Department of History Part 1 Option History of Russia since 1881 hi 107 Tutor: Chris Read Module Booklet 2013-14 Module Specification for History of Russia since 1881



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Department of History

Part 1 Option


History of Russia since 1881
HI 107

Tutor: Chris Read

Module Booklet 2013-14


Module Specification for History of Russia since 1881


In the event of any conflict between the information contained below and the departmental handbooks, the departmental handbooks take precedence.

Aims & Objectives

This module is an option available to second year History honours and joint-degree students and to visiting and part-time students and 2+2 students in any year of their studies. Options are designed to complement the first and second year core modules by providing the opportunity for study in greater depth of particular regions, periods or themes.


Context: This module develops themes of political, social, cultural and economic history raised in the core module in the context of Russian history since 1881.
Syllabus: The module is divided into four sets of historical questions - those relating to the origins of the Russian revolution; to its course from c1900-1921; to its immediate consequences in the rise of Stalinism; and to Russia's attempts to deal with the legacy of Stalinism from 1953 to the early twenty-first century. Attention will be given to political, social, economic and cultural aspects of these questions.

Teaching & Learning: The module will be taught through weekly lectures and one hour seminars and individual tutorials to discuss feedback on essays.
Assessment: see appropriate History Departmental handbooks.
Note: Deadlines for non-assessed essays are weeks 7, 14 and 17.

ALL LONG ESSAY TOPICS FOR ALL CATEGORIES OF STUDENT WILL NORMALLY BE NEGOTIATED WITH THE TUTOR.



Intended Learning Outcomes

a) the further development of study, writing and communication skills


b) to provide the opportunity, through writing a 4500 word essay, to develop in greater depth an analysis of aspects of the secondary literature and available primary sources relating to topics covered in the module; to allow for greater study of topics the student wishes to learn about which are only covered marginally in the module such as foreign policy; religion; literature and the arts; and thereby to develop independent critical and analytical skills listed below.
c) developing critical analytical skills based on

  • introducing students to a wide variety of approaches to the study of Russian History from the late nineteenth to early twenty-first centuries

  • conveying basic historical knowledge of Russian History from the late nineteenth to early twenty-first centuries

  • utilising interdisciplinary perspectives to deepen historical understanding

  • providing students with the opportunity to evaluate critically a range of primary sources including official documents, statistics, writings of leading historical figures and memoirs.

  • examining a wide range of secondary sources and secondary interpretations of Russian History from the late nineteenth to early twenty-first centuries

  • To enable students to produce written and verbal analyses based on the above

 

Mark scale


All undergraduate modules are marked using one overall system, which runs from 0-100. Marks fall into different classes of performance:
17-point marking scale

Where an assessment or exam is a single piece of work, or a small number of long exam answers or assessed essays, work is marked using the following scale.
The descriptors in this table are interpreted as appropriate to the subject and the year/level of study, and implicitly cover good academic practice and the avoidance of plagiarism.
With the exception of Excellent 1st, High Fail and Zero, the descriptors cover a range of marks, with the location within each group dependent on the extent to which the elements in the descriptor and departmental/faculty marking criteria are met.


Class

scale

descriptor

First

Excellent 1st

Exceptional work of the highest quality, demonstrating excellent knowledge and understanding, analysis, organisation, accuracy, relevance, presentation and appropriate skills. At final-year level: work may achieve or be close to publishable standard.

High 1st

Very high quality work demonstrating excellent knowledge and understanding, analysis, organisation, accuracy, relevance, presentation and appropriate skills. Work which may extend existing debates or interpretations.

Mid 1st

Low 1st

Upper Second (2.1)

High 2.1

High quality work demonstrating good knowledge and understanding, analysis, organisation, accuracy, relevance, presentation and appropriate skills.

Mid 2.1

Low 2.1

Lower Second

High 2.2

Competent work, demonstrating reasonable knowledge and understanding, some analysis, organisation, accuracy, relevance, presentation and appropriate skills.

Mid 2.2

Low 2.2

Third

High 3rd

Work of limited quality, demonstrating some relevant knowledge and understanding.

Mid 3rd

Low 3rd

Fail

High Fail (sub Honours)

Work does not meet standards required for the appropriate stage of an Honours degree. There may be evidence of some basic understanding of relevant concepts and techniques

Fail

Poor quality work well below the standards required for the appropriate stage of an Honours degree.

Low Fail

Zero

Zero

Work of no merit OR Absent, work not submitted, penalty in some misconduct cases

For calculating module results, the points on this marking scale have the following numerical equivalents:



Class

Point on scale

numerical equivalent

First

Excellent 1st

96

High 1st

89

Mid 1st

81

Low 1st

74

Upper Second

High 2.1

68

Mid 2.1

65

Low 2.1

62

Lower Second

High 2.2

58

Mid 2.2

55

Low 2.2

52

Third

High 3rd

48

Mid 3rd

45

Low 3rd

42

Fail

High Fail

38

Fail

25

Low Fail

12

Zero

Zero

0


PART I OPTION
HISTORY OF RUSSIA SINCE 1881

AUTUMN TERM SEMINARS

Week 2 - 5 Economic and social change in late nineteenth century Russia- workers, peasants and the middle class
Week 2 The peasantry, landowners and other rural inhabitants
What was happening in the countryside?

C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chapter 1)


I. Thatcher (ed) Late Imperial Russia: Problems and Prospects

H. Rogger Russia in the Age of Modernisation and Revolution 1881-1917

(Chapters 1-7)
E. Acton Russia (Chapter 5)
L. Trotsky 1905 chs 1-4 esp ch 4 ‘The Driving Forces of the Russian revolution’ at http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1907/1905/ch04.htm

Week 3 Cities and industry – workers and the middle class

What was the impact of industrialisation on Russian society c. 1900? Did the Russian proletariat have distinctive features? How strong was the middle-class?


Reading

C. Read ‘Labour and Socialism in Tsarist Russia’ in D. Geary (ed) Labour and Socialist Movements in Europe Before 1914


C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chapter 1)
I. Thatcher (ed) Late Imperial Russia: Problems and Prospects

H. Rogger Russia in the Age of Modernisation and Revolution 1881-1917

(Chapters 1-7)
E. Acton Russia (Chapter 5)

P. Waldron The End of Imperial Russia (chapters 2 & 3)


Week 4 The Revolution of 1905-1907 and autocratic politics
Why did revolution break out in Russia in 1905?
C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chapter 2)

A. Heywood & J. Smele (eds) The Russian Revolution

of 1905: Centenary Perspectives

M. Perrie 'The Russian Peasant Movement of

1905-1907: Its Social Composition and Revolutionary Significance', Past and Present, no. 57, November 1972, pp 123 155.

P. Waldron The End of Imperial Russia

(chapters 1, 4 & 5)

E. Acton Russia (chapter 6)




Week 5 After 1905

By what means was the autocracy able to restore its authority? How viable was Tsarism after 1907?


Reading

C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chapter 2)

A. Heywood & J. Smele (eds) The Russian Revolution

of 1905: Centenary Perspectives

M. Perrie 'The Russian Peasant Movement of

1905-1907: Its Social Composition and Revolutionary Significance', Past and Present, no. 57, November 1972, pp 123 155.

P. Waldron The End of Imperial Russia

(chapters 1, 4 & 5)

E. Acton Russia (chapter 6)
Document
The October Manifesto
Week 7 1917: The February Revolution and the Provisional Governemt.
Why did Tsarism finally collapse? Why was the Provisional Government unsuccessful?

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch. 1)

C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chapter 3-7)

E. Acton Russia (chapter 7)

E. Acton Re-thinking the Russian Revolution chs.6-9

N. Stone The Eastern Front (chapters 1, 9 & 13)


Warwick History Video The Decline of Tsarism

Week 8 1917: The October Revolution

What were the roles of peasants, workers and soldiers? Why did the Bolsheviks come to power?


Reading
C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch. 1)

C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chapter 3-7)

C. Read Lenin: A Revolutionary Life (Ch 5)

E. Acton Russia (chapter 7)

E. Acton Re-thinking the Russian Revolution chs.6-9

J. White The Russian Revolution

N. Stone The Eastern Front (chapters 1, 9 & 13)
Warwick History Video The Decline of Tsarism
Document

V.I. Lenin Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution (April Theses)


Week 9 Bolshevism and Lenin's Russia 1 Civil and Revolutionary War
Who were the Bolsheviks? How did they survive the Civil War? Did the experience change them?
Reading

C. Read The Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (chs.2, 3)

C. Read From Tsar to Soviets (chs 8-13)

C. Read Lenin: A Revolutionary Life

E. Acton Russia chap 8

S. Fitzpatrick The Russian Revolution (chs 2-6)

V. Serge Memoirs of a Revolutionary (chs 2,3 & 4)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 3-5)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End (ch 2 & 3)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia (chs 4-8)


Week 10 Bolshevism and Lenin’s Russia 2 Lenin’s Last Years 1920-24

How did Lenin evaluate the achievements of the revolution up to 1922/3? Was the New Economic Policy viable?


C. Read Lenin: A Revolutionary Life

E. Acton Russia chap 8

S. Fitzpatrick The Russian Revolution (chs 2-6)

V. Serge Memoirs of a Revolutionary (chs 2,3 & 4)


B. Williams Lenin

J. White Lenin: The Practice and Theory of Revolution



Document
V.I. Lenin On Co-operation

Our Revolution


Week 11 The "Stalin Revolution" I – The Rise of Stalin and the Beginning of the Stalin Revolution - Collectivisation
Why did Stalin come to power? What did he stand for? What were the main features of collectivisation?
A. Nove & Stalin: Terror and Transformation

C. Read (Warwick History Video)


Reading

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.4)


M. Fainsod Smolensk under Soviet Rule (ch 12)

C. Ward Stalin's Russia chaps 1-3

C. Ward (ed.) The Stalin Dictatorship (chs. 1-5)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 6-10)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 4)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia (chs 9-10)

C. Read The Stalin Years: A Reader (articles by Shulz; Davies et al; Waters)

Week 12 The “Stalin Revolution” 2 - Industrialisation and the emergence of Stalinist Society
What were the main features of industrialisation?

Reading

M. Fainsod Smolensk under Soviet Rule (ch 13)

E. Acton Russia (ch 9)

A. Nove An Economic History of the USSR

(chs 4-8)

C. Ward Stalin's Russia chaps 1-3

C. Ward (ed.) The Stalin Dictatorship (chs. 1-5)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 6-10)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 4)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia (chs 9-10)

C. Read The Stalin Years: A Reader (articles by Shulz; Davies et al; Waters)
Documents

Selected documents on collectivisation


Week 13 The emergence of Stalinist Society

What was "Stalinism" as it existed in the 1930s?


Reading

Hellbeck, J. ‘Working, Struggling, Becoming: Stalin-Era Autobiographical Texts’ in Language and Revolution. Making Modern Political identities Halfin I. ed. (London: Frank Class, 2002), pp. 135-159.

Hellbeck, J.Revolution on My Mind: Writing a Diary Under Stalin (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Hoffman D. and Kotsonis, Y. eds. Russian Modernity: Politics, Knowledge, Practices (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000).
Hoffman, D. Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Soviet Modernity, 1917-1941 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001).

M. Edele, Stalinist Society, 1928-1953

R. Tucker (ed) Stalinism (pp 3-154)

C. Ward Stalin's Russia chap 4

C. Ward (ed) The Stalin Dictatorship (ch 6)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 11-12)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 5)

S. Fitzpatrick Everyday Stalinism

C. Read The Stalin Years: A reader
Week 14 The Great Purge
Why did the Great Purge of 1936-8 take place? What was life like in the USSR in the 1930s.
Reading

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.5)

J. Arch Getty (ed.) Stalin’s Terror: New Perspectives

Robert W Thurston Fear & Belief in the U.S.S.R.

"Great Terror" Response to Arrest 1935-39 Slavic Review vol 45, no. 2, pp 213-244 (includes discussion with Robert Conquest)

R Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia (ch 11-12)

R. Tucker (ed) Stalinism (pp 3-154)

C. Ward Stalin's Russia chap 4

C. Ward (ed) The Stalin Dictatorship (ch 6)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 11-12)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 5)

S. Fitzpatrick Everyday Stalinism

C. Read The Stalin Years: A reader (article by Khlevniuk)
Documents

Riutin Platform Law of 1 December 1934

Bukharin’s Last Letter

Order 00447 of 30 July 1937


Week 15 The Second World War 1
Why did the Soviet Union become involved in the War?

Reading

Jonathan Haslam The Soviet Union and the Struggle for Collective security in Europe

Geoffrey Roberts Unholy Alliance: Stalin’s pact with Hitler: the Soviet Union and the Origins of the Second World War
Week 17 The Second World War 2

The Second World War was the great test of Stalin's system. How did it survive?


Reading

Geoffrey Roberts Stalin’s Wars

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.6)

H. Carrere d'Encausse Stalin: Order through Terror (ch 5-9)

M. Djilas Conversations with Stalin

E. Acton Russia ch 10

A. Nove An Economic History of the USSR (ch10 &11)

C. Ward Stalin's Russia chap 5

J Barber & The Soviet Home Front

M Harrison

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 13& 14)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 6)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia(ch13 &14)

C. Read The Stalin Years(article by Erickson)

G. Roberts Stalin’s General: Georgii Zhukov
Documents

Order no 270 and other documents


Week 18 The Soviet Union and the Cold War
Who was responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War? What impact did it have within the Soviet Union? Had Stalinism changed by 1953?
Reading
C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.6)

G. Roberts Stalin’s Wars

V. Zubok & Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War:

C. Pleshakov From Stalin to Khruschchev

C. Kennedy- Stalin’s Cold War

Pipe


S. Ambrose Rise to Globalism

T. Hasegawa Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman and the Surrender of Japan

M. McAuley The Origins of the Cold War

M. Walker A History of the Cold War

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia

(ch 15 & 16)

G. Hosking A History of the Soviet Union (ch 11)

J. Keep The Last of the Empires:

A History of the Soviet Union 1945-51

(ch 1)


R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 15 & 16)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 7)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia (chs 15-16)

C. Read The Stalin Years (article by Roberts)


Documents

Churchill’s Fulton speech and Stalin’s reply (extracts)

Selected documents of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Week 19 De-Stalinisation under Khruschchev

What legacy did Stalin leave? How did his successors deal with it? How effective were Khruschchev’s reforms?


Reading

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.7, 8)

E. Acton Russia (ch. 11)

A. Nove An Economic History in the USSR (ch12)

M.E. McCauley Khrushchev and Khrushchevism

A. Nove Stalinism and After (chs 5)

S. Cohen 'Friends and Foes of Change' in

The Soviet Union since Stalin (ed

by Cohen, Rabinowitch & Sharlet)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia

(ch 17-22)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 17-19)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 8)

M. Sandle A Short History of Soviet Socialism (ch 7)



Week 20 Brezhnev in Power 1964-82

Was the period 1964-1982 simply 'years of stagnation'? Was 1968 a turning point for communism? What can we learn from the dissidents of the period?


Reading

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.8, 9)

E. Acton Russia (ch. 11)

A. Nove An Economic History in the USSR (ch12)

M.E. McCauley Khrushchev and Khrushchevism

A. Nove Stalinism and After (ch 6)

Zh. Medvedev 'Russia under Brezhnev' New Left Review no. 117 Sept/Oct 1978

S. Cohen 'Friends and Foes of Change' in

The Soviet Union since Stalin (ed

by Cohen, Rabinowitch & Sharlet)

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia

(ch 17-22)

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 17-19)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 9)

M. Sandle A Short History of Soviet Socialism (ch 8)

E. Bacon and M. Sandle (eds) Brezhnev Reconsidered


Documents Khrushchev’s Secret Speech (extracts)

The Novosibirsk report (extracts) and other docs


Week 22 [2014 No class in Week 21 – term begins on Wednesday of Week21]

Gorbachev and Perestroika
What were the main features of Perestroika? Why did Gorbachev initiate the policy? Why did the Soviet Union collapse?
Reading

C. Read Making and Breaking of the Soviet System (ch.10, 11)

A. Brown The Gorbachev Factor

A. Brown Seven Years That Changed the World

R.V. Daniels The End of the Communist Revolution

S. White Gorbachev and After

M. McCauley The Soviet Union under Gorbachev

M. Walker The Waking Giant

A. Nove Glasnost in Action

R. Service A History of Twentieth Century Russia

(ch 23-27)

R. Sakwa Gorbachev and his Reforms

C. Ward (ed) Perestroika

C. Ward (ed) 'Perestroika and the Russian Revolution of 1991 Slavonic & East European Review, vol. 71, no. 2, April 1993, pp. 234-256

R. Suny The Soviet Experiment (chs 20-22)

P. Kenez A History of the Soviet Union (ch 10 & 11)

M Sandle A Short History of Soviet Socialism (ch 9 & conclusion)

M.Sandle ‘The Final Word: the Draft Party Programme of July/August 1991’ Europe-Asia Studies Nov 1996



Documents

Selected extracts from Gorbachev’s speeches


Week 23 From Yeltsin to Putin. Perestroika continued?
Has Russia become a democracy? Does Putin have a strategy for continued ‘re-structuring’ of Russia? What has become of the Russian Economy? Why is there little popular participation in politics? Is Russia becoming militaristic again? Why has the Chechen war dragged on? What is Putin’s relationship to the ‘oligarchs’? Is a ‘new Cold War’ developing?
Reading

Brown, Archie Contemporary Russian Politics: A Reader

Cohen, Stephen Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist Russia

Reddaway, Peter and The Tragedy of Russia’s Reforms:

Glinskii, Dmitrii Market Bolshevism against Democracy

Service, Robert Russia: Experiment with a People

Sakwa, Richard Putin: Russia’s Choice

Shevtsova, Lilia Putin’s Russia

Hobson, Charlotte Black Earth City: A Year in the Heart of Russia

Seely, Robert Russo-Chechen Conflict: A Deadly Embrace

Politkovskaia, Anna A Dirty War: A Russian Reporter in Chechnya

Tolz, Vera Russia: Inventing the Nation

Kagarlitsky, Boris Farewell, Perestroika
There are also many articles in the reading list pp.34-38. See in particular those by Sakwa; Tolz; ‘Ten Years After’ edition of Slavic Review (1999); Ferguson; Frisby; Volkov; Schroder; Shlapentokh; Anne White; Munro and White on various aspects.
Documents – The Break-up of the Soviet Union

Week 25 Revision and Overview Seminar
How viable was the Soviet system? Was its collapse inevitable from the outset? If not, when did it begin to ‘fail’? There is a large genre of overviews of the Soviet system devoted to these topics. We will take a look at them.
Reading

Read, Christopher The Making and Breaking of the Soviet System+

Malia, Martin The Soviet Tragedy

Lewin, Moshe The Soviet Century

Daniels, Robert The End of the Communist Revolution

Kotkin, Stephen Armaggedon Averted: The Soviet Collapse 1970-2000

Deutscher, Isaac The Unfinished Revolution (1967)

Cohen, Stephen Re-Thinking the Soviet Experience



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