Discussion Questions:
• What are the requirements for successful organizational transformations across the examples and settings in the readings?

• What are the needs and prospects for organizational transformation in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security or the agency with which you are associated? What elements of the necessary conditions for transformation are present?

• How do the management reform approaches from the private and public sector compare?

• How is the bureaucratic form or organization, here and in other nations, evolving? What are the impacts of changes in information systems? Public expectations?


3. Required Reading:
Hal Rainey, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, Chapter 13: Managing Organizational Change and Development; and Chapter 14: Advancing Effective Management in the Public Sector.
David Cooperrider and Diana Whitney, “Appreciative Inquiry,” in J. Steven Ott and Sandra J. Parkes (eds.), Classic Readings in Organizational Behavior, (Wadsworth Publishing, 4th edition, 2007), 462-472.
Jonathan Breul and John Kamensky, “Federal Government Reform: Lessons from Clinton’s ‘Reinventing Government’ and Bush’s ‘Management Agenda’ Initiatives,” Public Administration Review, 68(6), (November/December 2008), 1009-1026. [Compare Breul and Kamensky’s recommendations with the conditions that Rainey finds in successful organizational transformation efforts in general], http://202.30.34.233/~cschung/Kamensky2008.pdf.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.00950.x/pdf.

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4. Case for Discussion: Donald Moynihan, Leveraging Collaborative Networks in Infrequent Emergency Situations, (Arlington, VA.: IBM Center for the Business of Government, 2005). http://www.businessofgovernment.org/report/leveraging-collaborative-networks-infrequent-emergency-situations. What contributed to the success of the network solutions to the Exotic Newcastle Disease crisis? How did the organizations rethink their relationships and their goals? What did participants have to learn? Unlearn? What ways did they have to transform their normal operation in order to become effective collaborators? What structure, cultural, or motivational changes had to occur?
5. Alternative Case for Discussion: Electronic Hallway: Appalachian Mountain Club, http://hallway.evans.washington.edu/cases/appalachian-mountain-club. The new director negotiated with the club to bring modern management techniques to the group. How did this transformation occur? What did the new director do specifically? What motivated it among the membership? How was the club changed? What governance changes took place? How was communication and accountability changed? What cultural changes occurred? In what ways is the Club stronger? Less committed? What lessons about leadership, transformational processes, and culture are suggested by the case?

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LESSON 15 TOPIC: INCIDENT ANALYSIS PRESENTATIONS


Final Essay questions distributed.

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