Decolonization. Nationalist leaders, some who used non-violence such as Mohandas Gandhi



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AP WORLD HISTORY – PERIOD VI (1900-Present)

Week of April 18th-22nd

World History Concepts for the Week:


  • Some colonies negotiated their independence from European empires, e.g South Africa and India in a process called decolonization. Nationalist leaders, some who used non-violence such as Mohandas Gandhi, challenged imperial rule.

  • The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlement, e.g. the India/Pakistan partition.

  • Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political, and social orders, for example the Anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa.

  • Believers developed new forms of spirituality (e.g. Fundamentalism) and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues, e.g. the Iranian Revolution of 1979.

Vocabulary for 3x5 Cards: decolonization, Indian National Congress, Muslim League, Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, Apartheid, African National Congress, Kemal Attaturk, Ayatollah Khomeini

Monday, April 18thth. Question 1. Read 1087-1092.

Prompt: Analyze the political, economic, and social causes of decolonization movements following the second world war.

Use and underline the following terms in your answer: decolonization, nationalism, United Nations

Tuesday, April 19th. Question 3. Read from “Comparing Freedom Struggles” on page 1092 to “The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid” on page 1097.

Prompt: Analyze continuities and changes in the Indian independence movement over time.

Use and underline the following terms in your answer: Indian National Congress, Muslim League, Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi

Wednesday, April 20th. Question 4. Read from “The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid” on 1097-“Experiments with Freedom” on page 1103.

Prompt: Analyze how South Africa’s struggle against white domination changed over time.

Use and underline the following terms in your answer: Apartheid, African National Congress, Nelson Mandela

Thursday, April 21th. Question 5. Read from “Experiments with Freedom” on page 1103 to “Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran” on page 1113

Prompt: Evaluate the following statement “Sub-Saharan Africa’s relative lack of economic development was due to causes outside of the control of their governments”. Identify two “pro” and two “con” arguments, then settle on one position (either affirming or denying the statement above).



Use and underline the following terms in your answer: Use whatever seem appropriate

Friday, April 22th. Question 5. Read from “Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran” on 1113 to the end of the chapter on page 1119.

Prompt: Contrast the role of Islam in the development of modern Turkey versus Iran. What have some of the consequences of the difference been?

Use and underline the following terms in your answer: Kemal Attaturk, Ayatollah Khomeini, secularism, sharia

Decolonization: The process by which nations in Africa broke off from imperial rule following World War II.

Indian National Congress: Nationalist government formed by Mohandas Gandhi, Jewarhalal Nehru, and others with the initial goal of decolonizing India.

All India Muslim League: Response to the Hindu dominance of the Indian National Congress. An alternative group formed by Muslim members of the Indian National Congress.

Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi: Nationalist leader of India who advocated for non-violent protests against the British rule to highlight the injustice of continued occupation of India in the global media.

Apartheid: Policy of systematic discrimination in South Africa favoring “whites” while restricting the movement and normal citizenship privileges of “coloreds” and “blacks” (bantus).

African National Congress: Multi-national organization of African nationalist leaders with the goal of decolonization and coordination to ensure stability and prosperity.

Kemal Attaturk: Turkish nationalism leader who was instrumental in establishing the modern state of Turkey.



Ayatollah Khomeini: Islamic fundamentalist leader who incorporated Shia Islam into decolonization through the removal of the western-influenced Shah of Iran.


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