Defining us: The American Experience



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Defining US: The American Experience


FCPS Teaching American History Grant


Short Extended

1st draft _____ _____

revision _____ _____




LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE



Subject: United States/Virginia History Grade: 11th grade

Prepared by: Dena Soled and Katie Roberts School: Hayfield Secondary School

Title or Topic: The foreign and domestic policies of Lyndon B. Johnson

Instructional Time: 1 class block (90 minutes)
PART I.-CONTEXT


  1. Essential Learning:

As a result of this lesson, students will be able to:


Evaluate the successes and failures of LBJ’s domestic and foreign policies
Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation
Evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources
Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources


  1. Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL):

VUS.12b The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by explaining the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam


VUS.12c The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by explaining the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War
VUS.13b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s by describing the importance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965

3. Fairfax County Program of Studies (POS):
12.1.G The student analyzes the impact of international affairs on the foreign policy of the United States after World War II. Students reach this benchmark when they are able to explain the causes for responses to and the results of, the United States’ involvement in Vietnam (Lyndon Johnson, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, escalation)
12.2.G The student analyzes the political impact of the Cold War on domestic affairs. Students reach this benchmark when they are able to assess the Vietnam policies of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations and the shifts of public opinion about the war (hawks v. doves, protest, discrimination against veterans)

13.1.D The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s by describing and evaluating the efforts and accomplishments of individuals and groups, within the public and private sectors, to affect change in Civil Rights. Students reach this benchmark when they are able to explain federal civil rights and voting rights developments in terms of political representation, participation, and affirmative action (Lyndon B. Johnson, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965).

  1. National History Standard (Historical Thinking Standard)

Era 9 Postwar United States:

Standard 1: The economic boom and social transformation of postwar United States.

Standard 2: How the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic

and international politics.

Standard 3: Domestic policies after World War II

Standard 4: The struggle for racial and gender equality and the extension of civil liberties.



  1. Learning Strategy(s) Objectives:

4. Historical Research Capabilities: use resources, cooperate, make inferences, take notes, tell what you know, use selective attention, summarize.


5. Historical Issue Analysis and Decision Making: make predictions, use selective attention, summarize, group/classify, take notes, make inferences, use resources, use/create graphic organizer.



  1. Connection to TAH grant:

Content: “Post-1945 U.S. History”


Pedagogy: “Locating/Evaluating Online Materials and Primary Sources”
PART II.


  1. Assessment:




  • Brainstorming Categorizing Chart (domestic political and economic and foreign affairs)

  • Class discussion based on document analysis using either Yes…But Questioning Techniques or AP PARTS




  1. Instructional Strategies:




  1. Brainstorm with the students any preexisting knowledge they may have about LBJ’s presidency based on the previous night’s assigned reading. The reading should cover LBJ’s role as a master politician to push forward unpopular legislation, his hope for the continuation of the New Deal philosophy through the Great Society, and the diversion of increasingly more money into the Vietnam War. On the attached chart, have them list at least 15-20 facts under the following categories: domestic political and economic issues and foreign affairs. Students should be prepared to explain their facts (10 minutes).

  2. On the board or on an overhead, compile a summation of student’s prior knowledge focusing on successes and failures (5 minutes).

  3. Have students individually compare/contrast four primary sources to evaluate LBJ’s domestic and foreign policies by using either the Yes…But Questioning Technique (45 minutes).

  4. In groups of three students, have each student present their findings on newsprint and draw conclusions about LBJ. The focus of this discussion should be: “Were LBJ’s actions appropriate for its time? What were his successes and what were his failures?” Each group member will be responsible for generating information and will be assigned a specific task: facilitator, recorder, or presenter (30 minutes).



  1. Materials/Resources to be used:




  • Textbook: The Americans

  • Handout: The Foreign and Domestic Policies of Lyndon B. Johnson chart

  • Handout: Developing Critical Thinking Skills – Yes, But Questioning Techniques

  • (For GT/AP Students: AP Parts)

  • Primary Sources:



The War on Poverty:

Prisoner of War - the War on Poverty
Kirwan has been an artist since the 1970s, whose work includes a variety of artistic themes and styles. In addition to fantasy themed paintings, he has a large collection of political works. Many of these relate directly to LBJ’s tenure as President. This particular piece comments on the transfer of government funds from the War on Poverty to the Vietnam War and the subsequent loss of integrity for the War on Poverty.
Prisoner of War.” Kirwan Studios. 1 May 2005 <www.kirwanesque.com/ politics/oklahoma/ok7.htm>.
March of the News:

This Library of Congress document can be found in two exhibit sites, the Elections exhibit as well as in the African American Odyssey exhibit.
March of the News.” Election Voters. Library of Congress. 1 May 2005 <http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/election/voters3.html>.

U.S. Military Causalities in Southeast Asia:


- U.S. MILITARY CASUALTIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA -
- DEATHS BY CALENDAR YEAR -
- Year of death may either be actual or based on a presumptive finding of death -
- (originally declared missing and later declared dead). -
- AS OF MARCH 31, 1997 -
Since 1997 67 names have been added to the memorial
that are not show in the stats below.

YEAR

USA

USN

USAF

USMC

USCG

TOTAL

1957

1

0

0

0

0

1

1958

0

0

0

0

0

0

1959

2

0

0

0

0

2

1960

0

4

1

0

0

5

1961

7

1

8

0

0

16

1962

27

3

18

5

0

53

1963

73

4

31

10

0

118

1964

147

15

39

5

0

206

1965

1,079

114

162

508

0

1,863

1966

3,755

279

246

1,862

2

6,144

1967

6,467

583

317

3,786

0

11,153

1968

10,596

598

345

5,048

2

16,589

1969

8,186

426

305

2,694

3

11,614

1970

4,972

219

201

691

0

6,083

1971

2,131

55

90

81

0

2,357

1972

373

77

172

18

0

640

1973

34

52

75

7

0

168

1974

49

23

80

26

0

178

1975

23

22

83

32

0

160

1976

29

6

29

13

0

77

1977

29

24

39

4

0

96

1978

158

42

219

28

0

447

1979

38

3

101

6

0

148

1980 – 1995

25

5

22

14

0

66

TOTAL DEATHS

38,196

2,555

2,583

14,837

7

58,178

Casualty Type and Branch   Pay Grade and Branch   Pay Grade and Race   State and Branch   Status and Branch   To The Wall Page

The Wall USA is a non-profit endeavor maintained by veterans of the 4th Battalion 9th Infantry Regiment. All numbers are based on figures from the Department of Defense as of March 1997.


http://thewall-usa.com/stats/


In 1968 Senator Robert Kennedy described the failures of escalation:
Robert F. Kennedy (1925-1968) was attorney general in the cabinet of his older brother, President John F. Kennedy. In 1964, Robert Kennedy was elected senator from New York and became a leading critic of the Vietnam War and a spokesman for liberal Democrats. On March 16, 1968, he announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for president and two days later delivered this stinging attack on American policy in Vietnam. Two weeks later, President Lyndon Johnson announced that he would not run again.
The reversals of the last several months have led our military to ask for 206,000 more troops. This weekend, it was announced that some of them-- a 'moderate' increase, it was said-- would soon be sent. But isn't this exactly what we have always done in the past? If we examine the history of this conflict, we find the dismal story repeated time after time. Every time-- at every crisis-- we have denied that anything was wrong; sent more troops; and issued more confident communiqués. Every time, we have been assured that this one last step would bring victory. And every time, the predictions and promises have failed and been forgotten, and the demand has been made again for just one more step up the ladder.

But all the escalations, all the last steps, have brought us no closer to success than we were before. Rather, as the scale of the fighting has increased, South Vietnamese society has become less and less capable of organizing or defending itself, and we have more and more assumed the whole burden of the war.

And once again, the President tells us, as we have been told for twenty years, that 'we are going to win;' 'victory' is coming. But what are the true facts? What is our present situation?

From Diane Ravitch ed., The American Reader: Words That Moved A Nation (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1990), pp. 343-345.


http://eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/crossroads/sec4/Unit_11/Unit_XIQ4R6.html



  1. Annotated Bibliography:


Kirwan Studios: This arduous site is dedicated to Kirwan, an artist who has been creating work since the 1970s. His work is political, surreal, and humanistic. He has a large collection of political commentary art works.

www.kirwanesque.com/ politics/oklahoma/ok7.htm
Voters: Managed by the Library of Congress, this site gives both a history of voting, as well as, a history of the challenges of Women, African Americans, and Native Americans voters through today. It has a small, but worthwhile collection of photographs of significant moments in voting history.

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/election/voters3.html
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial: This official site for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated to those who served and died in the Vietnam War. It offers statistics about casualties, names on the wall, and a reference link for information about the war.

http://thewall-usa.com/stats/
The Educator’s Reference Desk: This site is useful because it has links to lessons based on a wide variety of topics. It is searchable by classroom subject or keyword. This site included a lesson plan with an excerpt from Robert Kennedy’s speech. The annotation and excerpt is from Diane Ravitch’s The American Reader: Words That Moved A Nation.

http://eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/crossroads/sec4/Unit_11/Unit_XIQ4R6.html


  1. Differentiation:




  • For both regular students and students with special needs, the primary source analysis can be done initially in groups.

For GT/AP Students they can use AP Parts instead of the Yes, But Questioning Techniques for more in-depth analysis. They may also try analyzing LBJ’s decisions from two different perspectives. The first point of view would be when the decision was made and the second would be from today's perspective.





  1. Attachments:


The Foreign and Domestic Policies of Lyndon B. Johnson

Domestic Events Foreign Affairs

Political Economic

List 15-20 key events with explanation and years


  • Underline the main concept or key event and use bullets to provide cause/effect analysis answering the question of whether or not he was a successful or unsuccessful president

List 15-20 key events with explanation and years


  • Underline the main concept or key event and use bullets to provide cause/ effect analysis answering the question of whether or not he was a successful or unsuccessful president




List 15-20 key events with explanation and years



  • Underline the main concept or key event and use bullets to provide cause/ effect analysis answering the question of whether or not he was a successful or unsuccessful president




DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING AND READING SKILLS


  1. YES…BUT QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES (from the College Board “Building Success” Program)

    • Designed to focus student attention on both sides of an issue

List five reasons supporting LBJ’s actions under the YES column and five opposing reasons under the BUT column.

YES BUT

1. _____________________________ 1. ___________________________

2. _____________________________ 2. ___________________________

3. ______________________________ 3. ___________________________

4. ______________________________ 4. ___________________________

5. ______________________________ 5. ___________________________




  1. AP PARTS (from the College Board “Vertical Teams Guide”)


Author: Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author’s point of view?

Place and Time: Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source?

Prior Knowledge: Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source? For example, do you recognize any symbols and recall what they represent?

Audience: For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?

Reason: Why was this source produced and how might this affect the reliability of the source?

The Main Idea: What point is the source trying to convey?

Significance: Why is this source important? Ask yourself, “So what?” in relation to the question asked.


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