|Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
1. Pericles had three goals for Athens. Goal 1. ____________ _______________. By increasing the number of paid public officials, even ________ ____________ could afford to serve in the government.
2, ___________ _______________ is a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through _____________________.
3. Goal 2 - ___________ the ___________. He used money from the ________________ ____________to build Athens’
___________. Overseas _______________ made Athens prosperous
4. Goal 3 - ______________ ________________, he used money from the ______________ _____________ to buy gold, ivory, and marble.
5. The ______________ is considered the ideal classical Greek building. A statue of _____________ was inside the Parthenon. It
was _______ feet tall and covered with gold and precious gems. It was sculpted by ___________________, Greece’s most famous sculptor.
6. The Greeks invented ____________. Plays were an expression of civic pride and a tribute to the gods. A _____________ is a drama with a tragic hero who faces a ___________________, a choice between two negative outcomes. The hero has a tragic flaw, often __________________, or excessive pride.
8. ______________ wrote more than 80 plays. The _______________is based on the family of Agamemnon. Sophocles wrote about
_________ plays including “Oedipus the King” and __________________. Aristophanes wrote the first great ___________________ for the stage.
9. The _______________________ war started when __________________ declared war on Athens in 431 BC
Athens has a powerful navy, but Sparta could not be attacked easily from sea.
10. During the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’ strategy was to avoid ________ _______________with the superior Spartan army and wait for opportunity to attack ___________ from the sea.
11. A ____________ hits Athens in the second year of the war. _______________ of the population (including Pericles) were killed by the plague.
12. Athens surrendered nine years later. _____________had won the Peloponnesian War
13. The term philosopher means “__________ ____ _____________”.
14. The ______________ questioned people’s unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and traditional values
15. _____________ criticized the Sophists. He argued that there are universal standards for truth and justice
He encouraged Greeks to ________________ ____________________ and their moral character. In 399 BC when Socrates was 70 years old he was charged with “___________ _____ ________ ____ ______________” and “neglecting the city’s gods”. He was convicted by a jury and sentenced to death. He was forced to drink _____________ poison
16. _____________________ was a student of Socrates. He wrote down conversations with Socrates and his most famous work “_______ _______________”, his vision of a perfectly governed society. The person with the greatest insight and intellect from the ruling class would be chosen ________________ ____________.
17. ____________________ questioned the nature of the world and human belief, thought, and knowledge. He tried to summarize all of the knowledge of the world up to his time and invented rules of _____________. He applied logic to psychology, physics, and biology.
18. ________________ ____ ______________________ was Aristotle’s Famous Student. When King Philip of Macedon was assassinated he became ruler.
Alexander the Great - Empire Builder
1. The _______________________ War had weakened both Athens and Sparta. _______________ dreamed of taking over Greece first, then Persia.
2. ___________________ lies just north of Greece. They considered themselves ___________, but were looked upon as uncivilized by the Greeks.
3. _____________ became king in 359 BC at 23 years old. He organized his army into ______________ 16 men across and 16 deep. They used 18-foot _____________ to pave the way for cavalry strikes through enemy lines
4. ____________________ tried to warn the Greeks of the threat posed by Philip. He urged the Greeks to unite against the Macedonians but they would not agree on policy.
5. Macedonians win the Battle of ____________________. Philip’s 18 year-old son ____________________ led a cavalry charge that helped to win the battle
6. Philip planned to invade ____________ next but never got the chance. He was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding.
7. Philip’s son _________________ had the support of the army and proclaimed himself king at _____ years old. He will become called _____________________________________.
8. He had learned science, geography, and literature from _______________________ and carried a copy of Homer’s ________________ with him
He learned to use weapons, ride a horse, and command troops as a young man
9. When _________________rebelled, he destroyed the city and sold the survivors into _________________.
Other Greek city-states gave up the idea of rebellion
10. In 334 BC Alexander leads 35,000 soldiers across the Hellespont into _________________. A Persian army of ______________came to defend their empire.
11. The two forces meet at the __________________ River. Alexander led his forces in a offensive attack and smashed the Persian defenses
12. At the _____________ _____ ________________. Alexander realized he was outnumbered and ordered his troops to break through a weak point in the Persian lines and charge straight at _____________. Darius fled to avoid capture.
13. In an attempt to make peace, Darius III offered Alexander control of the ______________ part of his empire. Alexander rejected the offer and marched into ________________, a Persian territory. There he was crowned __________________.
14. He founded the city of ________________________ on the mouth of the ____________.
15. Alexander then moved west to ______________________. At the Battle of ___________________, a small village on the ruins of ancient __________________, Alexander launched a phalanx attack followed by a ______________ charge. Darius again panicked and fled. The battle ended Persia’s power.
16. Alexander plundered the cities of _______________-, ______________, and Persepolis. Over the next three years, Alexander pushed east into _____________.
17. In 327 BC Alexander enters the _________________ Valley. He defeats an Indian army that included 200 ___________________ at the Hydaspes River.After the victory Alexander’s soldiers request to return home and a disappointed Alexander agrees.
18. One year after his return Alexander becomes ill with a ________________ and dies one month short of his ____________ birthday. The empire was divided among Alexander’s three strongest generals. ________________– became king of Macedonia. ______________________– became a pharaoh in Egypt. ___________________– took most of the old Persian Empire.
19. A blend of _____________________, Greek, Persian, _________________, and Indian cultures resulted
This would come to be known as _________________________ culture.